johneeG wrote:a) cold-war politics(Bhaarath joined with Soviets, so Pakistan was taken under the wing of US).
I have been meaning to comment on this aspect after watching many American commentators on Indian-US relations but kept forgetting.
Most Americans too would state something similar e.g A mild one would be "Indians went with the Soviets and American with Pakistanis". To me that always *sounded* like "BECAUSE India went with Soviets America was FORCED to go with Pakistan" i.e the past state of the relationship was India's fault.
My *understanding*, and I could be wrong, is that Pak *offered* itself to the Americans but the Americans wanted India as a partner in our region. When India kept fending off the Americans with its no-aligned rhetoric the Americans finally went with Pakistan. India always had a socialistic leaning but it was pushed firmly into the Soviet orbit only after the US-Pak partnership and BECAUSE of that partnership.
So from my POV the history of India-US relationship should be stated as "US forged a close partnership with Pakistan forcing India to ally with the Soviets".
To me that sounds substantially different from how it is presented by the US commentators and left unchallenged by Indians. That is a *subtle* shifting of blame if there is to be blame that is. Would like others to comment on this or am I making a mountain of a molehill???
JLN seems to have been a pro-western guy. But, for some reason, he started turning towards Russia. But, he was also under the influence of the west. So, when JLN led Bhaarath, Bhaarath was on both sides(west and russia) with more tilt towards Russia. So, the west had more tilt towards Pakistan. Yes, Pakistan offered itself to US and perhaps even JLN would have offered Bhaarath to west but for some reason Russia started influencing him and this russian influence acted as a off-set against the western influence. So, it was a sort of non-alignment. But, the reality was that Bhaarath depended on US a lot in JLN days. Russia itself was poor in those days. So, Russia helped Bhaarath with communist propaganda while US gave aid.
When JLN was leading Bhaarath, Bhaarath and Pakistan were not necessarily enemies. In 1948, it was so-called Hindhu nationalist Patel who took the lead on Kashmir. Note how JLN diffused the whole issue by going to
UN. After the death of Patel, there were no wars between Bhaarath and Pakistan until the death of JLN. So, during this era, Pakistan and Bhaarath were under western influence. The only difference was that Russia also had influence on JLN, so JLN could not become a puppet of west due to counter influence of Russia.
It seems to me that Shasthri was neither under western influence nor under the influence of Russia. Infact, the war started by Bakis may have been to weaken the position of Shasthri. But, he managed to win the war. However, the poor guy died suddenly after winning a war. Look at the co-incident: Shastri died in Russia and a pro-russian PM came to power.
Indhira was pro-russian and anti-west. This was the period when the support of west to Pakistan started increasing a lot. After the break up of Pakistan, Pakistan seems to have become a colony of US. And the final straw seems to have come during the musharraf rule.
When Pakistan became a complete colony of US in mushy's rule, the local pakistanis resented it. In pakistan, all emotions are expressed under the flag of islam. The same applies to revolt against the US colonization of Pakistan. The extremists were always powerful in Pakistan. They had been armed and radicalized during the proxy war against Soviets in Afghanisthan. During Mushy era, they were the ones who used American colonization as an excuse to target Mushy and they started setting up their own fiefdoms.
(What is irony is that Mushy was thrown out by supreme court judge who was also hyped up by US. A more interesting question is why did US allow mushy to be thrown out if he was so pro-US?).
It seems to me that Kiya-nahi felt that Mushy ceded too much space to US. So, he allowed a free reign to the extremists hoping that they would counter the US influence. However, the free reign to extremists has its own implications.
The extremists became so powerful that they had set up their own fiefdoms. This had already happened during mushy era itself. But after Kiya-nahi time, it became very powerful. PA lost writ in many areas of the country. Private militias and liberation armies gained ground. Of course, US continues to have lot of influence in Pakistan. In short, Pakistan has become a place where private militias rule and with lot of influence of US.
Now, Raheel Shareef seems to be claiming that he will start a fight back against the extremism and take back the control of the country. Is it really possible? Is shareef sincere? Well, it is to be seen. Already shareef has done a soft coup. There may be a hard coup anytime within 3 months. The claim by Shareef seems to be that the civilians are not in a position to take on the extremists due to fear and only the martial law can take them on.
As for Bhaarath, it was always a very important place and west seems to have tried to maintain a friendly in Bhaarath. Non-friendly regimes seem to end abruptly, so far. The most friendly regime of US in Bhaarath was that of Manmohan. I don't think any Govt will be able to replicate the feats of Manmohan in being US-friendly. The only way Bhaarath could have become more pro-US was by being a Pakistan(i.e. US colony).