The introduction of newspapers in India was hastened by the spreading sense globalization amongst the countrymen who wished to be informed about the recent events in the world. It was during the same time that the first newspaper of the country was introduced in Calcutta (Kolkata). The newspaper titled Calcutta General Advertise or Hickey’s Bengal Gazette was introduced by an eccentric Irishman called James Augustus Hickey during the 1780’s. In the years to come India was to witness the establishment of another newspaper daily in the form of Bombay Herald followed closely by Bombay Courier.
History and Evolution of Indian Newspapers:
Although there was a flurry of English broadsheets during the eighteenth century, newspapers in regional languages made its way much later during the second half of the nineteenth century. First on the list were two Bengali newspapers called Samachar Darpan and Bengal Gazette while the first Hindi newspaper was Samachar Sudha Varshan. The Hindu newspaper which was launched as a competitor of Madras Mail became the first national newspaper of the country. Soon it became the voice of the nation during the establishment period.
The Leader (Oct. 24, 1909 - Sept. 6, 1967) was one of the most influential English-language newspapers in India during British Raj. Founded by Madan Mohan Malviya, the paper was published in Allahabad.Under C. Y. Chintamani, a dynamic editor from 1909 to 1934, it acquired a large readership in North India. His clash with Motilal Nehru over issue of his freedom as editor, meant that Motilal left within a year, thereafter between 1927 and 1936, Chintamani was not only the Chief Editor of the newspaper, but also the leader of the opposition in the U. P. Legislative Council.[Indian National Congress leader, Moti Lal Nehru was the first Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Leader, and the paper remained politically charged through its existence, many of Mahatma Gandhi's writings were also published in it, and it is repository of important writing of that generation.
On February 5, 1919 Moti Lal Nehru launched a new daily paper, The Independent, as a counterblast to the well-established local daily paper, the Leader, which was much too moderate for Motilal's taste.
In the 1950s 214 daily newspapers were published in the country. Out of these, 44 were English language dailies while the rest were published in various regional languages.The total number of newspapers published in the country reached 35,595 newspapers by 1993 (3,805 dailies).This staggering figure indicates how independent the Indian Press had been earlier on.
In British India, broadcasting began in June 1923 with programmes by the Radio Club of Bombay and other radio clubs. According to an agreement of 1926, the private Indian Broadcasting Company (IBC) was authorized to operate two radio stations; the Bombay station began on 23 July 1927, and the Calcutta station followed on 26 August 1927. On 1 March 1930, however, the company went into liquidation. The government took over the broadcasting facilities, beginning the Indian State Broadcasting Service (ISBS) on 1 April 1930 (on an experimental basis for two years, and permanently in May 1932). On 8 June 1936 the ISBS was renamed All India Radio.
The advent of Television in 1959(Doordarshan) brought into sharper focus the policies and views of the government and people started treating newsprint like toilet paper thereafter.Doordarshan had a modest beginning with the experimental telecast starting in Delhi on 15 September 1959 with a small transmitter and a makeshift studio.
Until 1975, only seven Indian cities had a television service and Doordarshan remained the sole provider of television in India. Television services were separated from radio in 1976. National telecasts were introduced in 1982. In the same year, colour TV was introduced in the Indian market with the live telecast of the Independence Day speech by then prime minister Indira Gandhi on 15 August 1982, followed by the 1982 Asian Games which were held in Delhi. The Ramayana and Mahabharata (both Indian mythological stories) were the first major television series produced.
All this stuff I picked up from various wiki and other sources.Hope it is useful to this topic.
Below are some of my observations.
India's First politically famous Family (Nehrus) has influenced India from its pre-independence days, and continues to do so, even to this date.Players have changed, the theme has not.The masses versus the rulers - we the masses, and they the rulers. Although we do have great freedom today in the press, we also have discord, dissonance and chaos in the minds of the aam aadmi, thanks to the rifts within the country's media.
The general drift is" Freedom of speech, sabko bolney ka chance, kuch bhi bolo,sab chalega,entertaining hona chahiye" adding to the din and noise.Is random chaos a state of ultimate stability?
The key point is,I have always felt,to guide the media in the right direction,but which is the right direction,who guides,and how- has never been clear. Whatever constraints have been incorporated in our laws pertaining to the media,are being quite seriously flouted by many business houses that run these media organisations.
Did watching TV eventually de-sensitise Indians in general? We do see people walking like robots, in airports,bus stations and railway stations,to office,in public places. Hardly get to see smiling faces, most are lost in deep thoughts.Few are aware of the moment, few are alert,and very few are really awake.Has the media also failed? Or the content dished out is not capable of awakening the masses? I end with my favourite question-why must I watch TV when I can relate to my PC monitor interactively?
I might be one of the very few who has decided to stay off television, and thus is making a serious attempt to re-sensitize myself, and free my mind from cliched TV messages, which fail to massage my mind (whoever said "medium is the massage" load of crap,at least from my POV). I would any day take time out to see a good movie on TV, but the rest is really not for me.Time to rush out for a walk in the cold winter!