Singha wrote:the british-germans may have done some R&D together perhaps? or one stole / cloned from the other but U212, Astute SSN and vanguard SSBN feature the same look.
Hmm not possible , Submarine technology specially Nuke submarine technology are jealously guarded by each country , even munna and khan do not share much in those area. Most countries have their own unique design based on their own R&D in those areas.
The Germans have their own unique sub design and can be attributed to their own R&D.
Yes Astute do have some attribute of Vanguard but the next gen of SSBN from Brits 3 such have been planned will derive greatly from Astute design to save on R&D cost associated with new SSBN design , hence the next gen of SSBN will have much more similarity to Astute design.
There are sub conference held time to time where informal exchange of ideas within Naval submarine communities take place. IMO the Vanguard and Borei design stand apart from the crowd.
the american sphere shape may not be the last word
American sub is as much about hype as about substance , a Russian Admiral was quoted as saying that facing British Submarine was much difficult challenge then American ones.