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I just now finished reading LNS's article about Operation Polo, the liberation of Hyderabad in 1948.<BR>Thank you, LNS, for the detailed article.<P>I have some questions:<BR>Clearly, Operation Polo had non-trivial cost, with 66 dead and 97 injured. This being the case, what happened to the murderous thugs, the razakars? As LNS notes, and as has been detailed by two members of this forum (including, I believe Kaushal who is from that area) the Razakar thugs had an orgy of rape, loot and murder, including on some villages which were then under the rest of Indian - not Hyderabadi - territory. <P>1. Were these Razakar thugs not tried as war criminals? If not, why not? Was this yet another of the appeasment mistakes of Nehru?<P>2. I read in this forum that the current day MIM is the descendant of the Razakar organization. To what extent is this true?<P>3. LNS notes that General Bucher threatened to resign if the action went ahead, that Nehru was perturbed, but that Patel true to his image as a strongman told Bucher to go ahead and resign. What happened to General Bucher? <P>4. Why did the Govt of India inform the Pakistani army prior to the action (as noted by LNS in the article)?<P>5. If this was the case, then how come there was complete surprise - as LNS states in the article? Or, is it that there was some indication of possible action but the Razakars did not know where the attack would come from?<P>6. What happened to the Arab General of the Hyderabadi army? Was he tried, convicted, punished? What about the other mercenaries, including the Arabs and others (LNS notes that there was at least one British citizen) - what happened to them?<P>7. More generally, how long did the Razakar and other POWs serve time?<P>Thank you in advance for any answers.
I have heard from older hands that after Hyderabad was taken, many Razakars and others in the Nizam's pay were systematically executed by Indian forces. I dont know how much of that is true.
Hi,<P>Raghu, <P> The razakar's were dealt with. Quite often with summary execution.<P> You heard wrong. MIM and Razakar's were two different organizations.<P> I can find this out for you if you are really interested -<P> As long as Old Hyderabad state had not decided and agreed on the path it would follow - remain independent, join India or (most unlikely) join pakistan, the pakistani army had an interest in the proceedings.<P> The razakar's where not a well organised organization like the RSS. They where a motley collection of zealots inflammed by some individuals with vested interests. They cannot even be graced by the term "para-military" forces.<P> I have no idea about his fate - but tried for what?<P>If you are interested I can provide you with a number of references dealing with this topic.<P>Sukumar, I can corroborate that - I lost some family members in the incident you mentioned. <P>Interestingly the rest of the family escaped a similar fate when they took refuge at a neighbour's house - who was an hindu. The O'Henry'ish twist to the tale is that the mentioned hindu family had taken refuge in my families house during the earlier period of razakari violence.<P>Close to 200,000 hyderabadies (old hyderabad state, not just the city of hyderabad) lost their lives in the violence following police action. This incident remains largely unacknowledged and unlamented to this day.<p>[This message has been edited by Badar (edited 18-11-1999).]
Prof,<BR>I want to give some common man's (my mom's)description. The bad part is communists ( the so called poor man's supporters ) aligned with Razakars. After that people and even the establishment hated the communists so much that no body dared to talk about communists. Belive it or not communists were killed by women folks of Telangana. <P>Razakars of those days emerged into MIM of today. Actually if I get a chance I will try to get the books about Telangana women's revolution (called as first women's revolution in India).<P>
Badar, I think there are some good books which can throw light on this confusion.
Kasim Rizvi,<BR>The chief thug of the Razakars escaped to Pakiland. There I think he was arrested for some reason.<P>Quite a few Hyderabadis went away to Pakistan at that time Ass-if Ek-Bal, the cricket player was one of them.<P><P>------------------<BR>Paul
IIRC,<BR> Father of the MIM chief( Owaisi) was one of the Razakar leaders. <P>Badar might be able to dig some info on this.<P>ps: I might be wrong.
<BR> <A HREF="http://www.hvk.org/hvk/articles/articles/1098/0077.html" TARGET=_blank>http://www.hvk.org/hvk/articles/articles/1098/0077.html</A> <P>Title: Ladder of lies<BR>Author: T V R Shenoy<BR>Publication: Rediff on the Net<BR>Date: October 15, 1998<P>Two recent statements from Communist Party of India-Marxist generalsecretary Harkishen Singh Surjeet deserve our attention. He wondered why the Left had not stuck roots outside Kerala, West Bengal, and Tripura "despite its glorious role in the freedom struggle." And he slandered the Bharatiya Janata Party as "the men who killed Mahatma Gandhi."<P><BR>A man's memory is the first faculty to start withering. But I suspect Surjeet's speeches sprang from malice rather than age. They are, in any case, easily disproved.<P><BR>"I have kept myself almost in daily touch with the progress of Bapu's assassination," Sardar Patel wrote to Jawaharlal Nehru on February 27, 1948, "It emerges clearly that the RSS was not involved in it at all."<P><BR>Whom would you rather believe, Surjeet or the Sardar?<P><BR>Why was the Iron Man's statement ignored? Simple, Sardar Patel was feared and hated by Nehru-Gandhis and Communists alike, and they joined to bury his memory. Surjeet, however, may recall the Sardar as the man who vowed to uproot Marxism from the soil of his Gujarat.<P><BR>The Sardar has a right to be wary. The Communists spewed poison against everyone else in the late 1920s and early 1930s. (Even the Congress Socialists, a group within the Indian National Congress, were described as "social fascists.") This wasn't original; the Communists were simply parroting the line laid down by Stalin at the sixth congress of the Communist International.<P>This changed abruptly after the seventh congress was held in Moscow in 1935. Stalin decided to infiltrate socialists into the country. The Sardar wasn't fooled. He acidly described the Socialists as nothing but "the sappers and miners of Communism" and did his best to keep them out.<P>Simply put, Sardar Patel didn't trust Indians who owed allegiance to foreigners. His suspicions were well founded. When Hitler invaded Russia in June 1941, the Communists abruptly reversed themselves, even acting as British informers during the Quit India Movement.<P>Yet at the CPI-M's Calcutta session, Surjeet accused BJP leaders of not participating in the freedom struggle! Not only is this demonstrably wrong, it is a blatant method of hiding the Left's own horrible record.<P><BR>Communist hostility continued even after 1947. Vijayalakshmi Pandit, India's first envoy to Moscow, recorded Stalin's refusal to believe that India was truly free. And not a single Russian bureaucrat signed the condolence book after the Mahatma's death.<BR><B><BR>Their Soviet masters' attitude was echoed in the 'Calcutta Thesis' formulated by the Communists in February 1948. Repeating the charge that India was still a British colony, it vowed to continue the ''liberation struggle''. The practical expression of this philosophy came in the form of the Telangana peasant struggle (a fancy name for guerrilla warfare).<P><BR>Telangana was part of the then Hyderabad state, a princely state refusing to join the India Union. The Nizam had given free rein to a group called the Razakars. Their leader Kasim Razvi vowed that "if India invaded nothing but the bones and ashes of 10.5 million Hindus would be found". Hindus were openly killed in Marathwada (also part of the princely Hyderabad).<P><BR>This was the gentleman with whom the Communists allied. It was said in Warangal and Nalgonda that "the Razakars rule by day and the Communists at night." But Nehru's government didn't react, a stance encouraged by Lord Mountbatten (India's governor-general at Nehru's invitation).<P><BR>Hyderabad took advantage of this idiocy. It loaned 200 million rupees to a Pakistan teetering on bankruptcy. It appealed to the Americans and sent a delegation to the United Nations. Nehru's response was to send a counter-memorandum, but Sardar Patel's patience was exhausted.<P><BR>"You referred Kashmir to the UN when victory was at hand," he said, "What happened?"<P><BR>On June 21, 1948, Mountbatten finally left, and Chakravarti Rajagopalachari took over as governor-general. Nehru continued to plead for a softline as late as September 8, 1948. However on September 13, 'Operation Polo' began. It took just 108 hours before Hyderabad was forced to lay down arms on September 17.<P>The Communists, however, fought on for three more years. The Sardar died in December 1950, but his work was continued by Rajaji who succeeded him as Union home minister. (He described the Communists as "Public Enemy Number One.")<P><BR>I wouldn't normally use this column to talk about events that took place half a century ago and more, but comrade Surjeet is trying to rewrite history six hundred and one months after the Nizam's fall.<BR></B><P>You cannot ascend the pinnacles of power by standing on a ladder of lies.<P>
In this article the writer clearly says Razakars are Majlis-e lttehad -ul -Muslimeen<P> <A HREF="http://www.newtrend.org/articles/bosnia_herzegovina_and_hyderabad_deccan.shtml" TARGET=_blank>http://www.newtrend.org/articles/bosnia_herzegovina_and_hyderabad_deccan.shtml</A> <P><BR>Bosnia & Herzegovina and Hyderabad-Deccan<P>--------------------------------------------------------------------------------<P><BR>by Mohammad Yacoob, Los Angeles, California<P>The two maps appear similar. These are the maps of Hyderabad-Deccan and Bosnia & Herzegovina. If a hurricane starts at the top of Hyderabad and moves down, traveling slightly towards the right, then it will squeeze and adjust Hyderabad in a shape that would look like the petrified Bosnia & Herzegovina. These maps look similar, even the history of these two places is similar. The genocide in Bosnia and Herzegovina tells the story of the bigotry, hypocrisy and demagoguery of the top politicians of the world. The Muslims of Bosnia & Herzegovina were subjected to a series of pogroms in full view of the world opinion. The western powers found that there is obviously little payoff in rescuing Muslims from Serbs and continued their shameless appeasement of the Serbs. <P>In addition to this, the western democracies exhibited strategic myopia, moral weakness and policy paralysis and allowed the slaughter of Muslims in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The ethnic cleansing and the war against the Muslims by the Chetniks and Serbs has resulted in thousands of dead children. Rape, torture, killing and exile of innocent Muslims continued uninterrupted. We, the Americans, have heard the stories of Muslim women, in their own words, as to how they were raped and tortured in various cities of Bosnia by the Serbs and the Chetnik. <P>Incidents of massacre of the Bosnian Muslims were broadcast to us on the days on which these atrocities occurred. Yet, the United States clearly downplayed the evidence - the horror stories - the newsmedia personnel and journalists were risking their lives to report. Several Western powers just waited for the fall of Sarajevo. They figured the fall of Sarajevo will tilt the power in favor of Croatians and Serbs; then they would not have to do anything. This did not happen. The pogrom continued and the western powers kept on talking about the “humanitarian assistance”. There has never been a fitting response to this pogrom including the Dayton (Ohio) Accord. <P>This brings back to memory the sufferings of the people of Hyderabad Deccan. Every time I read or hear about the atrocities against the people of Bosnia and Herzegovina I am reminded of Hyderabad-Deccan in 1948. Reminiscing about Hyderabad-Deccan is very painful. Dark visions remain embedded in the recesses of your memory and never leave. <P>Hyderabad State - a land-locked country like Switzerland situated in South India - was also called the Nizam State. The king, Mir Osman Ali Khan Bahadur, Asif Jah Sabih (VII), was popularly known as the Nizam or the Nizam of Hyderabad. The British rulers of the subcontinent controlled only the foreign policy of the Nizam State and had a representative of the Viceroy of India, the ‘Residence General’, at Hyderabad City, the capital of the Nizam State. In other words the state of Hyderabad had:<P><BR>Its on Currency -- called Sikkah-e-Osmania <BR>Army -- First and Second Lancers <BR>Postal Department which printed Osmania postage stamps and not British-Subcontinent stamps <BR>NSR-RTD (Nizam State Railway - Road Transport Department) A network of modern Rail-Road System <BR>Airline called ‘Deccan Airways;’ <BR>Radio Station called, ‘Deccan Radio - Hyderabad’ <P>After the departure of British colonialists the Nizam of Hyderabad declared independence on August 15, 1947. At the same time the subcontinent was divided into India and Pakistan. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru became the Prime Minister of India. The Indian Government refused to accept Hyderabad’s independence. It started a campaign to annex Nizam State and finally imposed economic blockade and stationed its troops around the state. The Hyderabad Government conducted negotiations with the Indian Government’s envoy, Mr. K. M. Munshi, who persuaded the Nizam to agree to India’s annexation plan. At this point, the Government of Hyderabad brought a case in the United Nations which is now buried under tons of papers of unfinished UN business.<B> In Hyderabad, one of the organizations that was in favor of independent Hyderabad was Majlis-e lttehad -ul -Muslimeen, which formed a volunteer corps called Razakars. The communists were also becoming very strong in the Telegana region of Hyderabad. The Telugu speaking militants organized themselves and opposed independent Hyderabad. During the blockade of Hyderabad, the Razakars, the Telugu militants and the Communists were acting independently to achieve their aspirations. Documented proofs indicate involvement by these groups in terrorizing the Hindus and Muslims of the Hyderabad State. <P>The Hyderabad State lost its independence after only 13 months. During the third week of September 1948, exactly 50 years ago, India launched ‘Police Action’ against Hyderabad State and captured Hyderabad City, the capital of Hyderabad. Thousands of Muslims men were murdered and killed when the Indian army advanced from one district to the other on it ‘s way to the capital city, Hyderabad. The hardest hit were the districts of Aurangabad, Raichur, Osmanabad, Karimnagar, Nizamabad and Adilabad. The Muslim population started migrating in two directions. <BR></B><BR>The writer is Former Chairman, The Consultative Committee of Indian Muslims in US and Canada. <BR>
What is the meaning of the word 'Nizam' and which language is it taken from (Arabic or Persian)?
Muppala , Nice Work..
<P>First, apologies to Badar: memories of violence experienced by one's family are never to be taken lightly, and I have no intention of doing that below. Badar makes the excellent point of how brave people caught in violence try to help each other at great risk to themselves. Obviously it made no difference whether they were Hindu or Muslim when they opened their homes to shelter friends. <P>Now for this new article: <P>The writer of the "Bosnia etc." article, predictably, makes only a token mention of what the Razakars were doing, before retribution caught up with them. <P>Also, the writer obviously did not see any similarity between either B-H or Hyderabad, and East Pakistan, despite his memory swirling around cyclones. Hmmmmmm!!<P>BTW, regarding this "Council" of Canada and US, I wonder if anyone would care to visit the following link: <P> <A HREF="http://www.geocities.com/charcha_2000/index.html" TARGET=_blank>http://www.geocities.com/charcha_2000/index.html</A> <P>Please look for the link to: <P>"The Travails of Ashrafuzzamman's Infamous Diary" and you will see what I am saying.
The Razakars and the MIM are one and the same. Owaisi has simply reincarnated himself. The Razakars were murderous thugs, who would stop at nothing and regularly attacked trains passing through Hyderabad state. The police action was in reality a war and lives were lost. But it is nothing compared to the Battle of Talikota in Vijayanagar (1545 ?) when one of the forerunners of the Nizam as part of the Bahmani confederation set Vijayanager to flame. The fires that burned in Vijayanagar lasted for 6 months and they burned so hot that the surrounding rock in the hills cracked due to the heat. Nothing was left except structures that outlasted the fire. What goes around comes around. My proposal to the GOI is to have a project to rebuild Vijayanagar once again as one of the great cities of the world. It will certainly help Bellary which is one of the poorer districts of India - the legacy of 500 years is hard to wipe out. This is one of the episodes of Indian history which should be taught to every child in India, as a lesson, that lack of unity in India was one of the main resons for the repeated conquest of India by the invader.<P>Mountbatten was one of those opposing police action in Hyderabad, basically following orders from Whitehall. India was in the peculiar position of having as head of state a person who was advocating the territorial emasculation of iNDIA even before India was fully constituted. In retrospect it would have made more sense to send Mountbatten packing to London the day after independence. He caused a lot of harm and the present stalemate in Kashmir was due to him also,because he advocated taking the case to the UN. Of course there was little reason for Nehru to have listened to him and for that the Indians have themselves to blame. <P>The irony here is that Mountbatten, despite his actions, was generally well liked in India and India ordered several days of mourning when he was assassinated. Contrast this with the fact that he was killed by the IRA and today the Brits are negotiating with the IRA and have better relations with Ireland than with India. As they say, Blood is thicker than water, and the brown skinned Indian will never be accepted by the Anglo saxon.<P>Kaushal
parvana, totally agree with you as far as Tipu is concerned. Tipu Saheb was definitely one of the great Indians of all time and fought for a cause and for a principle. As you rightly remark, the history of India would have been different had Tipu defeated the Brits. Although he was a devout Muslim he treated Hindus and their places of worship with great deal of respect and dignity. His dewan for 20 odd years was a Hindu by the name of Purnaiyya. The Battle of Srirangapatnam was one of the turning points of Indian history which more than the battle of Plassey laid the door open for eventual British conquest. North Indians do not know enough about Tipu (they should educate themselves on him) which is one reason why he doesnt get as high a billing as he should as an Indian patriot.<P>Kaushal
I apologise in advance for following this tangent<P> <BLOCKQUOTE><font size="1" face="Verdana, Arial">quote:</font><HR> Contrast this with the fact that he was killed by the IRA and today the Brits are negotiating with the IRA and have better<BR> relations with Ireland than with India. As they say, Blood is thicker than water, <HR></BLOCKQUOTE><P> Blood, what blood? do you mean the blood that was spilt in the worst kind of colonialism first for 600 years by English Kings and landords and then for another 300 years the Protestant bigots of Ulster?<BR> <BR> If an agreement is being worked out it's because Britain and Ireland can't ignore each other's domestic problems- we live next door to each other. It is an exercise in the purest pragmatism- we can't give away N.Ireland because 2/3rds of its popoulation are emphatically pro-union. We don't want the expense of running the security apparatus required to keep a three way conflict from killing our citizens. Everyone wants the violence to stop, the Catholics want to be sure they have a say in local government and guarantees that their civil rights will protected. The Protestants want to be absolutely certain that they aren't going to be absorbed by the rest of Eire. The Irish just want to concentrate on business of building an economy of West European standards. <P>In short the misery of the present for all parties, outweighs any perceptions of the past. Or if you can prefer, you can continue to see this as some sort of strange colour issue. <p>[This message has been edited by Johann (edited 19-11-1999).]
In E Pak they had Ansars, and Razakars who were chiefly Biharis and turncoat Bengalis. They were of litle miltary value but at the same time were useful in implementing havoc on the poor civilians.<P>They are all rotting in the camps in Bangladesh now.<P>------------------<BR>Paul
Regarding Mountbatten, for a different perspective (especially re. Kashmir and the UN) you might want to read the interview here<P> <A HREF="http://www.rediff.com/freedom/13allan2.htm" TARGET=_blank>http://www.rediff.com/freedom/13allan2.htm</A> <P>and here<P> <A HREF="http://www.rediff.com/freedom/13alan3.htm" TARGET=_blank>http://www.rediff.com/freedom/13alan3.htm</A> <BR> <BR> It might help if you didn't regard 'the British' as such a monolithic entity. There was Whitehall, Parliament, the PM and the Opposition. They all had widely differing views and motivations when it came to the subject of Indian independance. Labour was all for it, in fact it had been an election pledge- their major concern was that it was done as quickly as possible with the minimum British losses. The Conservative, lead by Churchill (with his attendant racism) had a very different view of things. <P> If indeed Britain as a whole was so committed to destroying any possibilty of <BR>a united India, I assure you Mountbatten would have granted Hyderabad dominion status even without the Nizam's recorded request- in fact he could have extended that status to Baroda, Mysore, Bhopal and all of the Principalities large and small. After all, he did have the leagal right to do so. Mountbatten was not opposed to the incorporation of the Prinicpalities- as far as he was concerned, if Patel could get it done quickly it made his job of organising the handover of power that much quicker and cleaner. The same line of thinking lead to the partition when the inability of Jinnah and the INC to compromise started to bite into Mountbatten's sacred timetable. <P> It was Winston Churchill who raised the isue in the papers and in parliament (Attlee and labour was in power at the time) reminding them that Nizam was "an old and faithful ally of the Empire", arguing any forceful incorporation of Hyderabad. This of course caused political difficulties for Labour who ordered Mountbatten to go slow on the issue until the issue ceased to be a political hot potato in Britain. <BR> <BR> <p>[This message has been edited by Johann (edited 19-11-1999).]
Ramen,<P>Yes, in east Pakistan there were bands of thugs/religious zealots known as Al Badr/Al Shams/Razakars. These acted as a militia and also as informers for the Pak army. Their cadres were mainly drawn from the Jamaat/Tabligh. The Ansars were a sort of para-military force used to police the hinterlands. The Razakars had a violent role in the east Pakistan carnage. Prominent among them is Gholam Azam who currently heads the Jamaat in Bdesh. (Yes the scum is still alive and kicking). The Razakars were mainly composed of Bihari or other North Indian Urdu speaking Muslims who migrated to East Pakistan after partition. There were some Bengalies from Islamic fundamentalist groups. They were used mainly to terrorize the Hindu population, murder moderate Bengali Muslims, act as informers against the Mukti Bahini of Kader (Tiger) Siddique, take revenge against the families of Muslim kids who joined the Mukti Bahini and murder Bengali Muslim intellectuals who were the inspiration behind the Bdesh movement. In one famous incident they murdered all Professors and academics in the Jagannath Hall of Dhaka University who were mainly from minority Hindu, Buddhist and Christian communities. They also murdered many prominent Bengali Muslim poets, artists and writers. Some of them migrated to Pakistan after the formation of Bdesh. Others have melted into mainstream political parties like AL, BNP and Jatiyo party. Most of them got away with it because they had sympathizers in the Bdesh army which took power pretty soon in Bdesh. There have been attempts to bring them to justice by many groups in Bdesh with support from prominent personalities like Jehanara Imam/Shamsur Rehman, etc but they have powerful friends in Bdesh society and hence nothing has happened.
Tipu Sultan, Sepoy Mutiny of 1857 and Hyderabad declaring its independence with Razakars have one common thing "Going back to the glory of Mughals or Afghanis" and not Indian Independence.<P>Tipu Sultan, Rani ki Jhansi, Tatya Tope, Mangal Pande and Bahadur Shah Zafar were oppurtunist fighting for their own interests, without realizing what we are now "a secular Indian State" . We are very lucky that 1857 failed, that Tipu Sultan failed and Sardar Patel abolished these Rajas, Rajwaras and Zamindars.<P><BR>Regarding Tipu Sultan and his "fight for independence of India" is a BIG BS , he and his ancestors were nothing more then Abdali, Ghaznavi, Tamur or Ghori. <P>There is a huge evidence that Tipu Sultan sent several requests to Afghanis (son of Abdali), Persians(descendents of Nadir Shah) to attack India and to reestablish India a "Dar-us-Islam" Mughal state. <P>Sandeep Singh Bajwa<P><p>[This message has been edited by sbajwa (edited 19-11-1999).]
Just had a brief break, and took the chance to visit this link.<P>My questions, about Bucher, the Arab general etc - does anyone know the answer? Were any of the foreigners prosecuted for their criminal acts (a) within Hyderabad, and (b) more importantly, outside the borders of Hyderabad but in the areas then under India (other than Hyderabad)? I ask this based on LNS's writeup in the BR Journal.<P>Also, were there any Razakar POWs? Regular Hyderabadi army POWs? How were the latter treated, and how were the former treated?<P>LNS:<BR>You and Kamath both state 97 injured, so the question of differences in numbers still remains. Clarification would be useful - but not necessary.<P>I have quite a few comments, especially wrt Badar's reply. More later tonight on that, but would appreciate factual responses to the questions I had posed here and above.<BR>Thank you.
Sbajwaa, <BR>I think you are right about Tipu Sultan. He is wrongly considered as a freedom fighter and a great leader. He was indeed for a mughal empire. He read somewhere (sorry, don't remember where, so forum members can question this.)that he converted large population of hindus into Islam on literaly sword point. He would go into villages and gather all men and women and collect them in an open ground and ask them to convert to Islam. Who ever didn't were masscared. <P>Jai Hind
Sorry for the typo mistake,<P>It is I who read, not He (silly me)<BR>
Kaushal,<BR> Who is the British officer who defeated Tippu Sultan? I was told by an Indian American that the British officer came from USA when he was defeated by the Americans during the war of Independence in NA. <BR>THis is the connection India has with America during the independence from British.
El Edroos<P>I read in some of the Hyderabad History books that El Edroos died in Bangalore , a pauper. No details on the circumstances. <P>Incidentally, the Prime minister of Hyderabad who escaped to pakistan wrote a pretty detailed book on the war , it was published in Pakistan in 1960. <P>There is also some kind of "Free Hyderabad" society somewhere in the US <P>Anybody ran into them lately? <P>
"Free Hyderabad society?"<BR>I can think of one - no make that two - people who may be well qualified to be members of such a society! <P>Jagan:<BR>But why was Edroos left unpunished in India?<BR>Given the atrocities committed *within the then Indian territory* surely he should have been tried? (and surely convicted perhaps hanged?)<P>If Nizam offered 200 million to Pakistan, was the offer consummated? If so, what happened to the money? Ever repaid?<BR>
<HTML><BR><HEAD></HEAD><BR><BODY><BR><P><B>[color="#FF0000"]<FONT SIZE=+1>Towards Freedom: Final days of the Nizam Raj</FONT></FONT></B><P><B><I>[color="#3333FF"]- Panduranga Rao Kulkarni</FONT></I></B><P><B><FONT FACE="Comic Sans MS"><FONT SIZE=-1><BR>On 15 August, 1947, well ahead by ten months British left India after partitioning it into India and Pakistan. The numerous princely states were given option to either accede to India or to Pakistan. Poor Hindus of Deccan! They dreamt that Independence meant freedom to them also. But it was not to be on 15th August, 1947 as rest of India was shouting 'Bharat Mata ki Jai', in the Nizam's state of Hyderabad, slogans of ''Azad Hyderabad Paindabad' rent the air. The Hyderabadi Hindu was doomed! There was a large scale of migration of Hindus across the border of Hyderabad into the neighbouring Indian provinces. The terror unleashed by the Razakars was such.</FONT></FONT></B><P><B><FONT FACE="Comic Sans MS"><FONT SIZE=-1>Coupled with the migration of Hindus there was also immigration of thousands of Muslim families from other parts of the country. They were eagerly welcomed by the Volunteers of Ittehadul - Musalmin, and also the state's machinery. Within two months of declaring Azad Hyderabad, the state's Muslim population rose by one lakh. Immediate attempts were made to absorb these immigrants into jobs in various departments like irrigation, railway, electricity, public works etc. The state's Child Welfare Association under Nizam's princess daughter-in-law, released funds for immediately providing blankets to these immigrants as the winter was fast approaching.</FONT></FONT></B><P><B><FONT FACE="Comic Sans MS"><FONT SIZE=-1>The new Government of India was very much concerned with this development. Yet it acted with forbearance because the Nizam's plea to give an extension of two months to sign the instrument of accession was granted. In the meanwhile the 'Razakar' force of Ittehadul Musalmin swelled to three lakhs members and there were clashes<BR>between them and the Swayamsevaks of 'Janata Fouz' formed in the rural side by the Hindus mostly in the border areas. Even after the lapse of two months, the Nizam dodged signing the accession instrument on one pretext or the other. In the meanwhile he sent his men all over the world seeking military and moral assistance for the independent Hyderabad State. </FONT></FONT></B><P><B><FONT FACE="Comic Sans MS"><FONT SIZE=-1>There were rumours that Nizam would accede to Pakistan and Pakistan would readily accept it. To pre-empt such an eventuality, the Indian Government offered a standstill agreement to Hyderabad without accession, which seemingly was its climbdown. To Nizam and Ittahed the offer looked as an indicator of growing weakness<BR>of Indian Government, which was staggering with shock of post-position riots and bloodshed. For several weeks there was bargaining in New Delhi over the contents of the standstill agreement, after which ultimately it was signed. According to the agreement, K.M. Munshi would be stationed in Hyderabad as agent-general of India, and Zain Yarzung would be in New Delhi as the agent general of Hyderabad. This period was used by the hooligans of Ittehedul Musalmin to systematically terrorise the Hindus by arson and looting of their shops, houses, and standing crops, robbing the gold and silver from their women-folk and also their abduction and rape.</FONT></FONT></B><P><B><FONT FACE="Comic Sans MS"><FONT SIZE=-1>In an incident in Errapalem village of Warangal district, under the lead of sub-Inspector Chandkhan thirty five policemen with eighty Razakars of Ittehadul Musalmin looted each and every household including the huts. They dragged the women folk along the streets to the centre place of the village. They had forcible<BR>copulation firstly with twelve of them and there after shot them dead despite the pleadings of their kith and kin. The other group of women had the same fate. Total number of women thus killed on that day in the village was seventy. In fact, it had become the order of the day for the lecherous Nizam's police and the barbaric vagabonds of Ittehedul - Musalmin known<BR>as Razakars. The predominantly Hindu population of the state was not to be allowed to pause and recap incessant terrorising. At that time Mir Layak Ali was appointed as the new Prime Minister of Hyderabad at the insistence of Itthehead. He was a Civil Engineer turned Businessman and Industrialist and totally new to political office. His inexperience and<BR>the overbearing influence of Ittehadul Musalmin upon him, quickened the pace of events. Nizam was totally besieged by the Ittehad, and power and initiative shifted from Kingkoti completely. Qasim Razvi was the sole performer now. For the battle hardened leaders like Patel, Nehru, Rajaji and Munshi sitting with novices of street urchin mentality and to<BR>talk about the affairs of a state larger than many of the European countries was a new but exasperating experience. Yet in the interest of the innocent public of Hyderabad State they underwent this harrowing experience for months together.<BR></FONT></FONT></B><P><B><FONT FACE="Comic Sans MS"><FONT SIZE=-1>The nation was recovering from the trauma of Gandhiji's death. News on the other hand of Hyderabad steadily building up the potential of its Army and other ancillary forces was regularly reaching Delhi. A British Arms dealer named Sydney Cotton was transporting arms from abroad. Stocks of petrol and sulphur was built<BR>up. And several factories owned by the Muslims were said to have started producing rifles and bren guns. Power alcohol was being produced at the rate of 3,500 gallons per day. The provincial governments around Hyderabad were getting nervous and sending frantic requests to patel to take action against Hyderabad's bellicosity.</FONT></FONT></B><P><B><FONT FACE="Comic Sans MS"><FONT SIZE=-1>On 23rd March, 1948 the Home Secretary V.P. Menon sent a formal letter pointing out various violations by Hyderabad of the stand still Agreement and asked Prime Minister Layaq Ali to take steps to rectify the situation or be prepared for consequences. This ultimatum is said to have rattled him making him to blurt, ''What<BR>was led to this sudden change?''</FONT></FONT></B><P><B><FONT FACE="Comic Sans MS"><FONT SIZE=-1>In fact Layaq Ali was facing embarrassments everywhere due to irresponsible and arbitrary acts and utterings of Qasim Razvi and Razakars of Itthedul Muslamin. Few weeks earlier to that on 1st February 1948, one hundred armed personnel raided the branch of State Bank of Hyderabad in a small town Umri, killed at least seven<BR>persons and decamped with more than 22 lakhs rupees in hard cash. Later enquiry revealed that the raiders were Razakars of Ittehadul Musalmin who were supposed to protect the Bank from the imaginany attack of the Indian armed forces. This itself, proves the extent of lawlessness created by the Razakars of Ittehadul Muslamin during that time.</FONT></FONT></B><P><B><FONT FACE="Comic Sans MS"><FONT SIZE=-1>Prior to that, the government and armed forces of India, took steps to block all the supply routes to Hyderabad. It's effects started to be felt. There was shortage of petrol, diesel, kerosene, sugar, cigarettes, food-grains, medicines and innumerable other things. The Hyderabad government now manned entirely by the Ittehad<BR>people was not inspiring much confidence among the business community resulting in hoarding and block marketing. </FONT></FONT></B><P><B><FONT FACE="Comic Sans MS"><FONT SIZE=-1>Indian government asked its army to be prepared to march to Hyderabad at a shortest notice if necessary.Accordingly Major-Gen. Hiralal Atal, G.O.C. 1, Armoured Division submitted his plan to the southern Command on 16th April, 1948. In it he envisaged an advance of 30 miles per day and assessed to cover the distance from Sholapur to Hyderabad within a fortnight, in an East-West assault.</FONT></FONT></B><P><B><FONT FACE="Comic Sans MS"><FONT SIZE=-1>End of July, 1948, I Armoured Division of Indian Army had built up enough rations for sixty days for an army 22,000 strong. Meanwhile Maj. Gen. J.N. Choudary had succeeded Maj. Gen. Hiralal Atal, as G.O.C. 1 Armoured Division. And Mountbatten the last link of Nizam with Government of India had gone back to his England.<BR></FONT></FONT></B><P><B><FONT FACE="Comic Sans MS"><FONT SIZE=-1>On 7th September, Home Secretary V.P. Menon formally wrote to the Prime Minister of Hyderabad requesting him to allow Indian troops to be restationed in Secunderabad in such strength as might be necessary for the prompt and effective restoration of Law and Order. Layaq Ali did not reply. Six days later, by the first of 13th September 1948, columns of Indian army entered Hyderabad state from various directions, on their journey to Secunderabad as per the forewarning of Home Secretary. Operation POLO, had begun. TIME Magazine's John Lubar described it as a<BR>'Happy war'.</FONT></FONT></B><P><B><FONT FACE="Comic Sans MS"><FONT SIZE=-1><BR>As the Indian troops marched on in the territory of Hyderabad, except at Naldurg, Tuljapu, Bidar, Zahirabad in the Western sector and at Kodad in the Eastern sector, there was no residence offered by the much publicised Hyderabad army. The Razakars of Ittehabul-Musalmin were driven mostly by their religious fanaticism. Then religious zeal is no substitute for the regular military training, which a soldier receives in his military camps. On 15th September, Qasim Razvi's home town Latur along with Osmanabad, Aurangabad and Jalna fell to Indian troops. In the after noon of fifth day, 17 September, Hyderabad's<BR>resistance ended, when the Nizam ordered his troops to ceasefire.<BR></FONT></FONT></B><P><B><FONT FACE="Comic Sans MS"><FONT SIZE=-1><BR>On 18th September, 1948, the news of Nizam's decision to surrender caused jubilation all over India and also among the people of Hyderabad.</FONT></FONT></B><P><B><FONT FACE="Comic Sans MS"><FONT SIZE=-1>Qasim Razvi, and many other leaders of Ittehadul Musalmin were caught and tried. But by the time their trial concluded, the Congress Party came to power in Hyderabad. Sardar Patel was no more. In consonance with the Muslim appeasement policy of the Congress, these traitors were allowed the escape with lesser punishments. Later they went to Pakistan with great zeal and hope. What happened to them there is not known to many.<BR></FONT></FONT></B><P><B><FONT FACE="Comic Sans MS"><FONT SIZE=-1><BR>The remnants of the Ittehadul Musalmin changed the name of the Islamic Communal outfit to Majlis-e-Ittehad and later converted it into a political party called Majlis-e-Ittehadul -Musalmin which still garners enough votes from the Muslim ghettoes of the old city of Hyderabad to send a couple of members of the State Assembly and lone member to the nation's Parliament. But the irony is that the Ittehad's posterity is neither repentant nor abashed of the monstrosity of their<BR>predecessors. And the Hindu residents of the Old City are not yet sure whether the Police will be permitted to act swiftly to rescue them from Muslim attacks, as was done fifty years ago. Then that in being defined as secularism.</FONT></FONT></B><P></BODY><BR></HTML><BR>
For more information :<BR>( Answers for Prof.Raghu's questions are very difficult. Need to search libraries in Hyd. ) <A HREF="http://www.pragna.org/Art12498.html" TARGET=_blank>http://www.pragna.org/Art12498.html</A> <BR> <A HREF="http://www.pragna.org/Vm089092.html" TARGET=_blank>http://www.pragna.org/Vm089092.html</A> <BR> <A HREF="http://www.pragna.org/Vm059092.html" TARGET=_blank>http://www.pragna.org/Vm059092.html</A> <BR> <A HREF="http://www.pragna.org/Vm069092.html" TARGET=_blank>http://www.pragna.org/Vm069092.html</A> <BR> <A HREF="http://www.pragna.org/Vm049092.html" TARGET=_blank>http://www.pragna.org/Vm049092.html</A> <p>[This message has been edited by Muppalla (edited 20-11-1999).]
I'm sure other people from Hyderabad can also verify this. It is a fact that all ex-serviceman from the Nizam's state forces were treated on par with ex-servicemen from the Indian army. They are all allowed to draw ration and avail of medical facilities in the Indian army like other ex-servicemen.<P>It is really sad that these SOBs have been allowed stay in Indian soil. I know of one MIM activist in Houston who got a Green card in Houston pleading political asylum from Indian persecution in Hyderabad, India. <P>For this state of affairs I hold each and every Indian responsible who voted for the Congress in the last fifty years.<BR><P>------------------<BR>Paul
I have not read all the posts in its entirety, will do so. Thank Prof for visiting history. <P>A few observations:<P>1) Free Hyderabad Society. Surely that refers to Hyderabad, <B>SINDH</B><P>2) An Arab general in the heart of India. Whoa! How about an Indian general lording over in the heart of Saudi Arabia - Mecca for instance? <P>3)Quite possibly, the Razakars who died perhaps deserved what they got -- and be glad they did not suffer horribly unlike their Hindu victims. <P>4) One of the Pak army officers, perpetrators of killing hundreds of Bangladeshi intellectuals in Dacca just before the scum army surrendered now fronts as a Head of an Islamic charity in New York. Several Bangladsehis have found out about him and are now trying to have him sent back to Bangladesh to face charges of war crimes. <P>5) Similar to the Simion Wizenthal center whcih has a Nazi Hunter units trained to hunt down the goons, there should be a Razakar Hunter units formed by Indians to hunt down the last remanants of these mother lovers. I shall be willing to contribute to such a fund. I am sure there are several of them hiding in the USA. Let's petition the US govt. to extradite them to India to face war crimes.<P><p>[This message has been edited by reggie (edited 20-11-1999).]
1. So now after reading the other thread on Sardar Patel also, we have four references (M. V. Kamath, Mohammad Yacoob, our own LNS, P.R. Kulkarni - three Hindus, one Muslim) as well as eyewitness accounts from family members of some of our BR Forum members clearly stating that the Razakars were simply one arm of the present day MIM - volunteer corps, the armed wing of MIM, call it what you will.<P>Yet Badar says "You heard wrong. MIM and Razakar's were two different organizations.<BR>I am puzzled. Does he mean two organizations in the sense of simply "two different letterheads, but same personnel" or two entirely unrelated organizations. If the former, it is meaningless. If the latter, it is clearly contrary to truth - and I will have to conclude that, based on the overwhelming evidence from Hindus and Muslims alike, as noted above.<P>2. Thanks Muppalla, for the invaluable resources.<BR>From the article you cite:<P>Qasim Razvi, and many other leaders of Ittehadul Musalmin were caught and tried. But<BR> by the time their trial concluded, the Congress Party came to power in Hyderabad.<BR>Sardar Patel was no more. In consonance with the Muslim appeasement policy of the Congress, these traitors were allowed the escape with lesser punishments.<P>I had never read this or any other article dealing with Operation Polo and the Razakars before. <BR>But why is that I am not surprised to read this?<P>Why are those who killed and raped Indians living under the then territory of India allowed to go scot free? Note I am not talking about Razakar atrocities in the then state of Hyderabad, but their "cross-border" atrocities within India.<P>3. Paul notes:<BR>I'm sure other people from Hyderabad can also verify this. It is a fact that all ex-serviceman from the Nizam's state forces were treated on par with ex-servicemen from the Indian army. They are all allowed to draw ration and avail of medical facilities in the Indian army like other ex-servicemen.<P>I am astonished, angry.<BR>Can others corroborate this?<BR>Why did this happen?<P>As an analogy, will the Government of India now let the killers of Kargil, and torturers of Lt.Kalia and others, be treated on par with the heroes who sacrificed their life and limb for India in Kargil?<P>LNS and others on BR.<BR>Can someone write to the GoI or take any action to stop such atrocious behavior on the part of GoI.<BR>Granted, some of the Razkars must be quite old - but as Reggie notes, do the Israelis stop pursuing the Nazis? Even a paisa more should not be spent on the Razakar thugs. It is an insult to those who gave up their lives in Operation Polo.<P>Aside: why was it called Operation Polo?
Razakars and others in the Nizam's pay were systematically executed by Indian forces. <P>There were several incidents of Post takeover violence, in which not only razakars, but also muslims in certain villages were massacared..both by revenge hungry neigbours, as well as mobs backed by official support.<P>The figure of 200,000 is on the higher side, I am not trying to play down the significance or put down the pain of such incidents. but merely stating my opinion. I could be wrong, but till information really surfaces, Its difficult to arrive at figures. there is some interesting reading of Post takeover in the book<P>"Hyderabad : After the Fall"<BR>Edited by Omar Khalidi published by the<BR>Hyderabad Historical Society - Wichita, Kansas, USA. 1988<P>Me thinks the abovementioned Historical society consists of some nostalgic ex nizam's men who dream of getting back Hyderabad, for some of their ideas are on the same line.<P>About El Edroos, He never had true power over the razakars, if anyone deserved to be tried and shot, it was Rizvi, strangely, rizvi was released ten years later when he went and settled down in Pakistan.<P>Many Ex Hyderabad Army men were absorbed into the Indian Army. Why, Even Param Vir Chakra Lt Col A B Tarapore was initially from the Hyderabad Army.
Jagan,<BR>I had a nagging feeling that Col Tarapore was originally from the Hyderabad army, but was not certain. What exactly did Col Tarapore do in the Hyd army? I remember reading a brief clip somewhere that he was in the Hyd army - but what was his role in 1948? Did he take part in the fighting against India in 1948?<P>Or, were the Hindu officers/soldiers not permitted or not willing to fight the Indian army? (for some reason, the analogy which comes to my mind right now is Brigadier Mani, a Tamil officer in the Sri Lankan army. Incidentally, he was murdered at the very beginning of the 1983 disturbances, reportedly by the Sinhalese soldiers.)<P>What was the composition of the Hyd army in 1948?<BR>What happened to them? <BR>How many were:<BR> a) arrested and tried/convicted?<BR> b) simply disbanded?<BR> c) incorporated into Indian army?<P><BR>Paul and others,<BR>In light of what Jagan has noted, is it perhaps that only those - like Col Tarapore - who joined the Indian army received the benefits? Or was it given to all Hyd army men, even those who fought against the Indian army in 1948 and did not join the IA later? (that is, did only the "good" guys get the benefits, or was it given to all including the "bad" guys?)<P><BR>Ramen,<BR>You raise an interesting point, but I request that your point warrants a separate thread all on its own.
Prof<P>About Tarapore , Check this link (From the Pakistani Defence Journal Site)<BR> <A HREF="http://www.defencejournal.com/feb-mar99/poona-horse.htm" TARGET=_blank>http://www.defencejournal.com/feb-mar99/poona-horse.htm</A> <P>The Article by an Indian Author has this to say:<P><B>If I may be allowed to digress a little, the commanding officer of Poona Horse , Lt Col 'Adi' Tarapore was originally from the Hyderabad State Forces which he joined in 1942. Although he wanted to serve in the cavalry, he was commissioned in 7th Hyderabad Infantry. He probably would have continued to languish in the Infantry but for an incident which took place when his battalion was being inspected by Maj Gen El-Edros the C in C of the State Forces. Adi's company was carrying out routine training at that time, at the grenade throwing range. One of the sepoy's - a fresh entrant -momentarily panicked and failed to lob the grenade correctly, resulting in the grenade falling into the throwing bay. Adi immediately jumped into the throwing bay and picking up the grenade, threw it away to safety. However, the grenade burst as it left his hand, and he was peppered with flying shrapnel in his chest. General El Edross who had witnessed this incident, summoned, Adi to his office, after he had recovered from his injuries and personally congratulated him for his courage and presence of mind. Adi availed of this opportunity to request for a transfer to an armoured regiment, and General El Edross had him posted to the 1st Hyderabad Imperial Service Lancers.<P>During WW2 the 1st Hyderabad Lancers saw service in the Middle East. At this time the Regiment was commanded by a British Officer, possibly a racist, whose manners and conduct left much to be desired, particularly when compared to the rest of the Hyderabadi officers, most of whom comprised the aristocracy of the State. The CO was rude in his behaviour and often commented adversely on the fighting capabilities of the 'natives' under his command. On one occasion he even insulted the Nizam. Adi Tarapore who was present took strong exception to this and told his CO, 'You have insulted my country and my King-and I do not mean George VI'. This incident created a furore. The Regiment was kept in isolation and all their ammunition was withdrawn. The matter was finally settled after a visit by Gen El Edross to General Montgomery. In 1951 some of the Hyderabad States Force units were merged with the Indian Army, and Adi was posted to the Poona Horse.</B><BR>
<BR>Admins: This thread should be archived.
Can get some Military and flag info here but still elusive of Prof.Raghu's questions.<BR> <A HREF="http://fotw.digibel.be/flags/in-hyder.html" TARGET=_blank>http://fotw.digibel.be/flags/in-hyder.html</A>
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