JE Menon wrote:>>Well, defining 'terrorists' can be tricky in any place. Its particularly tricky in Pakistan. So, one could perhaps define 'citizens' as people without guns and 'terrorists' as people with guns in Pakistan.
So, if I understand correctly, the idea is to solve the problem of terrorism in Pakistan is to make everyone a terrorist by giving them guns...
Yes, take away the advantage to terrorists by giving weapons to everyone. But, it would also require that US stops its support to Pakistan Army otherwise Pakistan Army and its irregulars will have unfair advantage.
Once everyone is armed, then new definitions of 'terrorist' and 'citizen' can be created if necessary.
Nehru going to UN in 1948 was a blunder which GoI tried to correct to some extent through Shimla accord which made the Kashmir "dispute" a bilateral one without room for a third party. Involving UN in what is a bilateral matter will set a bad precedent and also dangerous. Next thing you know, Maoists and their intellectual supporters will start demanding UN or Chinese intervention. Involving UN will provide a backdoor entry to powers of the world to mess with India.
I know that it was considered a mistake by some that Bhaarath went to UN. However, it cannot be changed. Bhaarath went to UN.
Now, coming to Shimla agreement. I think its a very bad agreement purely from Bhaarath's perspective. I think Congress govt was throwing a lifeline to Pakistan in that agreement. I mean here is pakistan defeated. It just lost half of its country. Its 90,000 POWs have surrendered publicly to Bhaarath. And what does Bhaarath gain in Shimla agreement? Nothing. Nada. Zilch.
Infact, Shimla agreement is actually all about LOC. Is there any part of Shimla agreement or Lahore agreement which says that Pakistan must vacate POK? Does Shimla agreement say that Pakistan is the aggressor? No.
Infact, LOC is being given same sanctity as international border according to Shimla agreement.
Simla Agreement July 2, 1972
July 02, 1972
The Simla Agreement signed by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto of Pakistan on 2nd July 1972 was much more than a peace treaty seeking to reverse the consequences of the 1971 war (i.e. to bring about withdrawals of troops and an exchange of PoWs). It was a comprehensive blue print for good neighbourly relations between India and Pakistan. Under the Simla Agreement both countries undertook to abjure conflict and confrontation which had marred relations in the past, and to work towards the establishment of durable peace, friendship and cooperation.
The Simla Agreement contains a set of guiding principles, mutually agreed to by India and Pakistan, which both sides would adhere to while managing relations with each other. These emphasize: respect for each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty; non-interference in each other’s internal affairs; respect for each others unity, political independence; sovereign equality; and abjuring hostile propaganda. The following principles of the Agreement are, however, particularly noteworthy:
A mutual commitment to the peaceful resolution of all issues through direct bilateral approaches.
To build the foundations of a cooperative relationship with special focus on people to people contacts.
To uphold the inviolability of the Line of Control in Jammu and Kashmir, which is a most important CBM between India and Pakistan, and a key to durable peace.
India has faithfully observed the Simla Agreement in the conduct of its relations with Pakistan.
Agreement on Bilateral Relations Between The Government of India and The Government of Pakistan
The Government of India and the Government of Pakistan are resolved that the two countries put an end to the conflict and confrontation that have hitherto marred their relations and work for the promotion of a friendly and harmonious relationship and the establishment of durable peace in the sub-continent, so that both countries may henceforth devote their resources and energies to the pressing talk of advancing the welfare of their peoples.
In order to achieve this objective, the Government of India and the Government of Pakistan have agreed as follows:-
That the principles and purposes of the Charter of the United Nations shall govern the relations between the two countries;
That the two countries are resolved to settle their differences by peaceful means through bilateral negotiations or by any other peaceful means mutually agreed upon between them. Pending the final settlement of any of the problems between the two countries, neither side shall unilaterally alter the situation and both shall prevent the organization, assistance or encouragement of any acts detrimental to the maintenance of peaceful and harmonious relations;
That the pre-requisite for reconciliation, good neighbourliness and durable peace between them is a commitment by both the countries to peaceful co-existence, respect for each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty and non-interference in each other’s internal affairs, on the basis of equality and mutual benefit;
That the basic issues and causes of conflict which have bedevilled the relations between the two countries for the last 25 years shall be resolved by peaceful means;
That they shall always respect each other’s national unity, territorial integrity, political independence and sovereign equality;
That in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations they will refrain from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of each other.
Both Governments will take all steps within their power to prevent hostile propaganda directed against each other. Both countries will encourage the dissemination of such information as would promote the development of friendly relations between them.
In order progressively to restore and normalize relations between the two countries step by step, it was agreed that;
Steps shall be taken to resume communications, postal, telegraphic, sea, land including border posts, and air links including overflights.
Appropriate steps shall be taken to promote travel facilities for the nationals of the other country.
Trade and co-operation in economic and other agreed fields will be resumed as far as possible.
Exchange in the fields of science and culture will be promoted.
In this connection delegations from the two countires will meet from time to time to work out the necessary details.
In order to initiate the process of the establishment of durable peace, both the Governments agree that:
Indian and Pakistani forces shall be withdrawn to their side of the international border.
In Jammu and Kashmir, the line of control resulting from the cease-fire of December 17, 1971 shall be respected by both sides without prejudice to the recognized position of either side. Neither side shall seek to alter it unilaterally, irrespective of mutual differences and legal interpretations. Both sides further undertake to refrain from the threat or the use of force in violation of this Line.
The withdrawals shall commence upon entry into force of this Agreement and shall be completed within a period of 30 days thereof.
This Agreement will be subject to ratification by both countries in accordance with their respective constitutional procedures, and will come into force with effect from the date on which the Instruments of Ratification are exchanged.
Both Governments agree that their respective Heads will meet again at a mutually convenient time in the future and that, in the meanwhile, the representatives of the two sides will meet to discuss further the modalities and arrangements for the establishment of durable peace and normalization of relations, including the questions of repatriation of prisoners of war and civilian internees, a final settlement of Jammu and Kashmir and the resumption of diplomatic relations.
Republic of India
(Zulfikar Ali Bhutto)
Islamic Republic of Pakistan
Simla, the 2nd July, 1972
I think UN resolutions and Parliament resolution are much more closer to each other than Lahore or Shimla accords.
And Shimla accord seems particularly bad after the huge victory of 1971.
Infact, it seems like Shimla agreement is designed to make LOC as the international border.
It seems to me that Shimla agreement is an attempt to make LOC as International border. Then, it means that POK was being given away to Pakistan.
Pakistanis are the ones still raking up Kashmir. Why? Its not about Kashmir. Its just about keeping something boiling to distract their people.
The following is Parliament resolution on Jammu and Kashmir.
Parliament Resolution on Jammu and Kashmir
Following increasing terrorist violence and Pakistan’s attempts to highlight the Kashmir dispute, both houses of the Indian Parliament unanimously adopted a resolution on February 22, 1994, emphasizing that Jammu and Kashmir was an integral part of India, and that Pakistan must vacate parts of the State under its occupation. The text of the resolution follows.
"This House note with deep concern Pakistan's role in imparting training to the terrorists in camps located in Pakistan and Pakistan Occupied Kashmir, the supply of weapons and funds, assistance in infiltration of trained militants, including foreign mercenaries into Jammu and Kashmir with the avowed purpose of creating disorder, disharmony and subversion:
reiterates that the militants trained in Pakistan are indulging in murder, loot and other heinous crimes against the people, taking them hostage and creating an atmosphere of terror;
Condemns strongly the continued support and encouragement Pakistan is extending to subversive and terrorist activities in the Indian state of Jammu & Kashmir;
Calls upon Pakistan to stop forthwith its support to terrorism, which is in violation of the Simla Agreement and the internationally accepted norms of inter-State conduct and is the root cause of tension between the two countries reiterates that the Indian political and democratic structures and the Constitution provide for firm guarantees for the promotion and protection of human rights of all its citizens;
regard Pakistan's anti-India campaign of calumny and falsehood as unacceptable and deplorable.
notes with deep concern the highly provocative statements emanating from Pakistan urges Pakistan to refrain from making statements which vitiate the atmosphere and incite public opinion;
expresses regret and concern at the pitiable conditions and violations of human rights and denial of demoractic freedoms of the people in those areas of the Indian State of Jammu and Kashmir, which are under the illegal occupation of Pakistan;
On behalf of the People of India,
Firmly declares that-
(a) The State of Jammu & Kashmir has been, is and shall be an integral part of India and any attempts to separate it from the rest of the country will be resisted by all necessary means;
(b) India has the will and capacity to firmly counter all designs against its unity, sovereignty and territorial integrity;
and demands that -
(c) Pakistan must vacate the areas of the Indian State of Jammu and Kashmir, which they have occupied through aggression; and resolves that -
(d) all attempts to interfere in the internal affairs of India will be met resolutely."
The Resolution was unanimously adopted. Mr. Speaker: The Resolution is unanimously passed.
February 22, 1994
I think the Parliament resolution actually supersedes Shimla agreement because Parliament says that Pakistan has violated Shimla agreement. If Pakistan has violated Shimla agreement, then what is the validity of Shimla agreement anymore?
It seems to me that Parliament resolution and UN resolution are much more in sync while Shimla agreement seems to be an attempt to accept LOC as de-facto international border in J&K.