HAPE is incredibly difficult to deal with at an individual level.
For all of you who do not know what HAPE means....enjoy! http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High_altitude_pulmonary_edema
These questions come up again and again on the China mil thread every few months. I had posted a series of articles on the problem that the Chinese military faces and what they are doing in the old china mil watch thread.
Will post them here too in one massive post (and will put them in the FAQ thread)http://www.comhaha.com/blog/524004-f-11 ... -in-tibet/
PLA F-11 fighters flying over the exercises in Tibet.http://www.uyghurnews.com/tibetan/Read. ... 0611109346
LONDON August 10 report, according to Global Strategic Network 6 reported that the Chinese F -11 fighter flight training for the first time in Tibet. J -11 is the most advanced system of planes in China. Although 90 years since the last century, China is only less than 150 which built fighter planes, but they have appeared in many unexpected places. Reported that the Chinese Air Force planes stationed in Tibet is not, despite the old F -7 regular fighters often fly in the area, but mainly in large commercial airport, temporary assignments.
Report, said the past five years, the model of friction between China and Russia to become one of the reasons. In 1995, the price of 25 billion won from the construction of 200 Russian Su -27 fighter permissions. Russia is responsible for providing engines and aerospace electronic equipment, while the Chinese side is responsible for the drawings and specifications in accordance with the Russian construction of other parts. However, the construction of 95 Su -27 fighter, the Russian side to cancel this agreement. Russia says China has used Su -27 fighter procurement project from the knowledge gained, the construction of its replica of the Soviet Union -27, that is, F -11 fighter. Russia warned that China simply copy the Russian technology, can build a low-quality aircraft. Obviously, China does not think so, its use of technology to the development of the Chinese fighter J--11.
It is believed that F -11 fighter is now more advanced equipment, including aerospace electronic equipment and some other Chinese design improvement. China to produce F -11 fighter most of the parts, the main problem is its still has to import engines. China believes that in the next five to ten years, it will get rid of dependence on Russian military aircraft engines. At present, China imports two Russian engines - priced 3.5 million U.S. dollars of the AL-31 (Su -27/30, F -11, F -10) and Unit 2.5 million U.S. dollars of the RD-93 (MiG -29 dispensed RD-33 engine in a version).
Reported that the People's Liberation Army Air Force fighter planes stationed in Tibet is not the main reason was the region's high altitude, large quantities of fuel costs as well as in Tibet and other supplies required for the maintenance of aircraft. At present, only one railway to Tibet (made recently built), and one of the few passable roads for heavy trucks.
Moreover, the PLA officers and men of altitude sickness in Tibet is the Chinese presence in Tibet fighters to a major problem. When people who grew up from the plain areas (most of the world population is so) migrate to the high mountain areas, will be insufficient oxygen due to air in such a reaction occurs. This "mountain sickness," the main symptoms of shortness of breath, a sense of direction, confusion, nosebleeds, nausea, dehydration, decreased quality of sleep and eating problems, headaches, etc., if there is "Altitude Sickness" and stay at altitude for too long time loss of labor force will slow.
Reported that the average altitude of Tibet 4100 meters. Most people can adapt to local environment, but some people can not. Most of the soldiers came to the Tibetan plateau need to spend a few days or weeks to adjust to the local environment. But if they overworked, especially long exertion, still prone to altitude sickness. This has weakened the combat effectiveness of the Chinese troops stationed in Tibet.
Researchers recently found that in the past 3 1000-6 thousand years, Tibetans have evolved to adapt to this environment. The reason these people will become the main inhabitants of Tibet, mainly because they are more robust at high altitudes. Almost all Tibetans have this gene (control red blood cell activity, to maintain adequate oxygen levels). Low elevations, but very few Chinese people these genes.
Reported that the Chinese army is now putting in a lot of time, money and effort to solve this problem. Now, most of China's Chengdu Military Region, troops are deployed in the basin of the eastern half of the points. In Chengdu, western Tibet, China has deployed 52 and 53 Mountain Brigade, and strive to maintain the ability to perform tasks of 5,000 troops. The event of emergencies, like two years ago, as 13 and 14 near the army to its base in the lowlands to send troops overseas. However, once reached heights of more than 20% of soldiers are suffering from high disease, leading to disruption of work, but commanders have been trained to adapt to this situation.
Now, based in the plateau (the Sino-Indian border highland 4,500 meters) of the Chinese troops have the training room, training room in one of 1,000 square meters, and another 3,000 square meters, the training room are in oxygen-rich state. In the training room for training of soldiers, soldiers of the body can increase the oxygen content in the blood and reduce the prevalence of risk of altitude sickness. In this way, the soldiers deployed there can stay healthy. In addition, the Department of soldiers in high altitude patrol the border areas, usually carry oxygen bottles and breathing masks.
However, so far, China can only alleviate altitude sickness, not eradicate. Taking into account the aircraft maintenance personnel awareness of requirements, and the pilots prepare for flight, coupled with logistical problems, the PLA Air Force has announced timely training in Tibet, but not the air force deployed there. However, perhaps one day the Chinese Air Force will have to fight over in Tibet, so they should be there for related training
China builds oxygen-rich barracks for soldiers in Tibethttp://www.eso.org/sci/facilities/alma/ ... ode25.html
Saibal Dasgupta, TNN
Times of India
June 27, 2010
BEIJING -- The People's Liberation Army in Chinahas come up with the first batch of ecologicaloxygen-enriched barracks for use by troops postedin the oxygen deficient mountain regions of Tibetacross the Indian border. It means lesserdependence on oxygen cylinders and higherperformance for soldiers, the PLA research team has reported.
This is one of the several recent innovations reported by Chinese defense establishment that include reduction in take-off time for ship-based helicopters, reorganizing the layout formulti-functional training ground in the slopes ofInner Mongolia and running digitalized medical services, according to the official media.
Oxygen enriched barracks built at a height of4,500 meters at the Naqu Military Sub-Command inTibet involved using plants to generateadditional oxygen in a special activity room andbarracks with floor space of 1,000 square metersand 3,000 square meters, respectively. Soldiersusing these facilities during exercise were foundto have 10% higher oxygen level in the blood ascompared to the outdoors and relieved of the problem of plateau anoxia.
The harsh environment with 48% oxygen as comparedto the hinterland has been a cause of worry forthe PLA, which found a large number of soldierssuffering from altitude diseases as alopecia andnail dent. Ecological experts including botanistsand altitude disease pathologists were brought infor an on-the-spot investigation in the largelyunpopulated area. This is what resulted in thecreation of barracks that use plants to generateadditional oxygen, the official media said.
the key to reducing the negative effects of high altitude will be the provision of oxygen enrichment in the site buildings and other enclosures such as transporter vehicle cabins and antenna receiver cabins, and the use of lightweight portable oxygen units where appropriate. An increase in the oxygen concentration in the buildings from the natural value of 21% to 26% will provide workers with an environment equivalent to that at an altitude of 3500m, which should be acceptable. The choice of 26% is a compromise between competing requirements: improved performance would be achieved with a higher concentration, but it would reduce the degree of acclimatization for indoor workers who must also work outdoors, and it would increase the cost and fire hazard. Oxygen enrichment is now feasible and economical because of the availability of molecular seive technology - it is no longer necessary to use liquid oxygen in bottles. The effective annual cost of oxygenation in a two-man office is about $500 per worker, a small fraction of an annual salary, and it would be still more economical if used on a larger scale. Oxygen enhancement produces an increased fire risk, which is particularly dangerous at high altitude because of the increased risk of asphyxiation. Inhaled smoke decreases an already diminished oxygen supply, so the time required for evacuation is reduced. In addition, the reduced oxygen causes combustion to be less complete, increasing the levels of carbon monoxide. Thus, special care must be taken in the design of the buildings, to provide adequate smoke detection sensors and emergency exit routes. The proposed oxygen concentration of 26% is within accepted standards (including those for the Space Program), and will not cause an unacceptable fire hazard.http://www.strategypage.com/htmw/htatri ... 00710.aspx
For outside workers, particularly those who must perform tasks which are mentally or physically particularly demanding, portable oxygen units will be available and their use should be required. A light weight, back mounted oxygen tank feeds a nasal cannulas. With an oxygen supply rate equivalent to an altitude of 3500m and by using a demand regulator which supplies oxygen only when the user breathes in, a system weighing only 4 kg will supply oxygen for more than eight hours. A nasal cannula is preferred over a mask because it makes communication easier and is less intrusive. Such portable devices are widely used by medical patients and have been used for research and mining work at high altitude.
Researchers recently discovered that most Tibetans evolved in the last 3-6,000 years to deal with this problem. It appears that the most of the people moving to, and staying in, highland Tibet, where those with the rare genes that made them resistant to altitude sickness. These people became the dominant population in Tibet, mainly because they were healthier at high altitudes. Nearly all Tibetans have this gene (which controls how their red blood cells operate, to maintain sufficient oxygen levels). Very few lowland Chinese have these genes.http://news.xinhuanet.com/english2010/c ... 259413.htm
The Chinese military is spending a lot of time, effort and money trying to solve this problem. Currently, most of the troops in the Chinese Chengdu Military Region are in the eastern, lowland half. In the western portion (Tibet), they station the 52nd and 53d Mountain Brigades, and struggle to keep these 5,000 troops fit for duty. If there's an emergency, as there was two years ago, the nearby 13th and 14th Group Armies can send troops from their lowland bases. Over 20 percent of these troops will be hampered by altitude sickness once they reach the highlands, and commanders are trained to deal with that.
Chinese troops operating at the highest altitudes (4,500 meters, on the Indian border) now have access to exercise rooms (one of 1,000 square meters and another of 3,000 square meters) that are supplied with an oxygen enriched atmosphere. Troops exercising in these rooms increase the oxygen in the blood, and are much less likely to get hit with a case of altitude sickness. Thus the troops can stay in shape without getting sick. For border patrols at high altitudes, troops usually carry oxygen bottles and breathing masks.
So far, the Chinese have only been able to limit the attrition from altitude sickness, not eliminate it.
BEIJING, April 20 (Xinhua) -- Altitude sickness poses the biggest challenge for rescuers from the military and armed police in their quake-relief efforts in northwest China's Qinghai Province, a senior military officer said Tuesday.http://www.business-standard.com/india/ ... s/39474/on
Wang Zhenguo, an officer with the Yushu quake-relief headquarters of the Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) and armed police, said at a press conference that no casualty had been reported among the quake-relief soldiers and armed police so far despite the difficulties.
However, all quake-relief soldiers and armed police suffered altitude sickness including dizziness, short of breath, fatigue and coma, said Wang.
Two soldiers had pulmonary edema after catching colds and were being treated in hospital, he said.
But the majority of the quake-relief soldiers only had slight symptoms such as dizziness and short of breath as most of them were young and had previously participated in military tasks on plateaus, according to officers attending the press conference.
To cope with altitude sickness, most of the soldiers were told to carry more medicine as well as oxygen concentrators and tanks, Xie Weikuan, an officer with the PLA General Logistics Department, said at the same press conference.
As of Tuesday, the PLA General Logistics Department had supplied 5,000 portions of medicine, 100 oxygen concentrators and 145 oxygen tanks to help soldiers cope with altitude sickness, Xie said
Army to induct cost-effective indigenous Hapo bags
Press Trust of India / Jammu June 07, 2008, 16:17 IST
Cost-effective indigenous Hapo (High Altitude Pulmonary Oedema) bags will soon replace imported ones in Jammu and Kashmir's Ladakh sector, Defence sources said today.
Each imported bag costs Rs 15-20 lakh while its Indian counterpart, developed by Bangalore's Defence Bioengineering and Electromedical Laboratory last year, costs only Rs 1 lakh.
An order has been placed for 3,000 such bags from manufacturers in Kolkata, Barkhi in Pune and Revari in Rajkot following successful field trials in the Khardungla and Siachen — some of the highest glacier belts in the world.
"A batch of 1,300 Hapo bags will reach Armymen in J&K soon," Lt Col S D Goswami said. "In the first phase, the portable one-man lifesaver would be deployed in Siachen, Kargil, Dault-Beigh-Oldi, Chashul, Leh and Kashmir plus some counter-insurgency areas in North-East and Pirpanjal range."
A Hapo bag typically absorbs carbon dioxide from the body of a patient suffering from pulmonary oedema, a condition in which water accumulates inside his lungs, by increasing surrounding temperature and pressure and pumping in oxygen.
Erythropoietin is the hormone in the body that causes an increase in oxygen carrying red blood cells during high altitude acclimatization.
Maybe there is a business opportunity there. Here are the world's Erythropoietin producing companies. Mostly SDREhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erythropoi
* Epogen, which is made by Amgen
* Epotin, which is made by Gulf Pharmaceutical Ind. (JULPHAR)
* Betapoietin, which is made by CinnaGen and Zahravi
* ReliPoietin, which is made by Reliance Life Sciences Pvt. Ltd
* Erykine, which is made by Intas Biopharmaceutica Pvt. Ltd
* Shanpoietin, which is made by Shantha Biotechnics Ltd
* Zyrop, which is made by Cadila Healthcare Ltd.