Indian Missiles and Munitions Discussion

vivek_ahuja
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Re: Indian Missiles and Munitions Discussion

Postby vivek_ahuja » 20 Feb 2014 07:47

Singha wrote:with none of our FOCed strategic missiles being cansister launched so far...they need to do multiple launches in driving monsoon storm, high winds and downpour...thats a must.

night is no real diff from day imo...except that wind and EM conditions in upper atmosphere might differ due to no sun.


India: Capable of launching massively disproportionate nuclear retaliation...but only on a bright blue, sunny sky. :mrgreen:

But rest easy, my friend: the canisters are coming! :twisted:

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Re: Indian Missiles and Munitions Discussion

Postby vivek_ahuja » 20 Feb 2014 07:52

Jokes aside, this launch failure needs to be investigated if it was supposed to be a routine operational flight. It should be followed up by a flurry of valid launches to recover any lost confidence in short order. Whether that happens is anybody's guess, of course.

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Re: Indian Missiles and Munitions Discussion

Postby Austin » 21 Feb 2014 11:26

Singha wrote:with none of our FOCed strategic missiles being cansister launched so far...they need to do multiple launches in driving monsoon storm, high winds and downpour...thats a must.

night is no real diff from day imo...except that wind and EM conditions in upper atmosphere might differ due to no sun.


No one in the world AFAIK does test during bad weather conditions .....one reason could be it telemetry and tracking radar would be affected by bad weathers , the missile may or may not be affected by weather conditions ...worst it may end up falling on your own territory for millions of other reasons linked to weather.

So in a way the tests cancelled is just SOP

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Re: Indian Missiles and Munitions Discussion

Postby Singha » 21 Feb 2014 11:46

We fire it over the sea. This is supposed to be user trial. Surely users need the famous Arjun summer n winter trial conditions to be sure it will work.

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Re: Indian Missiles and Munitions Discussion

Postby Yogi_G » 21 Feb 2014 11:51

I think there is more to it than just a launcher problem. This must be some new tech being tested under the guise of a routine missile firing. There must have been some glitch in this new tech which would have required going back to the lab. The secrecy of this new tech must be important enough for the govt not to mind sending across a signal to the outside world of the launch platforms not having 100% redundancy and backup.

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Re: Indian Missiles and Munitions Discussion

Postby Austin » 21 Feb 2014 12:27

Singha wrote:We fire it over the sea. This is supposed to be user trial. Surely users need the famous Arjun summer n winter trial conditions to be sure it will work.


Its similar to asking why dont army conducts exercise in bad weather and IAF flies their aircraft when there is storm surely they are suppose to be fighting fit for all times isnt it ?

I guess the simple answer is they dont want to take the risk ......and thats not limited to our military.

Also the fact that our Missiles and Tanks works in All Weathers misses the astericks that says Conditions Apply.....there is lot of hyperbole in that statement.

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Re: Indian Missiles and Munitions Discussion

Postby Aditya_V » 21 Feb 2014 12:31

The main Disappointments of Feb 2014

1. No Nirbhay test
2. No Atsra test from Su-30 MKI
3. No ABM Test
4. No B-05 test from INS Arihant
5. No Canister launch of Agni V
6. No night launch of Agni I

Just part of a simple Jingo's wishlist here in BRF :oops:

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Re: Indian Missiles and Munitions Discussion

Postby dinesha » 21 Feb 2014 12:33

What went wrong with the Agni-I missile night test?
http://www.newindianexpress.com/states/ ... 069098.ece

Postponement of first night trial of nuke capable ballistic missile
Agni-I following technical snags in the system raised eyebrows of
many. Defence experts pointed fingers at the faults in the inertial
navigation system (INS).
After an abortive mission on Tuesday, the 700-km range missile
was ready for the test from Wheeler Island off the Odisha coast on
Wednesday evening. But the officials of the strategic forces
command (SFC) were forced to put off the test for indefinite period
reportedly due to some technical glitches in the missile system.
The test was considered ‘very crucial’ as it was supposed to give
a technical push to the country’s defence programme and prove
the capability of launching the missile from any terrain anytime.
Defence sources said the snag was detected a few seconds prior
to the take off. “The countdown was going on smoothly, but the
system shut down 18 seconds prior to take off,” said an official.
DRDO and Army authorities, however, declined to divulge the
details about postponing the mission. “The test was deferred due
to a technical snag. Work is on to rectify it and hopefully the test
will be conducted soon,” an official told this paper on condition of
anonymity.

Defence experts claimed the missile system developed snags
whenever an Indian INS was used on it. “It flies well with the
Russian INS, but the Army has been insisting DRDO to use the
Indian system and prove its reliability,” they said.

However, it was not for the first time that the faults were detected
in Agni missile. On August 29, 2011 defence authorities had to put
off a user trial of 2000-km range surface-to-surface ballistic
missile Agni-II for an indefinite period.
Defence experts have criticised the DRDO for the recurring
failures. They said the faults are chronic and the scientists seem
to have failed to rectify it permanently. “If the missile behaves like
this during user trials, what will happen during the time of crisis?
Can we afford to hold the country into ransom security-wise?”
Agni-I missile, which has a length of 15 meters, a diameter of one
meter and weight 12 tonnes, can carry a payload of around 1000
kg. This missile has been developed by the Advanced Systems
Laboratory (ASL) and some other DRDO laboratories.

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Re: Indian Missiles and Munitions Discussion

Postby SaiK » 21 Feb 2014 13:34

if the mission did not take off the ground, how can the fault be with INS?

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Re: Indian Missiles and Munitions Discussion

Postby Lalmohan » 21 Feb 2014 13:35

the INS needs to know where it is before the missile takes off

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Re: Indian Missiles and Munitions Discussion

Postby Yogi_G » 21 Feb 2014 13:37

SaiK wrote:if the mission did not take off the ground, how can the fault be with INS?


Its mentioned that the missile computer stopped the launch sequence. So a systems check before launch would have returned an incorrect response from the INS system. IIRC, either a GSLV or a PSLV system in the past shut down by itself before a launch during systems check.

Not that I believe in this story anyway. I wonder what new tech is being tested.

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Re: Indian Missiles and Munitions Discussion

Postby sudhan » 21 Feb 2014 13:55

Has not the Indian made INS been flight test successfully many times on the Agnis 3, 4 and 5? Or does the author want to point out that the existing guidance package been replaced with a newer one which also includes the indian INS??

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Re: Indian Missiles and Munitions Discussion

Postby Singha » 21 Feb 2014 14:06

even fighter jets & commercial planes have a INS, allegedly it took some few mins in mid-80s jaguars for that system to be powered up and reach steady state. might be faster now.

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Re: Indian Missiles and Munitions Discussion

Postby member_20317 » 21 Feb 2014 14:15

wow! that comment is going to be abused a lot in future.

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Re: Indian Missiles and Munitions Discussion

Postby SSridhar » 21 Feb 2014 16:37

India test fires Akash - Economic Times
India today test-fired the indigenously developed surface-to-air Akash missile from the Integrated Test Range launch complex at Chandipur near here.

The missile targeted a floating object supported by Pilot Less Target Aircraft (PTA) 'Lakshya', defence officials said.

"Akash was test fired from launch complex-3 at 11.22 AM," a defence official said, adding that "some more trials would be conducted within the next couple of days".

"During the trial, the missile was aimed at intercepting a floating object supported by a pilot-less target aircraft, flown from launch complex-II, at a definite altitude over the sea," according to a source.

Akash is a medium range surface-to-air anti-aircraft defence system developed by the DRDO as part of the Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme.

It has a strike range of 25 km and can carry a warhead of 60 kgs. It has the capability to target aircraft up to 30 km away and is packed with a battery that can track and attack several targets simultaneously, they said.

With the capability to neutralise aerial targets like fighter jets, cruise missiles, air-to-surface missiles etc, defence experts compare Akash to the American MIM-104 Patriot surface-to-air missile system.

The last trial was conducted on June 6, 2012 from the same base.

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Re: Indian Missiles and Munitions Discussion

Postby abhik » 21 Feb 2014 18:48

Lalmohan wrote:the INS needs to know where it is before the missile takes off

In that case, I would suppose the Launcher INS(or what ever system does the job) should have malfunctioned rather than the one in the missile. Unless they are the same.

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Re: Indian Missiles and Munitions Discussion

Postby veerav » 21 Feb 2014 18:57

Is it an attempt to calibrate INS with GAGAN?

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Re: Indian Missiles and Munitions Discussion

Postby ramana » 21 Feb 2014 20:26

The fact that the system checkout computer stopped the launch at T-18 is good news.

Most test vehicle failures are due to electrical glitches which are smaller than faults. Most likelt a connector pin short or lack of engagement.
Dont know why the reporter is writing in a negative tone.

Day or night trial does not matter except gives good optics at night launch.

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Re: Indian Missiles and Munitions Discussion

Postby SaiK » 21 Feb 2014 20:37

abhik wrote:
Lalmohan wrote:the INS needs to know where it is before the missile takes off

In that case, I would suppose the Launcher INS(or what ever system does the job) should have malfunctioned rather than the one in the missile. Unless they are the same.

after all it is dead reckoning! so it should be very minor technical speak... and we have no idea if the complain came earlier while it was on flight. perhaps the russkies reset/take current position as init etc.

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Re: Indian Missiles and Munitions Discussion

Postby PratikDas » 21 Feb 2014 22:45

dinesha wrote: What went wrong with the Agni-I missile night test?
http://www.newindianexpress.com/states/ ... 069098.ece


Defence experts claimed the missile system developed snags
whenever an Indian INS was used on it. “It flies well with the
Russian INS, but the Army has been insisting DRDO to use the
Indian system and prove its reliability,” they said.


This is a reckless statement, perhaps a gross generalisation, and not grounded in reality.

Indigenous technologies played a big role

T. S. SUBRAMANIAN
Y. MALLIKARJUN
Updated: November 15, 2011 23:53 IST

In the successful flight of Agni-IV on Tuesday, what stands out is the flawless performance of a range of new indigenous technologies developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), and according to technologists in the organisation, they represent a quantum jump in the nation's missile technology prowess.The triumph caps three successful flights of Shourya, Prithvi and Agni-II missiles conducted in September last week and has boosted the DRDO's confidence to go in for the Agni-V's maiden flight in a couple of months.

V.K. Saraswat, Scientific Adviser to the Defence Minister, said, “The technologies proven in this mission will give us the necessary confidence to go in for the Agni-V launch [with a range of 5,000 km] in a couple of months.” The DRDO did not use any satellite during Agni-IV's flight. Agni-IV, earlier named Agni-II Prime, flew more than 3,000 km on Tuesday from the Wheeler Island, off the Odisha coast.

The spectrum of new technologies incorporated in the Agni-IV mission included fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) or composite casing for the second stage, ring-laser gyros for inertial navigation system (RINS), micro-navigation system (MINGS) as redundancy to improve the vehicle's reliability, a powerful onboard computer system, a multi-channel communication system and advanced avionics. The FRP reduced the missile's weight, enabling it to carry more propellants and to have a better range than Agni-II's 2,000 km.

Dr. Saraswat praised Gundra Satheesh Reddy, Associate Director, Research Centre, Imarat (RCI), Hyderabad, and his team for developing the RINS, MINGS and onboard avionics, all of which made it “a fantastic flight.”

“Today, we have a missile which is lighter in weight, highly accelerating, manoeuvrable and unmatched. This missile incorporated the type of redundancies seen in manned missions, providing for robustness and reliability,” Dr. Saraswat said.

The other important technologies that contributed to the Agni-IV's success were better stage separation systems, efficient propulsion, high-energy solid propellants and powerful batteries.

Avinash Chander, Chief Controller (Missiles and Strategic Systems), DRDO, and V.G. Sekaran, Director, Advanced Systems Laboratory, Hyderabad, were sure that the new technologies contributed to the Agni-IV's triumph. The missile was road-mobile (it can be launched from a specially designed truck), “which is state-of-the-art for this class of missile,” they said.

The Agni-IV Project Director was Tessy Thomas.

Dr. Saraswat attacked the technology denial regimes that worked against the DRDO developing these technologies. He said, “All the technology denial regimes that worked against the development of these systems were combated by the DRDO by its developing new materials, composite casting for second stage, the RINS and high-speed processing system for the guidance. The terminal accuracy achieved shows the DRDO's strength in the development of long-range missiles. The mission demonstrates that the Indian missile technologists are in a position to handle technologically and managerially complex missions. India has come of age and developed world-class technologies. Technology-denial regimes cannot deter a motivated country like India to achieve self-reliance.”

Mr. Reddy said the indigenous RINS and MINGS, complementing each other in a redundant mode, were proven in this flight. “We used a powerful onboard computer system with distributed avionics structure and a multi-channel, highly reliable communication system, which controlled and guided the missile accurately to the target.”

RELIABILITY

Dr. Sekaran said the new navigation system was basically software-intensive with a lot of built-in logic and redundancy, which provided the missile's reliability. “These are state-of-the-art systems and some of these new technologies will go into India's new missile systems, including the making of Agni-V.”

Dr. Sekaran called Agni-IV “a good, user-friendly weapon for the Army.” For, it could be integrated quickly and transported on road. In Mr. Chander's assessment, the new technologies would lead to freedom of operation for the Army.

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Re: Indian Missiles and Munitions Discussion

Postby jamwal » 22 Feb 2014 01:07

Prior notification for a cruise missile test is not necessary. For all that we know, a few flights of Nirbhay might have happened already.
Not that I really believe it myself.

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Re: Indian Missiles and Munitions Discussion

Postby Karan M » 22 Feb 2014 02:11

Rout's reports all have an element of fantastical BS. Pray let him inform us which missiles use any imported Russian INS?
Even Brahmos uses an Indian INS.

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Re: Indian Missiles and Munitions Discussion

Postby NRao » 22 Feb 2014 08:27

BrahMos Prepares Reduced-Weight Missile For Export

Image
Credit: AWST

February 17, 2014

BrahMos Aerospace sees a big future for its projects, both in terms of sales to India and in exports—including the reduced-weight supersonic missile that is still in development.

“Our orders exceed $6 billion. Over the past 15 years, we have achieved a level no other company has been able to achieve throughout the history of Russian-Indian relations,” says CEO Sivathanu Pillai. “In addition, we are expecting an increase in orders over the next 10 years. We are working on different projects together with Russia.”

To read the full article, log in to the Aviation Week Intelligence Network.

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Re: Indian Missiles and Munitions Discussion

Postby dinesha » 22 Feb 2014 11:53

India's ballistic missiles capable of destroying major Chinese cities
WantChinaTimes
http://www.wantchinatimes.com/news-subc ... 3&cid=1101
India's ballistic missiles capable of destroying China's cities
Staff Reporter 2014-02-21 11:23 (GMT+8)

India's new Agni-V intercontinental ballistic missile and the INS Arihant nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine are capable of destroying major Chinese cities if war should break out between the two nations, reports the Moscow-based Voice of Russia on Feb. 18.

The state-run Defence Research and Development Organisation of India announced on early February that the Agni-V and the Arihant are expected to be commissioned in 2015.

In terms of China's capability, the PLA's DF-15 short-range ballistic missile deployed to the Tibetan border can reach most parts of India, and the entire nation is within the range of the DF-21 medium-range missile and H-6K strategic bomber.

The Agni-V and Arihant are designed to give India first-strike capability against China. With a range of 5,000 kilometers, the Agni-V is designed to be able to strike Beijing and other major cities in northeastern China. To reach major coastal cities in eastern and southern China such as Shanghai and Guangzhou, the shorter-range K-15 Sagarika submarine-launched ballistic missile with a range of 700-750 kilometers and capable of carrying a 1-tonne warhead, can be launched from the Arihant.

In the event of open hostilities, the PLA could deploy its submarines near the Indian naval bases which are potential home ports for the Arihant or its sister ships according to the website of People's Daily.

People's Daily suggested that if necessary the PLA Navy could openly patrol the Indian Ocean with its Type 052 destroyers equipped with cruise missiles. If China is ultimately able to send a carrier battle group to the region, carrier-based fighters can also launch air strikes with precision-guided munitions against strategic targets in southern India along with cruise missiles
.

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Re: Indian Missiles and Munitions Discussion

Postby Brando » 22 Feb 2014 15:51

^^ Another Johnny-come-lately "analysis" from China. Just goes to show how badly the Chinese under-estimate and are ill informed about Indian military capabilities.

Agni 5 and Arihant are openly disclosed capabilities. The delusion that somehow Chinese diesel electric or even their noisy nuclear boats can harass submarines 2000 kms away from their home ports in South India is delusional. Just as delusional as their fantasy of intimidating the Indian navy with their "cruise-missile" Type 52 destroyers, with their harpoon and Klub rip-offs. I guess they expect the Indian Navy to sit on their hands and polish the Brahmos missiles while the Chinese walk up to Vizag unchallenged .

Anyway, this "cruise-missile" confidence the Chinese have clearly establishes the need for advancing the Nirbhay and SLCM programs in India. Without a cheap and versatile long range "death stick", the Chinese will continue to believe entering the Indian ocean and striking targets in India will be entirely a question of their interests.

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Re: Indian Missiles and Munitions Discussion

Postby A Sharma » 23 Feb 2014 07:54

Akash missile may be inducted into Army soon

HYDERABAD: The successful test-firing of the indigenous Akash surface-to-air missile (SAM) in Odisha on Friday has the Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO) brimming with confidence that it would be quickly inducted into the Army. With the aid of pilotless target aircraft, Lakshya, the Akash missile successfully intercepted a flying target. Senior officials from the defence ministry said Friday's test fire was more of a 'pre-induction trial'.

A senior official said the Air Force has got one version of Akash, but the Army is yet to follow suit. According to senior officials, the Defence Acquisition Council has already given the nod for a combined order of Akash missiles for IAF and Army, pegged at Rs 23,000 crore.

"There might be a few more tests, but from our side, Akash is ready for induction and production," said a DRDO official. The Hyderabad-based lab of DRDO, the Defence Research and Development Laboratory (DRDL), is among the major contributors towards development of Akash.

DRDO started developing Akash in the 1980s in collaboration with at least 300 public and private companies, a significant chunk of which were from Andhra Pradesh. The missile is often evaluated against the American Patriot SAM but uses an integral ram jet rocket propulsion system in addition to being touted as being more accurate and cheap. Akash aims to replace the Russian 2K12 Kub missiles that are in service presently.

Developed indigenously under the Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme of India, Akash is an all weather area air defence weapon system for defending vulnerable areas against medium range air targets penetrating from various altitudes.

In addition to DRDL, other major contributors towards development of Akash include Chennai-based Combat Vehicles Research & Development Establishment (CVRDE), High Energy Materials Research Laboratory (HEMRL), Research & Development Establishment (Engineers) and Armament Research & Development Establishment (ARDE) of Pune.

Bharat Dynamics Limited (BDL) at Hyderabad has reportedly been assigned to produce missile systems, while Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL), Bangalore is the nodal production agency. Electronics Corporation of India Limited (ECIL), Hyderabad, Larsen & Toubro, Mumbai and Tata Power Company Mumbai are other production partners.

What makes Akash lethal?

Battery Level Radar (BLR) can concurrently track up to 64 targets while simultaneously guiding eight missiles towards four targets at the same time.

Immunity to electronic countermeasure environment.

Akash can operate in a totally automated hands-free operation mode, from target detection to kill.

The supersonic surface-to-air missile has a range of about 25 km and can fly up to a speed of Mach 2.5.

With pre-fragmented warhead of 55 kg and safety arming mechanism, Akash boasts of high odds of kills while manoeuvring targets like cruise missiles, fighter aircraft and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs).

Akash can neutralize multiple aerial targets attacking from several directions simultaneously.

It has a high flexibility of deployment as it can be launched from mobile as well as static platforms.

Akash is equipped with advanced battlefield management software for performing relative threat computation and pairing of targets and missiles.

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Re: Indian Missiles and Munitions Discussion

Postby Rahul M » 23 Feb 2014 10:42

sharma ji, should have mentioned this many moons ago. I can't thank you enough for the meticulous compilation of R&D news over the years.
please accept my heartfelt appreciation.

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Re: Indian Missiles and Munitions Discussion

Postby vic » 23 Feb 2014 11:30

My estimate is that Akash missile will also be 1/10th the price of LRSAM missile and 1/5th of any SRSAM missile with seeker.

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Re: Indian Missiles and Munitions Discussion

Postby ashish raval » 23 Feb 2014 12:20

^^ not sure if Akash has undergone advanced scenarios such as manoeuvrable target object capable of taking evasive actions and countermeasures. Great if it can :)

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Re: Indian Missiles and Munitions Discussion

Postby vic » 23 Feb 2014 15:16

You are right, Akash can only hit aircraft which are static in air.

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Re: Indian Missiles and Munitions Discussion

Postby dinesha » 23 Feb 2014 16:05

Now the culprit is metallurgy..

Hydraulic Snags Led to Night Trial Failure of Agni-I Missile
http://www.newindianexpress.com/states/ ... 073033.ece
By Hemant Kumar Rout - BALASORE Published: 23rd February 2014
Even as the defence authorities are tight-lipped on the reasons of
the failure of surface-to-surface medium range ballistic missile
Agni-I night trial, sources attributed it to metallurgical malfunction
and snags in the hydraulic system.
Sources said after an abortive mission on February 18, the 700-
km range missile was to be test-fired from Wheeler Island off the
Odisha coast next evening. But the strategic forces command
(SFC) was forced to postpone the test for indefinite period due to
some technical glitches in the missile system.
Initially while it was learnt that the faults in ‘not-up-to-the-mark’
Indian inertial navigation system (INS) led to postponement of the
first night user trial of the nuclear capable missile, a scientist
associated with the mission pointed fingers at manufacturing
faults in the missile.
Talking to ‘The Express’, he said manufacturing and metallurgical
faults triggered hydraulics problems in the missile system thereby
forcing the armed forces authorities to put off the trial only 18
seconds prior to the test schedule.
Hydraulics help open the wings and fins in the missile system. The
wings and fins were not being opened that day. Sensing further
trouble, the mission was postponed.

However, the scientists have been asked to rectify the faults and
make the mission ready for trial within next one year.
“The armed forces would definitely not want to take further risk.
The body of the missile has to be changed as the metallurgical
malfunction could lead to another fiasco. Besides, the INS has also
to be checked properly,” he added.
Meanwhile, the team Akash is readying for another trial of the
surface-to-air missile on Monday. After the trial, three more
would be carried out in next couple of weeks. Sources informed
that the armed forces were preparing to go for a fresh trial of
2000-km range ballistic missile Agni-II in March second week.


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Re: Indian Missiles and Munitions Discussion

Postby manjgu » 23 Feb 2014 17:56

any idea on how missiles are tested against manoeuvering targets??

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Re: Indian Missiles and Munitions Discussion

Postby Karan M » 23 Feb 2014 18:30

ROTFL, so Rout digs himself deeper, first he claimed that it was the INS and now shamefacedly cant admit he was wrong and says "first it was learnt.." and now blames the hydraulic system. Accurate reporting indeed.

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Re: Indian Missiles and Munitions Discussion

Postby vic » 23 Feb 2014 19:01

I don't think Agni fins are folded out as they are not folding wings.

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Re: Indian Missiles and Munitions Discussion

Postby Sid » 23 Feb 2014 19:53

manjgu wrote:any idea on how missiles are tested against manoeuvering targets??


Well... You have to fire a missile against maneuvering target and BAM!!! That's how you test it.

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Re: Indian Missiles and Munitions Discussion

Postby manjgu » 23 Feb 2014 20:39

good point Sid !! what is used as the maneuvering target was my question?

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Re: Indian Missiles and Munitions Discussion

Postby Singha » 23 Feb 2014 20:49

Rcs target pulled behind lakshya.

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Re: Indian Missiles and Munitions Discussion

Postby SaiK » 24 Feb 2014 02:26

perhaps another missile., again depending on the mission profile to what type of target is being seeked? it can be as crude as slamming couple of wings on a missile.

on the repeated DDM/news change on what could actually be the cause of failures of various launches (if not intentionally done) has a big risk for DRDO projects.. we can do this type of testing initially, till a few systems goes in place.. once the user loses trust, then drdo projects will face daunting tasks to uphold programs and might face cancellation and loss of jobs to many. it is a challenge not just from DDM perspective, but enough indicators to say, they better do things right.

moving from INS to hydraulics, and who knows what tomorrow loses credibility.

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Re: Indian Missiles and Munitions Discussion

Postby ashish raval » 24 Feb 2014 03:51

any idea on how missiles are tested against manoeuvering targets??


Simulate thousands of time before actual ground test :)

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Re: Indian Missiles and Munitions Discussion

Postby srin » 24 Feb 2014 09:25

Traditionally, the DRDO has hidden experimental missile launches as user trials. That is the reason we learnt that K-15 had been launched from underwater multiple times before (and none leaked to press), why we could do canister launch of Shaurya and be successful the very first time, and also develop our own ring-laser INS.

However, nobody has any way of knowing which one was the real user trial and which was a development trial.

Same thing about this Agni-1 test: was it a real user trial or was it a development trial where a new component or system was being tested ?


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