In continuing with the dicussion on Hydel prower projects...pls notice the following data from http://www.nhpcindia.com/..
The potential of 1 48 700 MW of installed capacity is mainly in the Indus basin as well as Brahmaputra basin, thats give the feasibility of the same in all circumstances.
[b]Basin/Rivers Probable Installed Capacity (MW)[/b]
Indus Basin 33832.00
Ganga Basin 20711.00
Central Indian River system 4152.00
Western Flowing Rivers of southern India 9430.00
Eastern Flowing Rivers of southern India 14511.00
Brahmaputra Basin 66065.00
Further, under 50,000 MW intiative, pls note the tariff. You will see only 34020 comes under 2.50 per MW, remaining thing is under question for obvious issues. And how this cost is arrived has to analysed before coming to the meaningful assumption or conclusion. To what hurdles it can throw pls read the following taken from the last page.
Sl. No. Particulars Number IC (MW)
1.00 Total PFRs 162.00 47930.00
2.00 PFRs with Tariff upto Rs. 2.50 per unit 78.00 34020.00
3.00 International Issue/Wild Life/Others 5.00 1084.00
4.00 DPRs to be Prepared 73.00 32936.00
9. Major challenges and responses:
Development of Hydroelectric projects has thrown up a number of important challenges, the world over and particularly in Indian context. Over a period of time, experiences have been acquired and India is responding to these challenges in the following manner.
a) Impact on Environment: Hydroelectric projects do create environmental issues emanating from sub-mergence of large areas also involving forest.
The Govt. of India has a comprehensive legislation on environmental issues and based on this legislation, there are well laid down principles and guidelines. Environment Impact Assessment studies when properly carried out throw up the tasks to be undertaken by the project development agencies. Over a period of time, both the processes of a) studies and preparation of the plans to mitigate environmental impact and b) procedure of clearances from the authorities, have been streamlined. Process of improvement on these areas continues to see as to how best the adverse environmental impacts are mitigated and also the procedure does not lead to delays. It needs to be ensured that if the forest area is affected, sufficient amount of forest is created. Ministry of Environment & Forest is working on a plan to create Forest Bank which would entail creation of huge afforestation with funding from project development agencies in advance so that this issue could be adequately responded. The mechanism of compensatory afforestation through the Forest Bank will enable quicker clearances of projects.
b) Rehabilitation & Resettlement (R&R) of Project Affected People (PAP)
is another major issue affecting the smooth execution of Hydroelectric projects particularly where in submergence areas, the number of project affected people are large. Experience of last several years has brought about sufficient amount of understanding on the subject. The expectations of people, local authorities and project development agencies are being synthesised so that there is greater degree of acceptability of the system of R&R. Govt. of India is contemplating a national policy on R&R for Project Affected People. In the meantime, Ministry of Power of Govt. of India and its public sector undertakings are coordinating their efforts with the State Govts. so that R&R issues are adequately addressed and project implementation is smooth. In cases, where large projects are involved, specific monitoring mechanism has been put in place at senior most level in the Govt. so that proper implementation of R&R plans by project agencies is done in letter and spirit.
With the above experiences now, it appears that in future, the concerned project development agencies would evolve proper plans and programmes well in advance so that the mitigatory measures are adequate and project implementation is smooth.
c) Another issue of concern is in relation to safety of dams.
Here again, experiences from some of the very large projects of the country have led to considerable amount of knowledge base and it is expected that in future projects, studies and findings on dam safety could provide much higher degree of confidence. Some of the Indian institutions have equipped themselves both with hardware and software to properly address these concerns. Where required, project development agencies do depend on expertise available anywhere in the world for in depth studies and guidance.
d) In view of complexity in development of Hydroelectric projects, particularly large ones, emanating from dam height, submergence, ramification of submergence, dam safety, drinking water schemes, irrigation, infrastructure etc., the process of clearances obviously gets linked with multiple agencies and authorities. Short cuts could create problems. Inordinate delays could entail huge cost and therefore unaffordable tariff.
Harmonious balance has, therefore, to be struck. Here again, experience of last many decades has brought about a reasonable consensus on how to address this situation. The process of improvement on this front also continues. Procedures have been streamlined, and they would continue to be streamlined, to see that project development process, prior to commencement of main plant construction, by way of permission and clearances is made faster. Ministry of Environment and Forest, Ministry of Power and other authorities continue to search for better solutions.
e) Reliability of detailed project report needs to be enhanced. There are a number of examples in Indian Hydro project development context of large variations from estimated costs primarily on account of differences between the outcomes of investigations and ground realities.
Both in respect of hydrology and geology, the quality of studies, investigations, analysis and findings need substantial improvement. The silver line is that there are recent examples of project development where variations are within limits. Experience gained here again must lead to qualitatively better DPRâ€™s and estimates and project could be completed without cost over runs, at least with avoidance of such cost increases which are on account of variation in estimates germane to inadequacies in investigations.
f) Construction time is another area of concern, which needs to be compressed. Large projects have taken inordinately long time.
There are two major aspects which could make a difference â€“ one is relating to construction management techniques starting from planning to monitoring and another relates to construction technology. Here again, there are recent examples of making substantial improvement on both the fronts. Some of the projects
which have been sanctioned in the recent months are being targetted to be completed within 4-5 years.
Based on the benchmarks which have been established, the techniques and technologies would be further improved. Choice of technology will have to be given serious consideration. For the next few years, project development agencies are being advised to target 4 years for completion of small projects, 4 Â½ years for medium size projects and 5 years for large projects. These schedules are significant improvement over the past performance. After these results are achieved, the norms would be further improved.
g) Communication with press, media and people at large to reduce the communication gaps on merits of hydro-projects and on mitigatory measures is another area of challenge which is being addressed. This also needs to be taken up appropriately at global level.