I'd say they rely on public education, not sure about the quality part. America is not like other developed countries, it relies instead on immigration to attract top talent.
Your post describes "developed country" issues.
If public K-12 education in India, China, or other developing countries was even 30% of the quality of US public education, it would be a dramatic impact.
Again, in plain English, a large public education setup of decent quality has been an essential component of progress in any developed country. This needs to be emulated in India. The "average American" gets a publicly funded education of a quality that the average Indian doesn't yet get.