To play the devil's advocate (and because this is something I've wondered about) - what evidence actually exists that having more PhDs, cutting-edge researchers etc in a country actually improves the rate at which its citizens become richer?
The label of PhDs aside, having good quality scientists and engineers is necessary in becoming rich, and creating a military necessary to save us from liberation. Also, having superlative engineers will enable us in liberating other countries.
The question is : how can we manufacture 1000s of good quality engineers and scientists
... Japan after WWII (which in any case started at a far higher base than India) spent decades being simply a low-cost manufacturer before becoming known for innovation. Similarly for South Korea where Samsung etc before the mid-1990s weren't known for anything cutting-edge.
To copy efficiently, you may not need high quailty scientists, but do need high quality engineers. We too, right now, should focus on cut-copy-paste than innovate. We dont have time and money to innovate.
Is there any larger national interest in spending government money on enabling PhD creation or basic science research in India? Why can't the Indian government simply take the quantum of already developed technology and work to make it more easily available in India, and leave the basic science research to the developed world? Serious question.
Along with money, I request you to add "land" in the equation. Land these days is importanter than money.
As of now, except for defense needs, GoI MUST not fund PhDs.
(Aside : And PhDs programs in fields other than science and maths should be officially de-recognized. Let private sectors come with whatever titles and certificate they want for various fields like history, sociology, litreture, psycology, anthropology, finance, music, painting, dancing, archeology, economics etc etc, but should NOT to be allowed to use the title of "Doctor" and degree of PhD. But word "Doctor" should be reserved for those who repair humans and those who do real research in science/maths and entities of nature, not those who discover or fabricate phenomenon about human minds and society. There is nothing non-trivial about human mind and human societies. So where is the scope of re-search to begin with?)
Guru Govind dou khadae, kakae lagoon paav ...
God is not vindictive. He has made laws of physics, and now He goes by that. So depending on my Karma, He will give me what I deserve.
OTH, if I dont touch feet of Guru first, he might give me a F-.
So Guru first.
And I better cook up a good reason. I cant say "See boss, God ke paav pehele chhootaa to Guru mere ko F- de detaa". That would make me look coward and an unethical person. So I will say something like "It was thru Guru I met God, and hence Guru first".