Jane's International Defence Review 7/2007, pg. 15:
"IMPENETRABLE RUSSIAN TANK ARMOUR STANDS UP TO EXAMINATION"
By Richard M. Ogorkiewicz
Claims by NATO testers in the 1990s that the armour of Soviet Cold War tanks was “effectively impenetrable” have been supported by comments made following similar tests in the US.
Speaking at a conference on “The Future of Armoured Warfare” in London on the 30th May, IDR's Pentagon correspondent Leland Ness explained that US Army tests involving firing trials on 25 T-72A1 and 12 T-72B1 tanks (each fitted with Kontakt-5 explosive reactive armour [ERA]) had confirmed NATO tests done on other former Soviet tanks left behind in Germany after the end of the Cold War. The tests showed that the ERA and composite Armour of the T-72s was incredibly resilient to 1980s NATO anti-tank weapons.
In contrast to the original, or 'light', type of ERA which is effective only against shaped charge jets, the 'heavy' Kontakt-5 ERA is also effective against the long-rod penetrators of APFSDS tank gun projectiles, anti-tank missiles, and anti-armour rotary cannons. Explosive reactive armour was valued by the Soviet Union and its now-independent component states since the 1970s, and almost every tank in the eastern-European military inventory today has either been manufactured to use ERA or had ERA tiles added to it, including even the T-55 and T-62 tanks built forty to fifty years ago, but still used today by reserve units.
"During the tests we used only the weapons which existed with NATO armies during the last decade of the Cold War to determine how effective such weapons would have been against these examples of modern Soviet tank design. Our results were completely unexpected. When fitted to the T-72A1 and B1 the 'heavy' ERA made them immune to the DU (Depleted Uranium) penetrators of the M829A1 APFSDS (used by the 120 mm guns of the Cold War era US M1 Abrams tanks), which are among the most formidable of current tank gun projectiles. We also tested the 30mm GAU-8 Avenger (the gun of the A-10 Thunderbolt II Strike Plane), the 30mm M320 (the gun of the AH-64 Apache Attack Helicopter) and a range of standard NATO Anti Tank Guided Missiles – all with the same result of no penetration or effective destruction of the test vehicles. The combined protection of the standard armour and the ERA gives the Tanks a level of protection equal to our own. The myth of Soviet inferiority in this sector of arms production that has been perpetuated by the failure of downgraded T-72 export tanks in the Gulf Wars has, finally, been laid to rest. The results of these tests show that if a NATO/Warsaw Pact confrontation had erupted in Europe, the Soviets would have had parity (or perhaps even superiority) in armour” – U.S. Army Spokesperson at the show.
Newer KE penetrators have been designed since the Cold War to defeat the Kontakt-5 (although Kontakt-5 has been improved as well). As a response the Russian Army has produced a new type of ERA, “Relikt”, which is claimed to be two to three times as effective as Kontakt-5 and completely impenetrable against modern Western warheads.
Despite the collapse of the USSR, the Russian Tank industry has managed to maintain itself and its expertise in armour production, resulting in modern designs (such as the T-90, the T-95 and mysterious Black Eagle) to replace the, surprisingly, still effective Soviet era tanks. These tests will do much to discount the argument of the “Lion of Babylon” (the ineffective Iraqi version of the T-72M) and export quality tanks being compared to the more sophisticated and upgraded versions which existed in the Soviet military’s best Tank formations and continue to be developed in a resurgent Russian military industrial complex."
Christopher Foss of Janes' on the latest T-90MS.
T-90ms: a big step forward
http://survincity.com/2013/11/t-90ms-a- ... forward-4/
T-90ms: a big step forward
British magazine IHS Jane’s International Defence Review published an article by Christopher F. Foss on a brand new Russian tank T-90ms. Creator — the expert on armored vehicles and armament of the Army.
He not only browser such recognizable in the midst of military professionals of magazines like IHS Jane’s International Defence Review and IHS Jane’s Defence Weekly, and the editor of a noble yearly directory Jane’s Armour and Artillery («armor and artillery»), His outlook on T-90ms, certainly deserves attention.
With its main battle tank, which owns Oversize EFFICIENCY IN URBAN criteria Our homeland is aimed at EXPORT MARKETS
Christopher F. Foss
Russian Uralvagonzavod has developed an improved version of the main battle tank (MBT) T-90S, which is currently being aimed at the export market. Compared with baseline model newcomer modification popular as T-90ms, different improvement of all 3 components of the triad armored vehicle: firepower, mobility and protection, designed to improve the overall efficiency of its urban criteria. What elements or T-90ms very similar to elements of the tank Leopard-2 PSO firm Krauss-Maffei Wegmann, created for peacekeeping operations.
In the Russian time Our homeland disposed of 4 tank plants. Now she has only one — «Scientific and Production Company» Uralvagonzavod «in Nizhny Tagil. Besides promoting MBT T-90ms on the world market the company continues to sell the previous model T-90S tank commander T-90SK also fighting vehicle fire support «Terminator.» The latter was developed in accordance with the requirements of the Russian army, but was among the programs, suspended in 2010 Game «terminator» was sold to Kazakhstan, where the machine for the first time appeared in the parade in 2011
T-90ms armed upgraded 125-mm smoothbore gun 2A46M-4 (in fact refers to the gun 2A46M-5 — approx. Edition), which is claimed to provide a significantly higher accuracy compared with the previous models, and the dispersion of the shells has decreased by least, 15%. Unlike models 2A46M its trunk chrome that provides overcharge his vitality. He also resettled ejector shroud thermal protector and accounting system thermal meander of the gun barrel, which allows the gunner to inspect the line of sight through the bore without departing from the tank.
As with all family tanks T-72 autoloader placed below the turret and provides loading of the gun shell, and then charge with partly burned down sleeve, from which a shot can only pan. In ammunition includes 22 ready to use the shot (projectile and charge) plus 18 shots available in reserve. Previously, all spare shots were placed in the tank hull, but T-90ms most of them moved to the aft part of the tower, in what is now expelling installed panels on the roof. Other 125-mm ammunition stored in the fighting compartment, but in a separate section to increase crew survivability.
The actual composition of ammunition 125mm gun will depend on combat tasks performed by tank. The tank can carry a full range of everyday shooting ammunition, including armor-piercing discarding sabot projectile feathered (BOPS), cumulative projectile (COP) and high-explosive/fragmentation (CFC). He can also shoot the guided missile laser-guided 9M119M at a range of 100 to 5000 m Projectile 9M119M resettled tandem HEAT warhead and is capable of hitting targets outside the firing range of the main armament. From the gunner requires detain crosshair tools and associated illumination laser spot on the target to the rocket hit the target, which can take up to 15 seconds at maximum range.
Coupled with the gun 7.62-mm machine gun PKTM (6P7K) is set to the right of the main armament and ammunition has a standard 2000 rounds.
Installed on the roof of the tower 12.7-mm machine gun 6P7K (in fact, this gun is 7.62 mm, but in its place by the customer can be installed mnogokaliberny anti-aircraft gun — approx. Edition) in remotely controlled weapon stations. It can rotate 316 degrees in azimuth and range from -10 to +45 degrees in elevation to hit targets in urban labyrinths. Food machine gun carried by 2-magazine capacity of 400 rounds each, and from the probable shooting on the move.
T-90ms resettled computerized fire control system (FCS), which allegedly allows the crew to hit stationary and moving targets, including when the tank itself is in motion, with the highest probability of hitting the target with the first shot in virtually all weather criteria . This MSA contains a digital ballistic computer and a set of sensors, including sensor criterion shooting, mounted on the roof, and automatic target tracking. There is also an emergency sight, associated with the main armament and located in front of the main gunner’s sight.
On the roof of the tower there is a separate stabilized commander’s panoramic sight, having a television and thermal channels, a laser rangefinder and that allows to implement the principle of «hunter-shooter.»
The commander also has day periscopes for radial observation. Cover flap tower can be closed or partially tilted backwards, like an umbrella, raised.
Place gunner Resettled stabilized TV / teplovovizionnym sighting system which includes a laser rangefinder with maximum range of 7500 m and the sight missile guidance 9M119M.
Russian tanks usual drawback was the lack of thermal sights, because T-90ms in standard configuration is a big step forward, and significantly improved situational awareness tank makes applicable for use in urban criteria. For example, apart from the sights and periscopes, four cameras provide almost radial charts, transferring images on monitors commander and gunner. Any camera has a field of view of 95 degrees in azimuth and 40 degrees elevation.
As the power plant is used forced a 12-cylinder diesel engine in the power-92S2F 1130 hp coupled with the automatic transmission. Through this 48-ton tank is equipped with a power density of 22.9 ps / m, sufficient for the traffic on the highway at a speed of 60 km / h
T-90cm able to overcome a ford deep 1,2 m without preparation and up to 5 m — with special equipment.
In the basic model T-90 was used absolutely welded housing made of metal armor with improved frontal armor plate, and the tower was absolutely cast and had a built-in armor. Last version of the T-90ms has the hull and turret with improved armor that provides overcharge protection from ammunition hitting the top.
This superior set of armor includes not only the protection of dynamic modules (RS), and passive armor elements in modules that in case of damage can be rapidly changed.
Rear hull and turret equipped bars, providing more effective protection against rocket-propelled grenades, and in the fighting compartment are also provided-proof screens to protect the crew from the secondary fragments.
Active protection of ammunition semi-active laser guidance system provides automatic smoke-screens. This system consists of multiple laser sensors are located so as to provide a radial scan location. Upon detection of laser hazards, the crew is alerted by visual and audio means, and in the direction of danger put a gun spray Zahav. In addition, the tower can be rotated in the direction of the machine with the following danger actuation 81mm smoke grenade launchers mounted on either side of the tower.
T-90ms is also equipped with electrical protection system capable allegedly neutralize anti-tank mines, kitted electric detonators.
This also installed armored vehicle combat control and navigation system, which allegedly can be integrated directly to division.
Outside on the rear left side of the tank’s hull mounted auxiliary diesel-electric installation, providing the main function of the T-90ms, when the main engine is shut down to save fuel.
T-90ms is also equipped with equipment for self-entrenching installed on the front armor plate, which can be used, and to overcome obstacles. Standard equipment auxiliary equipment includes fire fighting system, NBC protection system and a communication system crew.