India Nuclear News and Discussion 4 July 2011

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panduranghari
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Re: India Nuclear News and Discussion 4 July 2011

Postby panduranghari » 10 Mar 2018 13:58

Amber G. wrote:^^^ Wikipedia, interestingly IMO, with usual caution, is a surprisingly a good source.
I can recommend a few books, depending upon your interest (needed technical level)
For layman (or for non physics majors) one good book I have mentioned here a few times are chapters from "Physics for future presidents" and references given there.


Many thanks AmberG madam. I shall read it with interest.

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Re: India Nuclear News and Discussion 4 July 2011

Postby Hiten » 15 Mar 2018 22:21

.
Compact High Temperature Reactor - CHTR - Towards Meeting India's Process Heat Requirement

http://www.spansen.com/2018/03/compact- ... -chtr.html

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Re: India Nuclear News and Discussion 4 July 2011

Postby Avtar Singh » 16 Mar 2018 02:51

Rather than going the lithium(mostly in china?) battery route India needs to go full on hydrogen,
a gas for all reasons!

Collobaration with japanese should be on the cards;

https://www.engadget.com/2017/12/12/hon ... ing-japan/

nuclear + hydrogen has to be the future in space? not lithium batteries.

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Re: India Nuclear News and Discussion 4 July 2011

Postby Kashi » 16 Mar 2018 05:31

Avtar Singh wrote:Rather than going the lithium(mostly in china?) battery route India needs to go full on hydrogen,
a gas for all reasons!

Collobaration with japanese should be on the cards;

https://www.engadget.com/2017/12/12/hon ... ing-japan/

nuclear + hydrogen has to be the future in space? not lithium batteries.


Presently, the only source of Hydrogen is breaking down natural gas into Carbon and Hydrogen. Splitting of water and then recycling the water vapour into more fuel works only in theory.

Unless we can find huge gas reserves of our own, we'll have to import even larger quantities of gas from elsewhere.

Japan is also working on shoring up battery storage capacities and on next-generation batteries that are not so dependent on rare earths.

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Re: India Nuclear News and Discussion 4 July 2011

Postby Vips » 27 Mar 2018 18:51

Larsen & Toubro wins Rs 747 crore contract from NPCIL.

Engineering and construction major Larsen & Toubro (L&T) today said it has won a Rs 747-crore order from Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd (NPCIL) to supply steam generators.

"The heavy engineering arm of Larsen & Toubro has received orders worth Rs 747 crore from NPCIL to supply steam generators and end shields for its indigenously designed 700 MWe Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWR) to be set up at Gorakhpur Haryana Anu Vidyut Pariyojana (GHAVP) in Fatehabad district of Haryana.

These steam generators and end shields will be manufactured at L&T's integrated, state-of-the-art Hazira manufacturing complex in Gujarat, which is one of the largest of its kind in South Asia, it said.

Steam generator is a critical equipment of the nuclear power facility that generates steam by using heat produced in a reactor core, while end shield is used to prevent the direct radiation coming out from a reactor core.

So far, the firm has delivered 51 steam generators and 36 end shields for Indian PHW Reactors (PHWR) & Fast Breeder Reactors (FBR).

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Re: India Nuclear News and Discussion 4 July 2011

Postby Will » 27 Mar 2018 20:43

Varoon Shekhar wrote:Once again, on seeing new postings under "Indian Nuclear News..." I thought I was going to read "PFBR, Kalpakkam fully commissioned" !

Alas, no. Any update on the PFBR's completion?


Been waiting and waiting and waiting for this one. It has missed many deadlines. Also no sign of the AHWR. Start of construction always seems "imminent" but no sign of it either. Don't think they have even decided on the site. I wonder if they plan to go in directly for the Molten Salt Reactor rather than the AHWR. Was reading that the doubling time of the AHWR will be way too long to build up sufficient fuel stockpiles for the third stage of the 3 stage Indian nuclear reactor program.

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Re: India Nuclear News and Discussion 4 July 2011

Postby SSridhar » 02 Apr 2018 17:04

Will wrote:
Varoon Shekhar wrote:Once again, on seeing new postings under "Indian Nuclear News..." I thought I was going to read "PFBR, Kalpakkam fully commissioned" !

Alas, no. Any update on the PFBR's completion?


Been waiting and waiting and waiting for this one. It has missed many deadlines.

The last I heard was it has been delayed until end-2018 or early-2019, most probably the latter.

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Re: India Nuclear News and Discussion 4 July 2011

Postby SSridhar » 02 Apr 2018 17:07

Thoothukudi heavy water plant to resume operations by March 2019 - The Hindu
Work to restart the heavy water unit at Thoothukudi is underway and it is expected to be recommissioned by March 2019.

The unit, which was started in 1978, was shut down in 2008 when it could not get naphtha supplies and at that time was also considered to be energy intensive.

U. Kamachi Mudali, Chairman and Chief Executive, Heavy Water Board (HWB) told reporters on the sidelines of a Department of Atomic Energy - National Union of Journalists workshop at Kalpakkam near here [Chennai] that an unit to extract rare materials from phosphoric acid and one to produce organic solvents too are to come up at the same site.

Agreement

The Board was in the process of signing an agreement with a private fertilizer major in Thoothukudi for supply of gas as part of the revival plan.

The reopening is necessary since the HWB wants to augment the production of heavy water, which it is even exporting.

“Since the Kota plant has reached its lifetime of 35 years, we may have to shut it down, we want production from other plants to supply that gap,” Dr. Mudali pointed out.

The organic solvent plant that would have a capacity of 100 tonnes/annum, would produce solvents including Tributyle phosphate for use in reprocessing spent nuclear fuel.

“The plant is in an advanced stage and we hope to commission it by the end of 2019. It will come inside the same plant site,” he said.

On the setting up the plant for extraction of rare materials from phosphoric acid procured from another private company, Dr. Mudali said that materials including yttrium and ytterbium would be produced.

“India does not have any rare materials and these could be used in the country’s nuclear, space and defence programmes,” he added.


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Re: India Nuclear News and Discussion 4 July 2011

Postby Amber G. » 07 Apr 2018 23:23

SSridhar wrote:
Will wrote:
Been waiting and waiting and waiting for this one. It has missed many deadlines.

The last I heard was it has been delayed until end-2018 or early-2019, most probably the latter.

Few comments -
IMO India has more experience and knowhow about PFBR then most countries and more than people give credit for.

I believe that only commercially operating fast breeder nuclear reactor is/was Russia’s Beloyarsk .. and India's PFBR is truly is one of a kind. (Russia’s fast breeder reactor is quite different). I also think (from what I know) China's technology is a few years (or decade) behind of India's. Other countries (eg Japan and France) tried to develop their own fast breeder technologies, but they really have not been successful (technical and safety reasons - India has done very well in designing safety part.

Let us not get too impatient - to me it is a testament to India's resolve. SSridhar pointed out late 2018 or early 2019 looks very good.

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Re: India Nuclear News and Discussion 4 July 2011

Postby kit » 08 Apr 2018 01:35

https://worldview.stratfor.com/article/pakistan-india-nuclear-standoff-subcontinent

While India could hit Islamabad's land- and air-based nuclear forces with comparative ease in any initial strike, it would struggle to neutralize Pakistan's sea-based nuclear missiles because of the difficulty in locating and destroying the vessels transporting them. And because ballistic missile defense systems can effectively only counter incoming projectiles that fly a high, arching trajectory, a stronger Indian defense would offer little protection against Pakistan's sea-based cruise missiles, which would arrive low. Because of the advantages inherent in developing a sea-based deterrent, Islamabad has proceeded to test the Babur-3 submarine-launched cruise missile, conducting an initial trial in January 2017 and a subsequent one last month.

Nevertheless, Islamabad's pursuit of maritime capabilities is not without risk: Because Pakistan relies on diesel-electric submarines, India could unwittingly trigger a nuclear conflict by firing on vessels carrying atomic weapons as part of a conventional conflict. Additionally, because crews must prepare the nuclear-tipped cruise missiles on Pakistani submarines for launch before setting sail, commanders piloting the watercraft would have their finger on the trigger — meaning any breakdown in the chain of command could result in the unsanctioned use of nuclear weapons.

The other aspect of Pakistan's plans to counter India's missile defenses is to equip its Ababeel missiles with MIRV payloads. Such action would not only increase the effectiveness of Pakistan's hits on invading Indian units but also enhance Islamabad's second-strike capabilities by overwhelming India's strategic ballistic missile defense network.

As Islamabad develops a better second-strike capability, New Delhi has little chance of deterring the former from using tactical nuclear weapons on the battlefield against invading Indian forces. In response, calls in India will grow for the development of the country's own tactical nuclear weaponry to take better aim at Pakistan's military targets. If India's military planners elect to go down that road, the consequences could be enormous, as the prioritization of such arms tends to pressure belligerents to strike while the iron is hot. Accordingly, nuclear conflict in South Asia could become inescapable if there's a major war between India and Pakistan.

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Re: India Nuclear News and Discussion 4 July 2011

Postby Prem » 08 Apr 2018 06:34

Question for Gurus,
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qbt4AlYQfdI
At I.51 in the video , it is claimed that 1 Ton of Thorium can produce energy equal to 250 Tons of Uranium. As per This https://www.worldatlas.com/articles/lis ... erves.html we have almost Million ton of Thorium. Does it mean that practically we have 240 million Tons of U equivalent to make few hundred thousand bombs on the sideline while producing energy same time?

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Re: India Nuclear News and Discussion 4 July 2011

Postby Haridas » 08 Apr 2018 10:27

^^^ apples and oranges comparison ; and misleading assertion.
Thorium is fissionable as much as U238. Only naturally occuring fissile element is U235.
Enriched Uranium reactor tailing waste is about 250 ton Natural U for a ton of U235 isotope fuel.

Naturally occuring Uranium isotope ratio 0f U235 to U238 is otherwise ~130:1 ratio of U238 & U235

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Re: India Nuclear News and Discussion 4 July 2011

Postby Varoon Shekhar » 08 Apr 2018 17:57

These jerks( or ********) at Stratfor et al, seem sanguine about the chance of a nuclear conflagration on the subcontinent. What they won't do is admit their countries of origin's role in Pakistan's efforts to obtain the material and technology. Nor of the Pakistani military's profile in that misbegotten country(sic). One thing now is almost certain, is that any nuclear outbreak on the subcontinent will have major international repercussions. It won't be just two countries affected.

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Re: India Nuclear News and Discussion 4 July 2011

Postby Amber G. » 08 Apr 2018 18:59

Prem wrote:Question for Gurus,
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qbt4AlYQfdI
At I.51 in the video , it is claimed that 1 Ton of Thorium can produce energy equal to 250 Tons of Uranium. As per This https://www.worldatlas.com/articles/lis ... erves.html we have almost Million ton of Thorium. Does it mean that practically we have 240 million Tons of U equivalent to make few hundred thousand bombs on the sideline while producing energy same time?


I have not watched the video but 1:250 ratio is fairly correct. We can't make bombs -- not that easily at least, as it is *very* difficult to get bomb type material from such reactors -- but Th can server our energy need for thousands of year. Virtually all scientists believe that.

Anyway Wiki articles about nuclear reactors are, IMO, pretty nice and valid so as long as you cross check with other references, these are good resources. Also links like below can answer your questions, perhaps better than what I write here: Nuclear Power Reactors or Advance Power Reactors..

Another good resource is Mueller's book "Energy for future presidents" (I have recommended "Physics for future Presidents" book very highly - It is available online too).

A Few points:
- Thorium is much more abundant than uranium .. more so for India. Enough for 1000's of year.
- Almost all thorium is fertile Th-232 (compared to uranium that is composed of 99.3% fertile U-238 and 0.7% more valuable fissile U-235)
- It is difficult to make a nuclear bomb from a thorium reactor's byproducts.
(Because your rate of getting Pu is about 1/50 of a standard U reactor -- There can be U233 type bombs from Th (theoretically possible and possibly tested/made -- but U232 will poison it and make it very hard to make -- Anyway India has enough (or get plenty Pu239) bomb material.

- There is much less nuclear waste —1/100 to 1/1000. Not only that the radioactivity of waste drops down to safe levels after just a one or a few hundred years (vs 10,000 years or so for U)
- Since all natural thorium can be used no need for expensive fuel enrichment...
Ityadi ...

Back to comparing the amount of thorium needed -- per Carlo Rubbia (A Nobel Laureate)'s article/estimation one ton of thorium can produce as much energy as 200 tons of uranium (that is about 3,500,000 tons of coal)

Hope this helps. (For more clarity see the links I posted above or similar links)
Last edited by Amber G. on 08 Apr 2018 19:22, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: India Nuclear News and Discussion 4 July 2011

Postby Amber G. » 08 Apr 2018 19:17

Haridas wrote:^^^ apples and oranges comparison ; and misleading assertion.
Thorium is fissionable as much as U238. Only naturally occuring fissile element is U235.
Enriched Uranium reactor tailing waste is about 250 ton Natural U for a ton of U235 isotope fuel.

Naturally occuring Uranium isotope ratio 0f U235 to U238 is otherwise ~130:1 ratio of U238 & U235

Both Th232, U238 are fertile (Virtually all natural Th is Th-232, for U 99.3% fertile U-238 and 0.7% fissile U-235.). Most odd numbered isotopes around here are fissile.

Pu-239 (Transmuted from U238) and U-233 (from Th-232) are fissile and can be used in reactors.

This is the one of the main points between traditional reactors -- where only U235 (0.7% of naturally occurring U) is used and breeder where we use U-238 and Th-232 to produce fissile material and use it thus increasing the efficiency as far as amount of fuel is used. (and side benefit - less -- much less -- nuclear waste)

To be clear, U238 (or Th232) is not trailing waste, these isotopes are actually (after converting to Pu/U) used as fuel in these reactors.

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Re: India Nuclear News and Discussion 4 July 2011

Postby Amber G. » 08 Apr 2018 20:16

Also this must be stated..
Many countries/people have studied thorium-based fuel cycles for 50+ years .. but at present - In my humble opinion -

India leads the pack when it comes to commercialization/research..!! (By some estimates we may get 30% from Th based reactors by 2050)

AFAIK it is the only country in the world with a detailed, funded, government-approved plan to focus on thorium-based nuclear power.

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Re: India Nuclear News and Discussion 4 July 2011

Postby Mort Walker » 08 Apr 2018 21:49

kit wrote:https://worldview.stratfor.com/article/pakistan-india-nuclear-standoff-subcontinent

While India could hit Islamabad's land- and air-based nuclear forces with comparative ease in any initial strike, it would struggle to neutralize Pakistan's sea-based nuclear missiles because of the difficulty in locating and destroying the vessels transporting them. And because ballistic missile defense systems can effectively only counter incoming projectiles that fly a high, arching trajectory, a stronger Indian defense would offer little protection against Pakistan's sea-based cruise missiles, which would arrive low. Because of the advantages inherent in developing a sea-based deterrent, Islamabad has proceeded to test the Babur-3 submarine-launched cruise missile, conducting an initial trial in January 2017 and a subsequent one last month.

Nevertheless, Islamabad's pursuit of maritime capabilities is not without risk: Because Pakistan relies on diesel-electric submarines, India could unwittingly trigger a nuclear conflict by firing on vessels carrying atomic weapons as part of a conventional conflict. Additionally, because crews must prepare the nuclear-tipped cruise missiles on Pakistani submarines for launch before setting sail, commanders piloting the watercraft would have their finger on the trigger — meaning any breakdown in the chain of command could result in the unsanctioned use of nuclear weapons.

The other aspect of Pakistan's plans to counter India's missile defenses is to equip its Ababeel missiles with MIRV payloads. Such action would not only increase the effectiveness of Pakistan's hits on invading Indian units but also enhance Islamabad's second-strike capabilities by overwhelming India's strategic ballistic missile defense network.

As Islamabad develops a better second-strike capability, New Delhi has little chance of deterring the former from using tactical nuclear weapons on the battlefield against invading Indian forces. In response, calls in India will grow for the development of the country's own tactical nuclear weaponry to take better aim at Pakistan's military targets. If India's military planners elect to go down that road, the consequences could be enormous, as the prioritization of such arms tends to pressure belligerents to strike while the iron is hot. Accordingly, nuclear conflict in South Asia could become inescapable if there's a major war between India and Pakistan.


Looks like more wet dreams from a Paki writer. Let them build up, and as sure as day, fissile material or a completed weapon will end up in the hands of a terrorist. Pakistan is an economic and political basket case.

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Re: India Nuclear News and Discussion 4 July 2011

Postby sanjaykumar » 08 Apr 2018 22:12

The question is how does India preclude Pakistan from pulling it into the same basket?

Pakistan as failed state is no longer a hypothesis.Kenya has perhaps greater foreign exchange reserves than Pakistan and sees 110000 white tourists a year, Pakistan sees 3 Chinese tourists yearly. This excludes Pakistani diaspora.

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Re: India Nuclear News and Discussion 4 July 2011

Postby Prem » 09 Apr 2018 00:59

Thanks Gurus , at least we have now path to energy independence using Thorium which i suspect and hope will make India first post oil economy ,changing and shaping 21st century economic landscape.

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Re: India Nuclear News and Discussion 4 July 2011

Postby ramdas » 09 Apr 2018 02:20

It could be that the stratfor people are ``trolling". However, a careful assessment of TSP's nuclear buildup is required. If strategic nuclear superiority erodes on our side, the massive retaliation doctrine indeed loses credibility and space opens for use by TSP of tactical nuclear weapons. Thus, steps must be taken to ensure that in the event of any nuclear use by TSP, we have enough firepower to win the nuclear conflict that follows. This requires attention to be paid to the deterrent, and moving away from minimum deterrence/ focus on the economy etc.

Nuclear weapons are indeed the primary currency of national power, as Russia is demonstrating these days. 10X the GDP, etc. amounts to nithing when push comes to shove.

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Re: India Nuclear News and Discussion 4 July 2011

Postby Haridas » 09 Apr 2018 06:02

Haridas wrote:^^^ apples and oranges comparison ; and misleading assertion.
Thorium is fissionable as much as U238. Only naturally occuring fissile element is U235.
Enriched Uranium reactor tailing waste is about 250 ton Natural U for a ton of U235 isotope fuel.

Naturally occuring Uranium isotope ratio 0f U235 to U238 is otherwise ~130:1 ratio of U238 & U235


Prem wrote:Thanks Gurus , at least we have now path to energy independence using Thorium which i suspect and hope will make India first post oil economy ,changing and shaping 21st century economic landscape.


Once through fuel cycle that the Western nuclear power plant follow requires enriched U235 extracted from Natural Uraniusm, in those situation the feedstock depleted of useful Uranium (that I refer to trailing waste) is roughly 1:250.

Thorium fuel cycle has to necessarily run in nearly closed loop cycle since it requires converting fertile Thorium (or for that case U238 {from natural Uranium or depleted tailing from U235 enrichment process}) into fissile material, reprocessing it to extract useful fissile material and repurposing unused Thorium back into reactor. This is done via FBR reactors or a combination of FBR supplemented Thorium reactor (E.g. BARC's AHWR design, that is still a paper design awaiting prototype funding). There is some cutting edge development ideas to use high energy , high power efficiency particle accelerator that could reduce or possibly eliminate fissile feedstock stream from FBR reactors, making Thorium reactors independent and self sustaining in neutron efficiency.

The closed loop fuel cycle based energy plants obviously have to be be competitive compared to other energy sources (domestic or imported), and the economic drive to invest into the technology development & make it production worthy is not compelling enough at the moment; so BARC & govt is just moving forward with investment it can afford for now.

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Re: India Nuclear News and Discussion 4 July 2011

Postby Austin » 18 Apr 2018 17:42

India, US to use Russian model for N-plant set-up

https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/ind ... 807527.cms

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Re: India Nuclear News and Discussion 4 July 2011

Postby JTull » 19 Apr 2018 03:04

Austin wrote:India, US to use Russian model for N-plant set-up

https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/ind ... 807527.cms


Contracting for 6 reactors at once with a company just out of bankruptcy is a recipe for disaster. There need to be sovereign guarantees attached. Otherwise the new private equity owner of Westinghouse will take the initial payments and force receivership. Don't be surprised, its been done before by PE firms.

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Re: India Nuclear News and Discussion 4 July 2011

Postby RoyG » 19 Apr 2018 05:00

JTull wrote:
Austin wrote:India, US to use Russian model for N-plant set-up

https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/ind ... 807527.cms


Contracting for 6 reactors at once with a company just out of bankruptcy is a recipe for disaster. There need to be sovereign guarantees attached. Otherwise the new private equity owner of Westinghouse will take the initial payments and force receivership. Don't be surprised, its been done before by PE firms.


I'll be surprised if we see new American plants on Indian soil.

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Re: India Nuclear News and Discussion 4 July 2011

Postby jaysimha » 30 Apr 2018 15:01

Department of Atomic Energy PIB link http://pib.nic.in/newsite/pmreleases.aspx?mincode=56

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Re: India Nuclear News and Discussion 4 July 2011

Postby Neshant » 03 May 2018 16:39

After Fukashima, the entire nuclear industry has been in a slump.
There are no buyers for nuclear power stations as it's deemed way too expensive and hazardous.
It should be one of the best buyers market around - unless Indian babus have done a piss poor job of negotiating deals.

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Re: India Nuclear News and Discussion 4 July 2011

Postby dinesha » 19 May 2018 18:48

X-posting..

PFBR achieving criticality slides further to late 2018 or early 2019..
Kalpakkam Fast Breeder Test Reactor achieves 30 MW power production
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/cit ... 480884.cms
CHENNAI: The Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) in Kalpakkam produced 30 MW power for the first time in its 32-year life cycle this month.
The milestone was achieved on March 20. Since March 21, FBTR has also been generating 5.6 MW electrical power. The FBTR achieved criticality in October 1985.

According to A K Bhaduri, director, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), the new milestone was testament to India's capability to produce power from indigenously developed fuel. "The FBTR's design is French (Rapsodie) and the reactor was built to generate power using a mixed oxide (contains uranium and plutonium) fuel that was to be supplied by France," Bhaduri said. However, the fallout of India's peaceful nuclear experiment in Pokhran (1974) had denied the nation the use of this fuel, as bowing to international pressure France backed out. This pushed India to develop its own mixed carbide variant fuel (also contains uranium and plutonium in the ratio of 30% and 70% respectively) and test it in the FBTR.
"The key thing to note is that FBTR is only operated in campaign mode. It is a test reactor and was never meant to produce power for supplying to the grid," Bhaduri said. But that is exactly what IGCAR has achieved.

Bhaduri added that in another two or three campaigns (a campaign is a test period spanning between three to six months), the FBTR would achieve its absolute power generation capacity of around 39-40 MW. At maximum output, the FBTR would also generate around 13 MW electrical energy. The previous milestone was set in the reactor's 25th campaign when 27.3 MW power was produced. The FBTR had also defied expectations in terms of fuel utilisation, said Bhaduri. Fuel utilisation (or burn up) is the measure of energy that is extracted from an initial nuclear fuel source. "We have achieved a fuel burn up of 165 GWd/t (giga watt days per ton), which is incredible for this type of fuel and was achieved without fuel pin failure," said Bhaduri, adding that most test reactors across the world struggle to achieve fuel burn up rates in the range of megawatt days/ton.

The experience over the years with the test reactor has allowed IGCAR scientists to build what they estimate is a "highly reliable" 500MW capacity successor to the FBTR - the Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR), which is expected to achieve criticality either in late 2018 or early 2019.
Augmentation of India's nuclear power production, which is also a prime agenda for the central government, means six more fast breeders would be set up across the country in the next 15 years. Two of the six reactors will come up in Kalpakkam. "We expect to begin construction by 2021," said Bhaduri. The reactors would be ready for commercial power production by 2029 and 2031 respectively.

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Re: India Nuclear News and Discussion 4 July 2011

Postby Amber G. » 21 May 2018 00:19

I don't think it was posted here..
U.S. Secretary of Energy and Indian Atomic Energy Secretary Sekhar Basu signed an agreement last month in New Delhi for cooperation on neutrino research in both countries. .
Image
U.S., India sign agreement providing for neutrino physics collaboration at Fermilab and in India
.

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Re: India Nuclear News and Discussion 4 July 2011

Postby Amber G. » 21 May 2018 00:44

Neshant wrote:After Fukashima, the entire nuclear industry has been in a slump.
There are no buyers for nuclear power stations as it's deemed way too expensive and hazardous.
It should be one of the best buyers market around - unless Indian babus have done a piss poor job of negotiating deals.

OTOH .. Ohi nuclear power plant (unit 4) in Japan's Fukui Prefecture just came on line.. This is the *eighth* Nuclear power plant which began supplying electricity to the grid in Japan after Fukushima..

China alone has 36 nuclear power reactors in operation, 21 under construction, and more about to start construction. They are planning advanced reactors .. to give a doubling of nuclear capacity to at least 58 GWe by 2020-21, then up to 150 GWe by 2030..

USA still has about 100 power plants..(they don't need more)

Anyway IMHO now that India has achieved independence in its nuclear fuel cycle. and I think the Indian government is serious in growing its nuclear power capacity to about 22 GWe by 2031. India by all accounts is a leader in the thorium fuel cycle (and has several advanced facilities related to this) we should (and I think we will) proceed in right direction.

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Re: India Nuclear News and Discussion 4 July 2011

Postby Amber G. » 21 May 2018 00:58

Also to keep the perspective on Nuclear Energy Trend .. good idea to look at the whole picture.. IAEA as good data (PRIS) for example... Check that out... for example after 2011 down.. total capacity or energy produced is pre 2011 level -- or getting to that...
Image
Image

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Re: India Nuclear News and Discussion 4 July 2011

Postby Neshant » 21 May 2018 03:40

Amber G. wrote:
Neshant wrote:After Fukashima, the entire nuclear industry has been in a slump.
There are no buyers for nuclear power stations as it's deemed way too expensive and hazardous.
It should be one of the best buyers market around - unless Indian babus have done a piss poor job of negotiating deals.


China alone has 36 nuclear power reactors in operation, 21 under construction, and more about to start construction. They are planning advanced reactors .. to give a doubling of nuclear capacity to at least 58 GWe by 2020-21, then up to 150 GWe by 2030..

USA still has about 100 power plants..(they don't need more)



Only China is building reactors in any significant numbers globally and they are only buying their own reactors not foreign ones.

The Western and Russian reactor builders are starved for orders.

At this rate the entire nuclear reactor design & development industry will be dead with no customers.

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Re: India Nuclear News and Discussion 4 July 2011

Postby RoyG » 21 May 2018 06:58

Amber G. wrote:Also to keep the perspective on Nuclear Energy Trend .. good idea to look at the whole picture.. IAEA as good data (PRIS) for example... Check that out... for example after 2011 down.. total capacity or energy produced is pre 2011 level -- or getting to that...
Image
Image


Correct. Legacy nuclear wont be able to compete against compact fusion/thorium reactor technology and renewables including hydro. SILEX enrichment and other tech will also make reprocessing redundant at some point in the near future as well.

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Re: India Nuclear News and Discussion 4 July 2011

Postby Austin » 21 May 2018 09:27

Neshant wrote:The Western and Russian reactor builders are starved for orders.


Russia currently has contracts to build 34 reactors in 13 countries, with an estimated total value of $300 billion. When nuclear fuel supplies and technical cooperation are included, Russia’s state-run Rosatom State Atomic Energy Corporation is doing business in as many as 20 countries.
link

http://www.rosatom.ru/en/investors/projects/

For their own internal use they are build 11 new and 5 under construction

Russia will build 11 additional nuclear reactors by 2030 not including 5 under construction already

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Re: India Nuclear News and Discussion 4 July 2011

Postby RoyG » 21 May 2018 09:41

Austin wrote:
Neshant wrote:The Western and Russian reactor builders are starved for orders.


Russia currently has contracts to build 34 reactors in 13 countries, with an estimated total value of $300 billion. When nuclear fuel supplies and technical cooperation are included, Russia’s state-run Rosatom State Atomic Energy Corporation is doing business in as many as 20 countries.
link

http://www.rosatom.ru/en/investors/projects/

For their own internal use they are build 11 new and 5 under construction

Russia will build 11 additional nuclear reactors by 2030 not including 5 under construction already


34 reactors in 11 countries is hardly anything. Great for business but its not enough to make a diff.

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Re: India Nuclear News and Discussion 4 July 2011

Postby Austin » 21 May 2018 10:07

You add 34 + 4 Under construction and 11 planned makes it 49 reactor and this is 1000 plus MW class plus two new technology reactor BN-1200 & OD-300 besides the Light water ones .....This is the current order list as it stands today

The BN-1200 reactor is a 1200 MW sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor project, under development by OKBM Afrikantov in Zarechny, Goals are enhanced safety (IV generation) and a breeding ratio of 1.2 to 1.3–1.35 for mixed uranium-plutonium oxide fuel and 1.45 for nitride fuel.

approves building a facility to produce high-density U-Pu nitride fuel and the construction by 2025 of the BREST-OD-300 fast neutron reactor.
BREST-OD-300 is part of Russian state nuclear corporation’s ‘Proryv’, or Breakthrough, project to enable a closed nuclear fuel cycle. The ultimate aim is to eliminate production of radioactive waste from nuclear power generation.


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Re: India Nuclear News and Discussion 4 July 2011

Postby Amber G. » 21 May 2018 22:59

Neshant wrote:
Only China is building reactors in any significant numbers globally ....

At this rate the entire nuclear reactor design & development industry will be dead with no customers.

FWIW: Just recently even in US -- USA's Department of Energy has awarded millions of dollars for projects (R&Detc) for advanced nuclear technologies such as NuScale Power's small modular reactor..

Seriously - for perspective for number of reactors and trends one ought to look at any reputable data. I gave link to IAEA source before.. there are many others. From IAEA this is the projection:
Image
(The world nuclear electrical generating capacity is projected to increase to 554 GW(e) by 2030 and to 874 GW(e) by 2050 in the high case. This represents a 42% increase over current levels by 2030 and a doubling of capacity by 2050. In the low case, the world nuclear electrical generating capacity is projected to gradually decline until 2040 and then rebound to about today’s level by 2050.)..

As to regional trends : (Again IAEA source):
Regional Trends

Northern America: In both low and high cases, nuclear electricity production is expected to change significantly in this region over the next two decades.

Latin America & the Caribbean: Nuclear electricity production is projected to increase in both low and high cases, but its role will remain small in the coming decades.

Northern, Western and Southern Europe: Several countries in these regions have announced a phase-out of nuclear power. The regions’ nuclear power capacity will therefore change significantly in the coming years.

Eastern Europe: Nuclear electricity production is projected to continue to grow in both low and high cases, albeit at different rates.

Africa: In the low case, nuclear electrical generating capacity is projected to stay at the present level of 2 GW(e) until 2030 and to increase to 7 GW(e) by 2050. The development of nuclear power is expected to face uncertainty.

Western Asia: Although the single nuclear power reactor in the region provided only 2 TW∙h in 2016, nuclear electricity production is expected to increase significantly in both the low and high cases.

Southern Asia: The existing nuclear power reactors in the Southern Asia region are relatively young, and the majority are expected to remain in operation until the middle of the century. Nuclear electricity production is projected to continue to grow in both the low and high cases.

Central and Eastern Asia: Nuclear electrical generating capacity is projected to increase significantly in both low and high cases.

South-eastern Asia: Nuclear electricity will appear in the electricity production mix of this region only after 2030.

I may put my personal thoughts in a separate post.

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Re: India Nuclear News and Discussion 4 July 2011

Postby Amber G. » 22 May 2018 01:01


I took a look at the above article. Though it is true that India can be proud of its tritium which it can now export..

But why these writers do not use an editor with basic science knowledge -- so that their reporting is not sloppy..(and it makes it sound like the author's does not have basic scientific understanding..)
To be fair, this is not the only article.. many articles are like that .
For example:

India had chosen heavy water as moderator in its reactors long ago. Heavy water has a high content of highly radioactive tritium, which is actually a radioactive isotope of hydrogen. BARC scientists wanted to reduce this, so that the workers are exposed to lower levels of radiation.


Tritium is used in luminous dials of watches or "exit" sighs which can be read in dark. .. The alpha rays it gives can show light up signs in dark but will not penetrate your skin. IOW *only* harm it can do is if you eat/drink that water...(You have to worry about other radiations to protect the "workers" from exposition - Radiation by tritium is not one of them.

(I can safely say that "wanted to reduce" in above sentence is purely made up by the writer - and did not come from any "BARC scientist"))

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Re: India Nuclear News and Discussion 4 July 2011

Postby Bart S » 22 May 2018 01:12

Amber G. wrote:But why these writers do not use an editor with basic science knowledge -- so that their reporting is not sloppy..(and it makes it sound like the author's does not have basic scientific understanding..)
To be fair, this is not the only article.. many articles are like that .


Not an excuse, but that article is from their archives and was written immediately after Pokhran 2. I felt that the tone of the article felt unusually jingoistic, till I saw the date. I think at the time that kind of effort was par for the course and journalists at that time didn't have the same exposure and resources that they have today.

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Re: India Nuclear News and Discussion 4 July 2011

Postby mody » 28 May 2018 17:59

If India were to become a member of NSG, would India conduct another round of Nuclear weapons tests?
There doesn't seem to be a major advantage in India becoming a member of NSG, in terms of getting fuel or technology from other countries.
No one is going to give their reactors design to India, will rather ask that India buy the reactors, similar to the Russian VVER contracts.
This can be done even right now. Both France and the US are willing sell, but the terms, operations by NPCIL , liability and price remain a constraint.
Fuel is also currently available, with Australia already having started supplying uranium and other countries too likely to supply.

In terms of processing the fuel, India does not need any help. With membership of NSG, we will be able to export our PHWR reactors. However, our domestic requirement itself is big enough that we will mostly not be able to export anytime soon. Also, exporting to African countries, will involve NPCIL also running the plants after building them. Not sure we have the personnel to do that. Already we are in discussion with Russia and Bangladesh to operate Russian VVER in Bangladesh.
There doesn't seem to be a very big advantage to getting the membership of NSG.

If it allows India to conduct another round of tests, to validate its weapons design, then it would all make sense.


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