Indian Space Program Discussion

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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby disha » 03 Feb 2011 12:35

Next meeting is due on February 7 and also they are waiting for data from the Russians. I think this is going to be a long haul.

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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby SSridhar » 07 Feb 2011 15:39

ISRO is going through one of its worst times perhaps. First the successive failures and now this.

CAG goes after Antrix's deal with a private company
The agreement relates to ISRO's launching of two satellites for Devas but automatically bestows on the latter a large hidden benefit: Of unbridled and 20-year use of 70 MHz of the scarce S-band spectrum. Business Line learns that according to preliminary CAG estimates, this spectrum largesse to a private customer could have caused the exchequer a loss in excess of Rs 2-lakh crore. And, according to the contract with Devas, Antrix would have earned just $11 million a year per satellite for 12 years.

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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby KrishG » 07 Feb 2011 17:06

Watched the webcast of AI-seminar on Manned Missions by C.S. Harish, Dy Project Director, VSSC. Little new info divulged. The program has not yet received full clearance and the last failures of GSLV will not any major effect on the timelines.

He mentioned the recent GSLV failure as an "accident rather than a failure".

Some stupid DDMs asking stupid questions making no sense whatsoever! :roll: :roll: I wish I had a chance to be there! :x

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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby Gagan » 07 Feb 2011 19:15

Somehow one gets the feeling that the cryo fuel leak damaged the metal supports around, and might have played a role.

Perhaps that is why metal characteristics are being inquired into from the russians.

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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby KrishG » 07 Feb 2011 19:55

ramana wrote:Can someone lookup the "German made connectors" on google?


iirc, these connectors are manufactured by Deutsch. Their connectors are used on many launch vehicles including the Ariane-5.

http://www.deutsch.net/deutsch-connectors.aspx?page=81

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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby Varoon Shekhar » 10 Feb 2011 19:10

http://isro.org/newsletters/scripts/new ... 010sep2010

Some nuggets in the newsletter, including about the excellent performance of the Vikram processor.

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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby wig » 11 Feb 2011 16:02

India to have satellite navigation system by 2015
India will launch seven satellites in the next four to six years to develop its own version of the Global Positioning System (GPS) for enhancing surveillance capabilities and improving accuracy of its weapon systems.

The Indian Navigation System (INS) satellites would provide coverage over India's areas of interest for military purposes along with its civilian uses, IAF sources told PTI here.

Till now, India is dependent on the American GPS and has signed a deal with Russia for using their GLONAS system but having an indigenous system would guarantee the availability of system during crisis or conflicts.

Asked about similar developments in the neighbourhood, they said China was developing its own version of the GPS which will cover the whole globe.
The Indian Navigation System (INS) satellites would provide coverage over India''s areas of interest for military purposes along with its civilian uses, IAF sources told PTI here.

http://www.ptinews.com/news/1343548_Ind ... m-by-2015-

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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby wig » 11 Feb 2011 16:13

India has technology to defend satellites: Saraswat
India did not believe in space wars but had all the technology required to integrate systems to defend its satellites, V K Saraswat, Scientific Advisor to the Defence Minister, said today.

"Our country does not have a policy to attack anybody in space. We don't believe in it. But as part of the Ballistic Missile Defence Programme, we have all the technology elements which are required to integrate a system through which we can defend our satellites or take care of future requirements."

As a country, "we do not believe in space wars", he said in response to a query whether India had anti-satellite weapon capabilities.

India did not have a formal anti-satellite weapon policy of attacking satellites in space, but was well geared in case of any eventuality, he told reporters here.

http://www.ptinews.com/news/1343348_Ind ... --Saraswat

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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby Kailash » 16 Feb 2011 14:55

Chandrayaan found water on moon, Nasa confirms

Finally the magnanimous NASA speaks out..

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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby Hiten » 16 Feb 2011 18:56

VSSC's Mr. Harish speaking about reasons & challenges for India to conduct a manned space mission at the Aero India seminar

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ImI9vm2QGgI

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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby Varoon Shekhar » 17 Feb 2011 20:36

http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/

A vehicle set for launch. Must be PSLV-Resourcesat 2. Launch eagerly awaited!

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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby ramana » 17 Feb 2011 20:53

When is the GSLV failure report due?

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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby Murugan » 18 Feb 2011 16:16

NASA confirms that the Disover of Water On Moon Was Due to Chandrayan MIP of ISRO

http://nvonews.com/2011/02/17/nasa-conf ... r-on-moon/

Dilip Ghosh Writes: The discovery of water on moon was till recently attributed to NASA’s Moon Mineralogy Mapper, M3 on board India’s Chandrayan space craft. It was claimed that the instrument detected water on moon’s polar region on 14 November 2008 while the space craft was rotating the earth’s natural satellite in a 100 kilo meter circular orbit. In an important development that wrong was set right on February 12, 2011 when the American Astronomical Society announced that the NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope (HST) had confirmed the discovery of water on moon by the Indian built Moon Impact Probe (MIP) on board Chandrayan. The MIP, a 34 kg box shaped object carried the Chandra Altitudinal Composition Explorer, CHANCE which had three devices, a video imaging instrument, a radar altimeter and a mass spectrometer. While the video imaging instrument was for taking pictures of the moon’s surface as MIP approached it, the radar altimeter was for measuring the rate of descent of the probe to the lunar surface. The mass spectrometer was for studying the extremely thin lunar atmosphere. It took the MIP 25 minutes after it was detached from the orbiting space craft to reach the moon’s surface. During that time before hard landing on moon’s surface, the MIP radioed all the information to Chandrayan which it instantly recorded in its onboard memory for reading out later. With the MIP’s sending of information to Chandrayan, India’s very first attempt to send a lunar probe was successfully concluded.

When the news that the NASA had confirmed the MIP’s discovery of water on moon broke out, there was jubilation in ISRO’s Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre where CHANCE was developed. The manager of CHACE project, Syed Maqbool Ahmed reacted to the development saying “This is the first time scientists from the west have acknowledged the published work of direct evidence of water on the moon by India.” Tirtha Pratim Das, a scientist who worked for CHACE project wrote in Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre’s internal journal ‘Voyage’, “The experiment on board the Moon Impact Probe made the first successful measurement on the lunar day-side atmosphere on 14th November, 2008.” According to him the analysis of the data revealed the presence of water in a significant amount on the moon. The credit of discovery of water on moon, however, does not go to Chndrayan’s MIP alone. Two other probes of the NASA also found water on moon. Visual & Infrared Mapping Spectrometer on board Cassini spacecraft launched in 1999 found water molecules at different places on the sunlit portion of moon’s surface. High Resolution Infrared Imaging Spectrometer on Epoxi space craft while flying past moon in June last year also found water and Hydroxyl molecules on the moon’s polar region. The results of these explorations, however, remained unpublished till recently.

Finding water on the surface of moon and particularly, in more quantities than predicted before is certainly a great thing. But, exactly how abundant is the water on moon? Dr Roger Clark of US Geological Survey in Denver gave a precise idea about it. He said, “If you harvested one ton of moon’s top layer soil, you could get as much as 32 ounces of water.” Talking in general terms, the principal investigator of NASA’s Moon Minerology Mapper, M3 project, Dr Carle Pieters says, “When we say water on moon we are not talking about lakes, oceans or puddles. Water on moon means molecules of water and Hydroxyl that interact with rock and dust on moon’s surface.” Another NASA scientist Paul Spudis has, however, said that the Chandrayaan’s radar data has revealed the presence of bulk water ice frozen in the shadowed craters near the Moon’s north pole, in the amount of at least 600 million metric tonnes. He said,data from the Moon Minerology Mapper instrument aboard Chandrayaan had detected a thin but widespread presence of surface-adsorbed water in the lunar regolith, in the form of a hydroxyl-bond signature.

One may recall that Chandrayaan was successfully launched by ISRO’s PSLV-C11 rocket on October 22, 2008 from Satish Dhawan Space Centre at Sriharikota into its intended elliptical orbit around Earth. From the Earth’s elliptical orbit, the space craft entered into its planned lunar orbit on November 8, 2008. Then its orbital height was reduced in steps to its intended operational altitude of 100 km from the lunar surface. Since its launch, the health ofChandrayaan was being continuously monitored from the Spacecraft Control Centre of ISRO’s Telemetry, Tracking and Command Network (ISTRAC) at Bangalore. The space craft had a planned life time of two years. However, about ten months from its launch date, it suddenly lost radio contact on August 29, 2009. This was a set back for ISRO, but, the loss should not be exaggerated. In fact, compared to the space agencies of other space faring nations, the ISRO’s record is much better It needs to be mentioned here that during its ten month long existence Chandrayancompleted 95 % of its objectives. It completed nearly 3400 revolutions during which it sent more than 70,000 images of moon.

Among the tasks Chandrayan performed, was the discovery of numerous tunnels on the lunar surface. A science writer argued that these tunnels could be useful when Man builds its abode on this celestial body. These could provide him shelter from cosmic and other harmful rays that pound the moon’s surface. Besides, the data collected byChandrayan will also be useful when ISRO launches its Chandrayan 2 mission. Former ISRO chairman, Dr. G.Madhavan Nair says, it is planned for launch in 2013. The Chandrayaan-2 will comprise of a motorized rover and a lunar orbiter. The motorized rover weighing about 30 kg will run on solar power and have a life-span of 30 days. The rover’s job will be to collect rock and soil samples for chemical analysis and sending the data to Chandrayaan-2, which in its turn will transmit them to Earth. But, the greatest achievement of Indian space scientists was perhaps that they succeeded in sending a space craft to moon which is more than 3 lakh 40 thousand kilo meter away and that success will give them enough impetus to take up international space ventures in future.


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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby abhishek_sharma » 21 Feb 2011 11:34

India May Join U.S. MoonRise Mission

http://news.sciencemag.org/scienceinsider/2011/02/india-may-join-us-moonrise-mission.html

India hopes to join the United States on a sample return mission to the moon, according to K. Radhakrishnan, chair of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). He announced that India's policy group, the Space Commission, decided on 12 February to give the go-ahead for work on a possible contribution to MoonRise, a U.S. effort to land a probe on the moon's surface, scoop up 1 kilogram of material, and return it to Earth for analysis. India would provide an orbiter similar to its observation satellite Chandrayaan-1, which in 2009 helped clinch evidence of water's presence on the moon.

The new Indian instrument would circle the moon for a few years and aid in communications and imaging. ISRO hopes to invest $38 million on developing this 400 to 500 kg instrument, which would travel into space on a U.S. Atlas rocket.

The mission leader, NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, is planning for a launch in 2016, but has not yet selected the MoonRise instruments. The goal is to learn more about the geology and origins of the moon. According to NASA, the mission will "focus on the giant South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin on the far side, which lies between the moon's South Pole and Aitken crater. ... The SPA basin is the oldest, deepest observable impact basin on the moon and ranks among the largest recognized impact structures in the solar system," (shown in the image).

ISRO's involvement has more than technical significance: It would underline a change in Indo-U.S. security relations. Until recently, U.S. labs and companies were prohibited from exchanging technologies with ISRO, in an attempt to limit their use for military purposes. But the two countries have been moving closer in recent years, and barriers have been coming down. In November, Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and U.S. President Barack Obama met in New Delhi and agreed to become strategic partners. The countries may be ready to join hands on a major space mission.

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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby nits » 22 Feb 2011 13:43

Rocket failure: Russian, Indian scientists differ on cause

The mystery over the mid-air crashing of an Indian rocket in December continues with officials of the Indian space agency and experts from Russia, which supplied the cryogenic engine, differing on the possible cause of the rocket's failure.

The Russians have pointed their fingers at the rocket's bigger heat shield (4 metre) as the proximate cause for high atmospheric load on the rocket that broke it. Refuting that theory, Indian officials cited an earlier GSLV rocket that went up with a heat shield of similar size.

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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby ramana » 22 Feb 2011 22:06

^^^^
Posting in full as it a very good example of a failure investigation process:

CHENNAI: The mystery over the mid-air crashing of an Indian rocket in December continues with officials of the Indian space agency and experts from Russia, which supplied the cryogenic engine, differing on the possible cause of the rocket's failure.

The Russians have pointed their fingers at the rocket's bigger heat shield (4 metre) as the proximate cause for high atmospheric load on the rocket that broke it. Refuting that theory, Indian officials cited an earlier GSLV rocket that went up with a heat shield of similar size.

The Indian Space Research Organisation's (ISRO) 418-tonne Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) rocket (cost Rs.175 crore) carrying advanced communication satellite GSAT-5P (weight 2,310 kg, cost Rs.150 crore) veered off its flight path and began disintegrating within one minute after lift-off from Sriharikota in Andhra Pradesh Dec 25, 2010.

{This is irrelvant background added by the reporter to provide context.}

"The Russians have attributed the failure to bigger heat shield. However, we have established why it can't be," former ISRO chief G. Madhavan Nair, who heads the failure analysis committee (FAC), told IANS.

Till date the FAC has met thrice - the first meeting was in January and the subsequent two meetings were held Feb 7 and Feb 14 at Thiruvanathapurm in Kerala.

{Most likely at the site of the design organization in order to have access to analysis data. Shows the importance of where the FAC is held.}

According to the ISRO, the rocket's failure was due to the snapping of 10 connectors that carry command signals from the onboard computer to the control electronics of the four strap-on motors in the first stage.

The German made connectors are fixed on a metal plate. The plate, in turn, is fixed to a shroud or cylindrical cover that comes between the cryogenic engine and the lower stage (engine).

The shroud made of composites is part of the Russian cryogenic engine and it got deformed due to the flight load which in turn led to the snapping of the connectors.

{From this description it looks like the Russians supplied the cryo stage and not just the engine. So its one unit.}

Experts told IANS that the first 15 kilometres of a rocket's flight is a very crucial time as it is subjected to heavy atmospheric loads. It is more so when the rocket is escaping the earth's gravitational pull at 330 metres per second.


{The reference to gravitationl pull is secondary. And the speed is wrong for thats only Mach1 ! What he was told is the atmospheric loads are high at that stage due to the rocket velocity being high to escape gravity. And due to being greater than Mach 1 the loads are turbulent and random. It is the high atmospheric loads causing the shroud deformation which is the root cause.}

The flow of air along the rocket will be turbulent at the transonic speed - when the rocket crosses the speed of sound. At that point the air will attach to the rocket at some places and detach at some spots in a haphazard manner.

{Precisely!}

According to Nair, there is no divergence of views between the ISRO and the Russians on the reasons for the connectors demating, that is, the shroud deforming during the rocket's flight.

At the Feb 7 meeting, the Russians after analysing the data and the pictures provided by ISRO, agreed that the connectors snapped due to deformation of the shroud.

However, they said the rocket suffered heavy atmospheric loads due to its bigger heat shield which in turn resulted in the deformation of the shroud.

The Dec 25 GSLV's heat shield measured 4 metre diametre as against 3.4 metre diametre most of the earlier GSLV rockets had.

ISRO officials argue that a rocket with a 4 metre diametre heat shield was flown in April 2010.

Though the April 2010 rocket too went down into the sea as the Indian made cryogenic engine failed to power the rocket, ISRO officials said the failure happened only after the first two stages performed well.

{In other words the larger diameter was not the contributor.}

According to them, necessary calibrations have been carried out in the rocket's navigational systems, control dynamics and aerodynamics factoring the bigger heat shield carried by the GSLV rocket.

{Shows that all systems were re-calibarated for the larger 4.0 diameter shield or fairing.}

Nair said ISRO's different teams are carrying out various experiments to arrive at the cause of load on the rocket.

{More investigations on the deformation phenomenon. I would seek material properties of the composite that was actually used for the connector shroud. It could be marginally good and not have enough strength to accomodate any additonal anomalous loads.}

The Russians, on their part, told ISRO that they would revert after studying the data provided to them



very good failure analysis investigation.

A root cause is one which we can take corrective action on. Other wise its nothing.

Also is this the last Russian Cryo Stage?

Is there a picture of the shroud. In my mind I envisage an inverted scoop transition from the cryo stage to the second stage structure which holds the metal plate for the connectors..

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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby ramana » 22 Feb 2011 22:10

Vina, does the Strouhal number come into play here? IIRC it relates the geometry, the velocity and the natural frequency of the body. So there could be resonance to the turbulent flow around the shroud leading to deformation.

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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby juvva » 23 Feb 2011 09:01

The earlier GSLV flight ( which did not suffer from this failure mode) also had the larger (4m) sheild, but the cryogenic stage and hence the shroud were indigenous. It would be interesting to know what is different in the indigenous and Russian shrouds.


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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby ramana » 24 Feb 2011 02:53

Juvva, Is there a picture of the shroud area for us to look?

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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby SaiK » 24 Feb 2011 03:24

Is it a russian made shroud?

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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby PratikDas » 24 Feb 2011 06:06

I think we're getting confused between the shroud for the payload and the shroud of the cryo engine.

I think the shroud of the payload has always been Indian and the shroud of the Russian cryo has always been Russian.

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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby ramana » 24 Feb 2011 21:10

The shroud for payload should be called a fariing to use correct terminology. The shroud for the cryo stage should be called the shell for that is that it is.

I just realized, was the 4m dia payload faring/shroud ever flown with the Russian cryo stage?


I think from my understanding the 4M dia payload was flown on the Indian cryo stage. Hence both parties are right.

The 4m dia fairing could have caused new/unanticipated loads on the Russian cryo stage/shrould which deformed leading to the connector palte severance/snapping.

An quick check would be the thickness of the material for the Indian cryo stage and that of the Russian cryo stage provided the materials are same.

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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby svinayak » 25 Feb 2011 03:21

ramana wrote:
The 4m dia fairing could have caused new/unanticipated loads on the Russian cryo stage/shrould which deformed leading to the connector palte severance/snapping.


What is the kind of stress level on the fairing normally.

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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby VinodTK » 27 Feb 2011 02:27

Boeing eyes Indian space contracts
Boeing's interest in greater engagement with India's space program comes also as the Indo-Russian joint venture and cruise missile developer BrahMos Aerospace eyes cryogenic work. BrahMos hopes to get the contract to manufacture a cryogenic engine -- one that uses cryogenic fuel -- once ISRO is ready to go to market, BrahMos Chief Executive A. Sivathanu Pillai told reporters in Chennai.

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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby nits » 01 Mar 2011 14:08

Isro rockets into higher orbit with a 35% hike


The Indian Space Research Organization ( Isro) on Friday prepared to zoom into higher orbit following a nearly 35% hike in its budget. This, the space agency says, is the highest in recent years.

In 2009, Isro's budgetary allocation was Rs 4,167 crore. This year it has jumped to Rs 5,778 crore. "We've received additional Rs 1,611 crore, which will enable us to implement most of our approved projects without a hitch," said an official to ToI requesting anonymity.

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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby Bade » 01 Mar 2011 22:04

ISRO Tests Rocket Motor, Delays Satellite Launch
Chennai (PTI) Feb 28, 2011
After 16 successful launches of its workhorse rocket Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) in the last 17 years, the Indian space agency is now testing a key component to re-qualify its on-flight performance parameters to avoid any unpleasant surprises. The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is testing the gas motor which is fitted in the second stage/engine powered by liquid fuel for high temperature tolerance levels.

The test has forced ISRO to postpone the launch of its remote sensing satellite Resourcesat-2 and two other payloads by nearly a month. Remote sensing satellites like Resourcesat send back pictures and other data for various uses. India is a major player in providing such data in the global market.

The rocket was scheduled for launch this week.

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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby SriSri » 02 Mar 2011 06:53


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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby ramana » 02 Mar 2011 06:59

SS Salvi, Has the 4m Fairing ever flew on a Russian Cryo stage?

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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby kvraghavaiah » 02 Mar 2011 08:06

PSLV with resource sat is scheduled for launch on or after march 20th.

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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby kvraghavaiah » 02 Mar 2011 19:34

Jut yesterday,I gathered the news that PSLV will be launched on or after march 20th.Reason being, a pending test of a new key component to ensure no surprise after launch.

Today, I read in a Telugu news paper that PSLV will be dismantled now, meaning that the PSLV will be launched only in quarter 2 of this Calender year.

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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby ramana » 02 Mar 2011 21:27

KVR, see the post by Bade:
viewtopic.php?p=1039181#p1039181

What that means is the key component didn't work and needs replacement. Wonder why they went to the extent of vehicle assembly without testing the component earlier? Maybe they thought it was a marginal change and the test showed it wasn't.

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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby Hiten » 03 Mar 2011 11:25

ramana wrote:Juvva, Is there a picture of the shroud area for us to look?

would these pictures help?

pictures of the GSAT-5P between the fairings & also the f06 at the launchpad - fairly hi-res pictures

http://www.aame.in/2011/02/geosynchrono ... hicle.html

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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby ramana » 03 Mar 2011 22:57

Will look at the F06 picture and let you know. I suspect the cables are the black strip running at the top of the vehicle.

However a question. Was the 4m dia fairing ver frlow with te Russian cryo stage. To me look slike not. And that combination was the problem.

Also I dont understand the primary cause and root cause. A root cause is a cause which explains the phenomenon/failure and one can take corrective action. All else are causes.

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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby PratikDas » 04 Mar 2011 17:52

NASA earth observation satellite fails to reach orbit
The earth observation satellite Glory failed to reach orbit on Friday after its protective cover did not detach following its launch, a NASA official said. "The fairing did not separate and the vehicle does not have sufficient velocity with the fairing on to achieve orbit," an official said on NASA TV, adding that there was "no indication as to why it did not separate."


Yes, I'm aware this is the Indian space program thread, but if such a basic issue can trip up NASA then a lengthened shroud collapsing due to over-estimated strength on the first flight with additional fuel and payload seems quite plausible!

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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby kvraghavaiah » 04 Mar 2011 23:07

ramana wrote:Will look at the F06 picture and let you know. I suspect the cables are the black strip running at the top of the vehicle.

However a question. Was the 4m dia fairing ver frlow with te Russian cryo stage. To me look slike not. And that combination was the problem.

Also I dont understand the primary cause and root cause. A root cause is a cause which explains the phenomenon/failure and one can take corrective action. All else are causes.


I doubt that black stripe is not the cable bus.
I guess that black one may be some fuelling /coolant connection.
cables wont be so wide and open outside(how wide is a cpu bus.)

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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby kvraghavaiah » 04 Mar 2011 23:10

It is hurting me a lot to see consecutive failures/delays in ISRO.
The name of the running telugu year is 'vikruti', meaning 'destruction' or 'loss'. (rockest are launched from andhra.)

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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby rgsrini » 05 Mar 2011 00:04

I know it is utter OT. But I want to reply to this post. Mods can delete both if they feel like it.

kvraghavaiah wrote:It is hurting me a lot to see consecutive failures/delays in ISRO.

Unnecessary pressure...Allow some latitude. We are testing uncharted territories from Indian perspective here. Delays and failures are part of the game. The only way to not have delays and/or failures is to stop trying.

The name of the running telugu year is 'vikruti', meaning 'destruction' or 'loss'. (rockest are launched from andhra.)

Saar, Pardon me for saying this. The fear is so unnecessary it is actually comical. The names of the year, the year number, the month, the dates, the time are all artificial. Afterall Earth has existed for billions of years. We just started to count from an artificial point in time. Just to help us keep track of passage of time.

So no worries and no side tracking of the thread!!!

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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby Kailash » 05 Mar 2011 19:01


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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby A Nandy » 07 Mar 2011 13:45

http://www.siliconindia.com/shownews/IS ... 79567.html

TMC on Chandrayaan finds a cave on the Moon.


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