Chandrayan-1 moon mission

SSridhar
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Re: Chandrayan-1 mission launched succesfully

Postby SSridhar » 22 Oct 2008 08:32

Once Chandrayaan-I goes near the moon, we will be there to track it : Interview

Dr. Shiva Kumar, what are the critical issues involved in telemetry, tracking and communications in general associated with deep space missions?

When we talk of satellites in near earth orbit, we mean about 1,000 km altitude or more, or near earth space of about 2,000-2,500 km in range from the Earth’s surface. But when we say deep space mission, we mean lakhs of kilometres. For example, when we talk of the Moon mission, it means that the distance is not less than the Earth-Moon distance, which is about 4,00,000 km. Internationally, there is a way of categorising deep space and near earth, but a common way of defining would be the moon distance and beyond.

In deep space missions, as the space probe moves farther away from the Earth, the strength of the signals from it become weaker and weaker. The real challenge is to catch those weak signals. Mathematically, from antenna theory, we know that we have to put up larger and larger dishes. ISTRAC has so far been involved with smaller dimension 10-11-metre diameter dishes. But now for a deep space mission, it jumps to something like 32 m. To make such an antenna, especially through the indigenous industry, was a big challenge for us. We looked at [systems] the world over and found that the nominally working deep space antenna you get to see is 30m-plus. We decided to make a 32-m antenna in Bangalore, which would give us the strength to talk to our satellite from our own soil and also to collect the signals from Chandrayaan about 4,00,000 km away both in terms of satellite control capability and the science data coming from the various onboard experiments.

But wisely this DSN-32 has not been done only for the Chandrayaan mission but for all deep space missions to come in the future. It puts us in the category of deep space antennae found anywhere else in the world. That is the whole essence of building an Indian Deep Space Network facility. Starting with Chandrayaan we are pretty sure that we can track any other object deeper than this. If we are doing a Mars mission we do not have to worry at that point of time whether we have to build some more things. We have built a world standard facility that meets all the international standards. That means it can track any other [deep space] object. Simply stated, it is state-of-the-art interoperable and cross-support compatible facility that meets the Indian requirements with good margins and also the requirements of any other space agency.

For deep space applications, when we say that we are capable of receiving signals of weaker strengths with this antenna, we should similarly be able to pump fairly strong signals to the satellite for commanding the spacecraft. Once the diameter of the dish is increased, that is very easily done with higher power amplifiers. About 2 kW was our normal usage. This time we have put up a 20 kW high power amplifier. That much power with a big dish is enough for the satellite to receive and execute the command functions. This is another world standard that has been met by IDSN. This antenna will also be capable of doing what is called the two-way ranging required for determining the position of the spacecraft. In addition, we have put up a reception facility for the science experiments [next to the antennae at Byalalu].

All the data will be sent to the spacecraft control centre [of ISTRAC] and the science data will be sent from this facility to the Space Science Data Centre (SSDC). The science data received here can then be sent to different processing systems for producing the various data products. All this needed a lot of critical technologies to be done and everything had to be done through the Indian industry.

In terms of the amount of data that you would be receiving, what would be the bandwidth requirements? Could you give a comparison with what you handle in LEO missions?

Of course, in deep space everything is [at] a premium. Actually, IRS satellites, which are in 700-900-km orbit, produce much more data than what Chandrayaan will produce. For the imagery that you collect with 1-m and 5-m resolutions, that data is quite voluminous. But we are [already] in the higher level of data transmission from Chandrayaan. We will be transmitting data at 8.4 Mbps, whereas many people are doing it at much lower rates. Just for comparison, IRS satellites transmit at 100 Mbps data rate. Since we have handled high bit-rate data links, there is no issue in handling these lower bit-rates. For Chandrayaan, since the incoming data is at 8.4 Mbps, we have organised ourselves well for transmitting the data. The data we receive from Chandrayaan at our SSDC will be redistributed [for which] we have put up really high-speed dedicated links [up to 16 Mbps depending upon the experiment and the location]. In addition to that, since some people did not want dedicated links because they wanted [their data] to be in the public domain, we have put up a high-speed internet link of 16 Mbps. These are all, I would say, first in our domain. ISTRAC has never handled so many high-speed links.

How will the operations be sequenced? Will it be that the normal ISTRAC network would track up to 1,00,000 km and then switch over to DSN?

That’s rightly perceived. Actually, the satellite will be first put into an orbit with an apogee of 22,800 km. This is quite close to Earth. Since ISTRAC has a fairly big network, all our stations commonly used in our IRS missions will be deployed. None of these stations has a big antenna but they are good enough for tracking up to 1,00,000 km without any problem. Once we cross the 1,00,000-km barrier, the big antenna will come in. Notwithstanding this [nominal procedure], since we are deploying the big antenna for the first time, we cannot be waiting till 1,00,000 km. So, for most part of the trajectory we will be tracking it with both DSN-18 and DSN-32, even earlier than 1,00,000 km. But beyond 1,00,000 km, we will be doing specifically by the mission-assured IDSN.

Are there any issues with regard to calibration that you need to do before you start your operations?

First, there are the standard test and evaluation procedures that we have in ISTRAC. Then we have tracked some of the LEO satellites like Cartosat and IRS-P4/Oceansat with the big antenna. But, of course, this does not satisfy anybody because you have to track something nearer to moon. Very recently, we have started tracking SELENE, the Japanese lunar orbiting satellite [launched in September 2007], thanks to cooperation from JAXA [the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency]. We have been able to track the satellite continuously with this antenna. That has given us ample confidence to say ‘Yes. Once Chandrayaan goes near the moon, we will be there to track it.’ To that extent, our comfort level is quite high because if you have tracked a similar object that is closer to moon and you have been able to establish links with good margins and all that, we don’t have to speak much about our ability to do [the same] with Chandrayaan. In addition, we are planning to track another deep space [cometary] probe ROSETTA [launched in 2004]. This was another opportunity that was created thanks to the European Space Agency.

That is one part of it. We have also tracked radio stars, which are quite good in S-band and X-band [the frequencies that will be used for TTC operations and science experiments respectively], like Cygnus, Cassiopeia, as well as Sun and Moon. This has given us ample experience in terms of pointing the beam on such a far off object, a major thing in my opinion. It also gives us ample scope for measurements because their movements are quite slow and we now know how to maximise our signals.

What are the critical technologies that had to be developed to establish this set-up?

The realisation of the entire antenna system itself was a big challenge because we were doing it for the first time. ISTRAC was responsible for building this. We chose ECIL [Electronics Corporation of India Ltd.] as the prime contractor who had the primary responsibility for the reflector and the mount of the antenna. In turn we worked with ECIL very closely. Along with that we chose BARC for antenna control servo system, the major subsystem. The RF design was entrusted to the ISRO Satellite Centre (ISAC). ISTRAC and ISAC together developed the feed system. These three are the heart of the whole system and these four agencies constituted the core team for executing the project. But that is not all because many subsystems had to be realised. So we went around scouting different industries in the country. We could identify sources with good capability within the country — L&T, Godrej & Boyce, SLN Technologies in Bangalore, HAL and many others. I think we had interface with 40 industries to do this work.
Last edited by SSridhar on 22 Oct 2008 08:47, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Chandrayan-1 mission launched succesfully

Postby Arun_S » 22 Oct 2008 08:37

Bharat Mata Ki Jai.

My "Abhinandan" to ISRO team.

The first thought that come to my mind as I read the news of successful launch of Chandrayan-1 is :
Where The Mind is Without Fear

Where the mind is without fear and the head is held high;
Where knowledge is free;
Where the world has not been broken up into fragments by narrow domestic walls;
Where words come out from the depth of truth;
Where tireless striving stretches its arms towards perfection;
Where the clear stream of reason has not lost its way into the dreary desert sand of dead habit;
Where the mind is led forward by thee into ever-widening thought and action--
Into that heaven of freedom, my Father, let my country awake.

-- Rabindranath Tagore

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Re: Chandrayan-1 mission launched succesfully

Postby Arun_S » 22 Oct 2008 08:43

India Shoots For The Moon In Asian Space Race

Sriharikota, India (AFP) Oct 21, 2008
India on Wednesday successfully launched its first lunar mission in a major boost for the country's space programme.

There were cheers in mission control as the unmanned lunar orbiting spacecraft Chandrayaan-1 was launched with an Indian-built rocket from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota on the southeastern coast.

Officials said the lift-off, which took place in cloudy skies at 6:22 am (0052 GMT), was a total success, with the rocket placing the craft into a transfer orbit around the globe within 19 minutes.

"This is an historic moment. We have begun our journey to the moon," said Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) chairman Madhavan Nair.

"It has been a remarkable performance by the launch vehicle," he said of the lift-off from the national space centre in the state of Andhra Pradesh and 80 kilometres (50 miles) north of Chennai.

"Every parameter of the mission performed" according to plan, he added.

ISRO is sending the Chandrayaan-1 on a two-year orbital mission to provide a detailed map of the mineral, chemical and topographical characteristics of the moon's surface.

The mission, which will also include the sending of a probe onto the lunar surface, will cost India 80 million dollars.

"Today what we have charted is a remarkable journey for an Indian spacecraft to go to the moon and try to unravel the mysteries of the Earth's closest celestial body and its only natural satellite," Nair said.

India is hoping the mission will boost its space programme into the same league as regional powerhouses Japan and China.

As well as looking to carve out a larger slice of the lucrative commercial satellite launch market, India, Japan and China also see their space programmes as an important symbol of their international stature and economic development.

The launch was carried live on most Indian television channels, although some critics have questioned the sense in spending so much money on space when hundreds of millions of Indians still live in dire poverty.

India started its space programme in 1963, developing its own satellites and launch vehicles to reduce dependence on overseas agencies.

It first staked its case for a share of the commercial launch market by sending an Italian satellite into orbit in April last year. In January, it launched an Israeli spy satellite in the face of Iranian protests.

But it still has a long way to go to catch up with China which, together with the United States, Russia and the European Space Agency, is already well established in the commercial launch sector.

Chinese officials have spoken of a manned mission to the moon in the future, after following the United States and the former Soviet Union last month by carrying out a space walk.

A more immediate goal is the establishment of an orbiting space lab, with Beijing's long-term ambition to develop a rival to the International Space Station, a joint project involving the United States, Russia, Japan, Canada and a clutch of European countries.

Japan has also been boosting its space programme and has set a goal of sending an astronaut to the moon by 2020.

Japan's first lunar probe, Kaguya, was successfully launched in September last year, releasing two baby satellites which will be used to study the gravity fields of the moon among other projects.

As well as the commercial ramifications, the development of a space race in Asia has security implications, with the potential for developing military applications such as intelligence gathering and space-based weapons.

Earlier this year, Japan scrapped a decades-old ban on the military use of space, hoping to remove any legal obstacles to building more advanced spy satellites.

South Korea, a late starter in the space race, has launched three commercial satellites since 1995 and launched its first military communications satellite in 2006.

For India, the 80-million-dollar mission puts the country on the inside track of a fast-developing Asian space race.

"It is a proud moment for us," said Science and Technology Minister Kapil Sibal.

As well as looking to carve out a larger slice of the lucrative commercial satellite launch market, India, Japan and China also see their space programmes as an important symbol of their international stature and economic development.

The Chandrayaan-1 is being sent on a two-year orbital mission to provide a detailed map of the mineral, chemical and topographical characteristics of the moon's surface.

"It's a landmark mission ... establishing India's credentials as a leader in space technology," said K. Kasturirangan, former chairman of the Indian Space Research Organisation.

"This effort and similar efforts in the coming years will put India in a unique position to be an active partner in major global efforts involving planetary exploration and exploitation," Kasturirangan told AFP.

India first staked its case for a share of the commercial launch market by sending an Italian satellite into orbit in April last year. In January, it launched an Israeli spy satellite in the face of Iranian protests.

But it still has a long way to go to catch up with China which, together with the United States, Russia and the European Space Agency, is already well established in the commercial launch sector.

Chinese officials have spoken of a manned mission to the moon in the future, after following the United States and the former Soviet Union last month by carrying out a space walk.

A more immediate goal is the establishment of an orbiting space lab, with Beijing's long-term ambition to develop a rival to the International Space Station, a joint project involving the United States, Russia, Japan, Canada and a clutch of European countries.

Japan has also been boosting its space programme and has set a goal of sending an astronaut to the moon by 2020.

Japan's first lunar probe, Kaguya, was successfully launched in September last year, releasing two baby satellites which will be used to study the gravity fields of the moon among other projects.

As well as the commercial ramifications, the development of a space race in Asia has security implications, with the potential for developing military applications such as intelligence gathering and space-based weapons.

Earlier this year, Japan scrapped a decades-old ban on the military use of space, hoping to remove any legal obstacles to building more advanced spy satellites.

South Korea, a late starter in the space race, has launched three commercial satellites since 1995 and launched its first military communications satellite in 2006.

India started its space programme in 1963, developing its own satellites and launch vehicles to reduce dependence on overseas agencies.

Chandrayaan-1, with a launch weight of about 1.3 tonnes, is shaped like a cuboid or rectangular prism and carries 11 payloads -- five from India and others from abroad.

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Re: Chandrayan-1 mission launched succesfully

Postby venkat_r » 22 Oct 2008 08:43

Great Job ISRO - Congrats to all.

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Re: Chandrayan-1 mission launched succesfully

Postby juvva » 22 Oct 2008 08:51

perfect guidance....did this flight have a Vikram processor on it?

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Re: Chandrayan-1 mission launched succesfully

Postby vavinash » 22 Oct 2008 08:52

Yes this was first PSLV launch with indigenous microprocessor.

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Re: Chandrayan-1 mission launched succesfully

Postby sum » 22 Oct 2008 08:53

Congrats ISRO...
Keep the Indian flag flying high at all times..

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Re: Chandrayan-1 mission launched succesfully

Postby RamaY » 22 Oct 2008 08:55

Congrats ISRO

MERA BHARAT MAHAAN

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Re: Chandrayan-1 mission launched succesfully

Postby nred » 22 Oct 2008 09:04

I am sure I wont get any love for this, but it has to be said:

What's the big deal? They have only completed the first stage. Most PSLVs have done this before, I reserve my kudos till they start orbiting the moon. And more kudos when the instrumentation performs as promised.

Nred.

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Re: Chandrayan-1 mission launched succesfully

Postby Pulikeshi » 22 Oct 2008 09:14

Congratulations ISRO and all scientists for a successful launch!
Today the moon, tomorrow the stars - Akasha Ganga here we come :mrgreen:

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Re: Chandrayan-1 mission launched succesfully

Postby vavinash » 22 Oct 2008 09:14

The big thing is this is the largest PSLV yet and it worked beautifully. ISRO has an excellent record on satellites and I wouldn't expect too much trouble with transfering chandrayaan-1 to moon orbit. But I agree we should now focus on the satellite and its maneuvers.

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Re: Chandrayan-1 mission launched succesfully

Postby Ashok Sarraff » 22 Oct 2008 09:26

This is indeed a huge huge achievement... congratulations ISRO and congratulations all nationalists on BRF!

-A

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Re: Chandrayan-1 mission launched succesfully

Postby SandeepA » 22 Oct 2008 09:37

I almost forgot today was the day when I checked CNN and what do I see there? Top news about India and this pic :) ..goose pimples..

Image

Congrats India!
Last edited by SandeepA on 22 Oct 2008 09:38, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Chandrayan-1 mission launched succesfully

Postby Jayram » 22 Oct 2008 09:37

Great Job. The timing could not be better - just in time for prime time coverage in massaland. I hope Chandrayan is carrying some of that famed low resoultion cameras to take more hi psyops photos of the Moon for transmission down to mother earth and splashed all over the internet.
--Jayram

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Re: Chandrayan-1 mission launched succesfully

Postby Prem » 22 Oct 2008 09:42

Badai ho Badai Moon journey ki sab ko
Mission ho successful, milenge laddoo sab ko.

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Re: Chandrayan-1 mission launched succesfully

Postby Singha » 22 Oct 2008 09:45

cloud launch created good psyops effect. hope ISRO had its cameramen handy.

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Re: Chandrayan-1 mission launched succesfully

Postby asbchakri » 22 Oct 2008 09:59

Congradulations to ISRO and all those great and humble scientists, who made India Proud today and brought smiles onto the faces and Pride in the Heartsof a Billion Indians. :D :D

Bharat Mata ki jai
Jai Hind

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Re: Chandrayan-1 mission launched succesfully

Postby JTull » 22 Oct 2008 10:05

Congrats to every Indian!

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Re: Chandrayan-1 mission launched succesfully

Postby SandeepA » 22 Oct 2008 10:09

India on its way for a Diwali date with Moon 8)

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Re: Chandrayan-1 mission launched succesfully

Postby Drevin » 22 Oct 2008 10:17

Yes, congratulations to the chandrayaan-1 team. Wishing them all the luck and god's favor till the end of the mission.

The Moon Impact Probe is the most important part of this project :?:

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Re: Chandrayan-1 mission launched succesfully

Postby ajay_hk » 22 Oct 2008 10:33

From Rediff..

Image

Congrats and kudos to everyone involved... A proud moment for each and every Indian. Jai Hind.

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Re: Chandrayan-1 mission launched succesfully

Postby vavinash » 22 Oct 2008 10:39

Why does the graphic show GSLV Mk-2

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Re: Chandrayan-1 mission launched succesfully

Postby Murugan » 22 Oct 2008 10:55

Does anyone have and share the information on the following:

1) Date and times of major events on the journey of Chandrayan to moon

2) At what time and date critical maneuvers will take place

3) what is the significance of different orbits and later change of trajectory to achieve the final orbit of 100 kms

4) details of impactor probe

thanx in advance

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Re: Chandrayan-1 mission launched succesfully

Postby Kakarat » 22 Oct 2008 11:19

Murugan wrote:Does anyone have and share the information on the following:

1) Date and times of major events on the journey of Chandrayan to moon

2) At what time and date critical maneuvers will take place

3) what is the significance of different orbits and later change of trajectory to achieve the final orbit of 100 kms

4) details of impactor probe

thanx in advance


A Glimpse of CHANDRAYAAN-1 : India's First Mission to Moon

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Re: Chandrayan-1 mission launched succesfully

Postby Singha » 22 Oct 2008 11:36

how does our payload compare to chipanda one?

Chang'e 1 has spectrometers to map the chemical composition of the Moon's surface, a laser altimeter to map the Moon's topography and a camera to photograph the surface.

Depth probe

It also boasts a radiometer that operates at microwave frequencies. The microwave radiometer will measure heat radiation coming from the Moon. This will allow it to map the depth of the lunar soil across the Moon's surface because the layer's thickness affects the flow of heat.

These measurements may also shed light on the proportion of radioactive elements like uranium and thorium inside the Moon, since their decay produces heat and should increase the amount of heat radiated by the Moon, says Paul Spudis of the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, Maryland, US, who is developing radar instruments to fly on LRO and Chandrayaan-1.

The amount of these elements would give clues to the Moon's origins, he says, since different formation scenarios lead to different compositions.

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Re: Chandrayan-1 mission launched succesfully

Postby Philip » 22 Oct 2008 11:39

Gratters to all involved.A glorious launch! Divali sweets in advance needed.Here's a foreign media report full of plaudits for India's grand achievement.

In the article,the ISRO is llooking for a suitable name for our desi "cosmo/asrto naut."Gaganaut" is pne proposal.Could there be something better?We could have our own little competition and send the result to ISRO.


http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/w ... =12&page=2

Destination Moon: historic day as India launches first space mission

The Indian spacecraft Chandrayaan-1 launches into space
Jeremy Page in Delhi

India launched its first unmanned mission to the Moon, Chandrayaan-1, this morning in a bid to close the gap with China in what is shaping up as a 21st Asian version of the Space Race between the United States and the Soviet Union.

An Indian-made rocket carrying Chandrayaan – which means Moon Vehicle in Sanskrit – blasted off at 6.20am local time from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre on Sriharikota island in the south-eastern state of Andhra Pradesh.

"Lift off is normal," said a crackly voice from mission control as the rocket streaked into the dawn sky and promptly disappeared into the thick clouds over the Bay of Bengal.

Hundreds of Indian scientists monitoring the launch cheered, clapped and hugged each other, as hundreds of millions more Indians watched live television coverage of the historic event from their homes.

The spacecraft separated from the rocket about 15 minutes later and began circling the Earth in preparation for its journey on to the Moon, which it will orbit for two years, compiling a 3-D atlas and searching for water and mineral deposits.

"This is a historic moment for India," G. Madhavan Nair, the chairman of the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), told a brief news conference moments later.

"We've started our journey to the moon and and the first leg of the journey has gone remarkably well," he said.

"What we have started is a remarkable journey.. to unravel the mysteries of the Moon."

ISRO, which is India’s equivalent of NASA, has built and launched dozens of rockets and satellites since it was founded in 1969, but has never before tried to send an object beyond the Earth’s orbit.

If it succeeds, it will boost India’s international status by placing it alongside the United States, Russia, Japan and China as the only countries capable of independently reaching the Moon.

It will also intensify a 21st Century race to the Moon between Asia’s major powers, as India, China and Japan all have plans to launch further unmanned lunar probes and to land a man on the Moon by 2025.

"When you ask any of those agencies, they always deny there is any race," Pallava Bagla, the author of Destination Moon, a history of ISRO, told The Times.

"But subliminally, there is an issue of national prestige," he said. "This is a significant milestone for India and for its space programme. It has the dreams of a billion people behind it."

After leaving Earth's orbit, Chandrayaan will take several days to cross 240,000 miles of space before reaching its final position, about 60 miles above the surface of the Moon.

First, it will fire a Moon Impactor Probe, carrying an Indian flag, down to the Moon’s surface, recording images all the way, in an experiment designed to help future lunar landings.

It will then orbit the Moon for two years, using high-resolution remote sensing to compile, for the first time, a three-dimensional map of its surface.

India takes on China in Asian space race

Indians reach for the Sanskrit to give their own astronaut a name

The best existing maps of the Moon were drawn up by the United States' Apollo missions 40 years ago, and do not cover the Moon's dark side or its poles.

Chandrayaan will also analyse the Moon's mineral composition, searching in particular for water and Helium 3 -- a potential energy source that is rare on Earth -- to see if it could sustain human life.

Chandrayaan is carrying a total of 11 instruments -- five from ISRO and six from foreign agencies, including NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA).

ISRO is footing the entire 46 million pound bill for the mission, but will have access to all data from the experiments in an unprecedented example of international cooperation in space.

"A poor country like India used to rely on rich countries for its space programme," said Mr Bagla. "Now it is giving them a free ride. The tables have really been turned with this mission."

The mission also marks a strategic shift for ISRO, which had previously focused on cheap projects with direct social and industrial applications such as telecommunications satellites.

The government has already approved a second unmanned lunar mission – Chandrayaan 2 – which aims to land a rover on the Moon by 2010-2012.

ISRO also aims to put its first Indian astronaut into orbit by 2014-2016, and has announced plans to land a man on the Moon by 2020.

India’s sudden interest in the Moon is seen partly as a reaction to China’s space programme, which has achieved a series of breakthroughs in recent years.

China put its first astronaut in space in 2003, shot down a satellite and launched a lunar orbiter in 2007, and conducted the first space walk by a Chinese astronaut last month. It now plans to land a man on the Moon by 2024.

Japan has also responded by reactivating its lunar programme, sending an unmanned mission to orbit the Moon last year and planning another to land on it next year.

ISRO officials insist they are not in a race with anyone, but many Indian officials are growing wary about the potential military applications of China’s space technology.

"India and China have a kind of unspoken rivalry as the leading powers of continental Asia," said Bates Gill, Director of the Stockholm Peace Research Institute.

"There’s something of a race mentality here."

PS:We're going "gaga" over finding the right name for our desi "...naut"!

Russia has its cosmonauts, America its astronauts and China, since 2003, its “taikonauts”. Could “gaganauts” be next?

India is searching for a Sanskrit-based word for a spaceman as its top scientists draw up plans for the country’s first manned mission into the cosmos.

The Indian Space Research Organisation (Isro), its equivalent of Nasa, said yesterday that it would be ready to send a man into orbit by 2014 and to the Moon by 2020 — four years earlier than China.

The organisation’s experts are due to discuss their options with other scientists at a meeting next week, according to S. Krishnamurthy, the director of information for Isro.

“After this meeting we’ll propose something to the Government,” he said. “It will take six to seven years before we can send anyone around the Earth’s orbit. After that, we’ll look into sending an Indian to the Moon.”

If the Government approves the plan India would stand to become the fourth country to launch a manned space mission after the Soviet Union, the United States and China.

It would be a milestone in India’s quest to become a leading world power and to counterbalance China’s economic and military influence in Asia.

China put its first man into space in 2003 — dubbed a taikonaut after taikong, the Mandarin word for space — and said this year that it aimed to complete a manned lunar landing by 2024.

By comparison, India’s space programme has progressed slowly since its inception in 1962. In July it suffered a big setback when the first commercial communications satellite to be built and launched in India burst into flames and crashed into the Bay of Bengal.

But Isro said that it was a one-off, citing 11 previous successful launches, and has set itself a series of ambitious targets for the next few years.

In December or January, its polar satellite launch vehicle is due to place in orbit a recoverable satellite as part of an experiment to perfect re-entry into the atmosphere. It is scheduled to launch India’s first unmanned mission, Chandrayaan-1, to the Moon, in the first half of 2008.

G. Madhavan Nair, the chairman of Isro, gave a slide presentation on plans for a manned space mission in front of Manmohan Singh, the Indian Prime Minister, last month.

Unlike its Chinese counterpart, the Indian organisation has also promised to consult the public before going ahead with a project that would cost about 100 billion rupees (£1.2 billion).

Critics say that the Government should spend the money on alleviating the crushing poverty that afflicts more than a quarter of the population of 1.1 billion.

“The idea is to have a national debate on whether it’s a good idea,” said Mr Krishnamurthy.

“We’re not going to do something just because others have. But if we don’t do it now, after 30 years we might be left behind.”

To help to capture the public’s imagination, Isro is planning to consult Sanskrit scholars on a suitable name for the first Indian in space.

Antarikshyatri is the closest Sanskrit translation of astronaut, according to Chaudury Upender Rao, a Sanskrit expert at Jawaharlal Nehru University.But “antariksh-onaut” does not exactly roll off the tongue. So scholars say that “gaganaut” — from gagan, the Sanskrit word for sky — is the more likely choice.

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Re: Chandrayan-1 mission launched succesfully

Postby derkonig » 22 Oct 2008 11:40

ArrahHuAkbal...
Onward ho to Chandrayaan-2 & beyond...

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Re: Chandrayan-1 mission launched succesfully

Postby rsingh » 22 Oct 2008 11:53

Great day. I liked how Shri Madhvan Nair handled this whole affair. Entered the control room just 10 min before launch. Whole staff stood up to welcome. Stayed there for 15 min. During this time looking at the screens only for moments. So much confidence :twisted:. When everything was ok, just stood up and gave shabashi. No final moment nail-biting (a la NASA). More then scientist, he is natural born leader, guiding others without a hint of tension on face. May he live long.


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Re: Chandrayan-1 mission launched succesfully

Postby Prasad » 22 Oct 2008 12:16

Was awesome seeing the rocket motors igniting and the launch vehicle roaring off into the sky at awesome pace! Great work by ISRO and everyone else invovled ! :D

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Re: Chandrayan-1 mission launched succesfully

Postby ashish raval » 22 Oct 2008 12:20

Heartiest congratulations to all the unsung heroes of India who has made this such a success. Great work ISRO. Jai Hind.

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Re: Chandrayan-1 mission launched succesfully

Postby amit » 22 Oct 2008 12:34

Really liked the heading for this report: :D

NASA Returns to the Moon as Indian Spacecraft Stowaway

Some good pictures there also.

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Re: Chandrayan-1 mission launched succesfully

Postby amit » 22 Oct 2008 12:54

Apologies if already posted but a great write up on Indian and Chinese space programmes in The Space Review here.

According to Kasturirangan, India can now predict with 90% accuracy the national crop output one month before harvest. For a country that in its past frequently faced starvation and malnutrition, this is a vital resource. He noted that in 1978 Indian remote sensing satellites could achieve one kilometer resolution; today they can achieve one meter resolution.


For instance, he said that while the Americans have concluded that the Chinese DF-5 ICBM is a two-stage missile, his group has concluded that it is actually a three-stage missile. His research also disagrees with the American assessment of China’s newer DF-31 ICBM.


Kasturirangan said that ISRO has not yet made a decision concerning launch vehicles, but is considering a 2.5-stage rocket for carrying a manned spacecraft into orbit. ISRO is studying two possibilities, the current Geostationary Launch Vehicle (or GSLV), which has flown successfully several times, or the planned GSLV Mark 3, which is scheduled for first launch in 2010. The Mark 3 will be more capable, but as of yet it is only a paper vehicle and therefore higher risk.


About the Chinese programme:

The panel discussion had the rather awkward title of Pandas in Orbit {now this sounds like a BRF coined phrase!}. Heritage is a conservative think tank, but none of the speakers were particularly ideological, although they did not reflect viewpoints recently expressed by some other speakers (for instance, Joan Johnson-Freese and Theresa Hitchens) calling for more cooperative engagement with China.


It is this latter point that often gets ignored in the West. The PRC uses space as a diplomatic tool, Cheng noted, citing several recent examples including satellite sales to Venezuela and Nigeria, the sharing of satellite data, and China’s membership in the Asia Pacific Space Cooperation Organization. Potential future efforts include offering insurance for space missions and training foreign astronauts.


Cheng said that more recent wars have continued to shape China’s view of space and in recent years the PLA has begun to shift from a view of space as a source of information to a “key battleground in its own right.” He cited the example of the PLA Encyclopedia, which in 1997 downplayed the importance of space, but by 2002 rated it as a vital battleground.


If China decides to send humans to the Moon, its current most likely method will be to use the Long March 5 booster. First announced in 2001, it is projected to launch in 2014 after numerous schedule slips. Designed to launch heavy geosynchronous communications satellites, it could place 25 metric tons (55,000 pounds) into low Earth orbit or 14 metric tons (31,000 pounds) into a geosynchronous transfer orbit.


Pace mentioned that a 2008 paper titled “Research on the Technical Approach of Manned Lunar Mission” (in Chinese) was prepared by Long Lehao, of the Chinese Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology, and Rong Yi, of the Beijing Institute of Space System Engineering. They identified four different approaches to the Moon, most of which require multiple launches of Long March 5 boosters. Two of the methods would require three launches.


Cheng also added that when the People’s Liberation Army was ordered earlier this decade to divest itself of its various commercial holdings such as casinos—part of a plan to “professionalize” the Chinese military—one industry that they did maintain control of was communications satellite manufacturing, which they viewed as vital to their military mission.


But according to the presentation at Glasgow, China now has a preliminary plan to launch a target craft around 2011, with an “unmanned spaceship” and a Shenzhou to be launched to conduct a rendezvous and docking test. It is unclear from the presentation if this refers to three vehicles—only one manned—or two. If it refers to three vehicles, then the Chinese may be planning on practicing launching an unmanned “core” vehicle that would be joined by a Shenzhou and could be resupplied with a cargo ship, similar to Russian experience with the Salyut and later Mir space station programs.


According to the Glasgow presentation, China would develop a “manned space station” by 2020 “to solve the problem of larger scale space application with manned long-term presence in space.” This is all part of a “three-stage” strategy. Although not fully explained, presumably the first stage was the development of Shenzhou up to the most recent mission. The second stage will consist of the rendezvous and docking with a small space station vehicle and multiple missions extending through at least the first half of next decade. And the third stage will involve developing the “multi-module space station.” Once China has achieved that by the end of the next decade, “China will move to the broad area of the LEO orbit and far beyond.”

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Re: Chandrayan-1 mission launched succesfully

Postby sbangera » 22 Oct 2008 13:13

This is indeed a proud day for a Indian.

Hearty congratulations to ISRO.

JAI HIND.

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Re: Chandrayan-1 mission launched succesfully

Postby Kakarat » 22 Oct 2008 13:14

Chandrayaan-2 likely next year end or 2010: ISRO

PTI
Wednesday, October 22nd, 2008 AT 1:10 PM
Tags: space
Close...

SRIHARIKOTA: After the successful launch of India’s first unmanned mission to moon, Chandrayaan-1, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is planning to send its second lunar odyssey, Chandrayaan-2, an Indo-Russian joint venture, likely by the end of next year or early 2010.

The work on this project would be taken up after Chandrayaan-1 starts its task of researching the moon, ISRO Chairman G Madhavan Nair told reporters here after the PSLV-C11 launched the spacecraft.

“One of the two GSLV missions next year could carry Chandrayaan-2,” he said.

The team behind the success of the first mission would work on Chandrayaan-2 also, he added.

However, the composition of the instruments for Chandrayaan-2 would be decided after studying the data received from the first mission, he said.

The second mission, for which the ISRO and Russian federal space agency have already signed a pact, would feature a lander and a rover for a soft land on moon.

“However, there would be a provision for accommodating payloads from other space agencies as is the case of Chandrayaan 1,” Nair said.
In addition to India’s five payloads, Chandrayaan-1 is carrying scientific instruments of the European Space Agency, Bulgaria and the USA.

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Re: Chandrayan-1 mission launched succesfully

Postby narayana » 22 Oct 2008 13:27

rsingh wrote:Great day. I liked how Shri Madhvan Nair handled this whole affair. Entered the control room just 10 min before launch. Whole staff stood up to welcome. Stayed there for 15 min. During this time looking at the screens only for moments. So much confidence :twisted:. When everything was ok, just stood up and gave shabashi. No final moment nail-biting (a la NASA). More then scientist, he is natural born leader, guiding others without a hint of tension on face. May he live long.


Yep,there was not much jumping in joy or jubilation,but just cool clapping and congratulating each other and some hugging,with that lukewarm response i was worried for a few seconds thinking everything was not normal,but then Realized that it was the sheer confidence in themselves and in the success of the launch.:)

Great Job!!!!!Moment of Pride for Every INDIAN

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Re: Chandrayan-1 mission launched succesfully

Postby narayana » 22 Oct 2008 13:39

India's manned moon mission by 2015: ISRO

DDM again,News Header says Manned Moon Mission By 2015,Mr.Madhavan Nair was only Talking about manned Space Misson,sending Indians into Space by 2015.

I was very surprised by seeing the heading first,even Unkil plans a Manned Moon Mission Not before 2020.

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Re: Chandrayan-1 mission launched succesfully

Postby mandrake » 22 Oct 2008 14:40

Congratulations to ISRO and India and the men and women behind who made all this possible and a grand success. Looking forward to other such manned/unmanned missions from India to Moon, Mars and beyond.

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Re: Chandrayan-1 mission launched succesfully

Postby Arunkumar » 22 Oct 2008 14:41

Congratulations ISRO...........liked the sight of the long bright trail
piercing thru the clouds........awesome sight.........

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Re: Chandrayan-1 mission launched succesfully

Postby SSridhar » 22 Oct 2008 14:55

Chandrayaan-I opening up new frontiers between ISRO & NASA

"American cooperation in India's first unmanned lunar mission Chandrayan 1 marks the beginning of a new era or trust and partnership between the two countries in the field of space science," said Ambassador Arun Kumar Singh, the new Deputy Chief of the Indian Mission in Washington DC.

"The inclusion of two US instruments on this spacecraft has provided further fillip to Indo-US cooperation in the space arena that dates back to the very beginning of the Indian space programme. The very first sounding rocket, a Nike Apache was launched from Thumba on November 21, 1963," Singh added.


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