Indian Space Program Discussion

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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby Shankar » 11 Oct 2010 09:41

Austin - sorry boss me very poor in computer onlee - but think its Linux type modified for a specil application - shall ask around - but not just software the hardware part of the sats is also very custom designed and protected ,even the chips and other components are manufactured in house by ISRO - so infecting a sat with virus is rather far fetched

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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby chackojoseph » 11 Oct 2010 10:50

Shankar wrote:nothing like that happened -it was solar power collection and distribution problem


You are right. People are saying that since ISRO is a Siemens customer and Siemens software is vulnerable to Stuxnet. But, they are not confirming that it happened. its only a speculation.

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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby Juggi G » 12 Oct 2010 07:57


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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby Juggi G » 12 Oct 2010 07:59


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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby Juggi G » 12 Oct 2010 08:00


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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby Vivek K » 12 Oct 2010 08:11


With the launch of the Technology Experiment Satellite in 2001, India joined a group of nations — including the U.S., Japan and Russia — operating spy satellites.
I find the bolded sentence/phrase in most of our reports. It shows our weakness - we just aim to be a part of the club with techs, not the one with the best tech!

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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby Shankar » 12 Oct 2010 09:46

not exactly -in field pf remote sensing we are the best
communication sats need improvement
as regards synthetic apperture radar sats and elint sats we are pretty basic bit things will improve - everything has to be developed in house including the chips ans printed circuit boards - still we have come a long long way and will soon catch up

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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby Kailash » 12 Oct 2010 11:22

ISRO rules out Stuxnet attack on Insat-4 B

Isro has ruled out possibility of the deadly Stuxnet internet worm attacking Insat-4 B satellite on July 7, resulting in 12 of its 24 transponders shutting down.

Speaking to TOI from Bangalore on Monday, Isro officials, requesting anonymity, said that the worm only strikes a satellite’s programme logic controller (PLC).

“We can confirm that Insat-4 B doesn’t have a PLC. So the chances of the Stuxnet worm attacking it appear remote. In PLC’s place, Insat-4 B had its own indigenously-designed software which controlled the logic of the spacecraft,’’ said a source.


Link2

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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby Vipul » 13 Oct 2010 23:03

More ‘space’ for women.

Kalpana Chawla may have reached the space via the US but no more will an Indian woman have to take that route. If the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) plans go well, a woman from the country will soon find herself floating in space in a few years.

Sources in the ISRO told Deccan Herald that the space agency is planning to have a woman on-board in space shortly after, if not the first, the manned-mission scheduled for 2015. The ISRO’s Human Space flight Programme, which got a go-ahead from the Centre in February 2009, aims at developing and launching an orbital vehicle to carry a two-member crew. In a subsequent mission, the agency planned to carry a three-member crew to space, one of which will be a woman, highly-placed sources from the ISRO said.

“For a nation that has always seen tremendous potential in its women, this will be a launch pad of sorts that will only see more women take part in such activities,” a scientist said.The proposal has already taken off with funds coming in from the Centre for pre-project preparations and a three-seater capsule being readied in ISRO’s Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre in Thiruvananthapuram. The mission is indigenous, though the capsule is being developed with Russian technology.

Apart from the technical preparations, efforts to ready manpower are also on. About 250 Indian Air Force (IAF) pilots, including women, have been screened though the crew has yet to be handpicked. Once selected, the pilots will be trained to fly an aircraft outside the planet’s orbit.

“They will be trained with an accurate simulator and will be checked for the right aptitude and other requirements in line with the international standards,” a source pointed out.

The mission to have a woman onboard is being widely discussed in the top chambers of Union Science and Technology Ministry, the Indian Air Force and the Indian Space and Research Organisation, could encourage entry of more women into the fields of scientific research and development, largely considered a male bastion.

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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby Kailash » 15 Oct 2010 06:52

India may seek international help on cryogenic engine

India remains committed to perfecting an indigenous cryogenic upper stage for its most powerful rockets, but the leader of the country's space program is not ruling out asking for more Russian help.


Asked whether India would consider requesting Russian assistance or purchasing more Russian engines, Radhakrishnan was non-committal.

"Let us see what we require," Radhakrishnan said. "Let us see the progress of the indigenous cryogenic upper stage."

India is also designing a cryogenic stage for the third-generation GSLV slated to debut in 2012 or 2013. The GSLV Mk.3 will be powered by a third stage consuming double the propellant of the indigenous GSLV Mk.2 engine that is now the focus of ISRO's rocket engineers.

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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby SriSri » 15 Oct 2010 07:28

Kailash wrote:India may seek international help on cryogenic engine

India remains committed to perfecting an indigenous cryogenic upper stage for its most powerful rockets, but the leader of the country's space program is not ruling out asking for more Russian help.


Asked whether India would consider requesting Russian assistance or purchasing more Russian engines, Radhakrishnan was non-committal.

"Let us see what we require," Radhakrishnan said. "Let us see the progress of the indigenous cryogenic upper stage."

India is also designing a cryogenic stage for the third-generation GSLV slated to debut in 2012 or 2013. The GSLV Mk.3 will be powered by a third stage consuming double the propellant of the indigenous GSLV Mk.2 engine that is now the focus of ISRO's rocket engineers.

I read that report couple of days ago. Completely misleading headline and lot of unsubstantiated presumptions by the author. Read the quotes of Dr. Radhakrishnan and the content of the article doesn't reflect what he's saying.

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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby Shankar » 15 Oct 2010 09:37

C25 indian made cryogenic engine is in advanced stage of manufacture . This includes the cryo engine test facilities too .Carryoing 25T propellant and 20T thrust it will power the CSLV mk 3 - upper stage along with s-200 solid boosters and l110 cluster

No Russian assistance is envisaged her - surely not now . Both s 200 and l110 cluster have been already qualified . C25 is being actually made and the core of the engine the multiple injectors is made . So just dont believe the report

It is 100% indian -ofcourse the knowledge of C12 has helped a lot but thats it . Have been working on its ground test facilities for last 3 years

We may need some help in realizing semi cryo engine -from where and when lets see

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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby Kailash » 15 Oct 2010 11:17

SriSri wrote:Completely misleading headline and lot of unsubstantiated presumptions by the author. Read the quotes of Dr. Radhakrishnan and the content of the article doesn't reflect what he's saying.


It is true that the title and content has many discrepancies. Probable DDM, will remove it if required.

But, is there any chance of us buying more engines from Russians?

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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby geeth » 15 Oct 2010 13:53

Sankarji,

Could ISRO pinpoint the exact cause for the failure of Cryo Engine in-flight? If yes, will it be possible to share any chaiwallah news?

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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby Shankar » 15 Oct 2010 17:32

yes -the reason is booster pump of liquid hydrogen freeze up so the fuel supply to engine was cut off almost immediately after ignition . The shaft has very small clearance from the casing and supposed to rub in a bit in the start phase till the correct clearance is established .It worked perfectly during ground test but failed in flight
why is the million dollar question . I think repeat my thinking only is the the heat transfer from the pump casing to outside is quite different in atmosphere and in space so the shaft housing contracted more than expected and jammed up the shaft where as in ground test it worked well - you know because of insulating effect of near vacuum in space the housing contracted wee bit more than in ground test ( but this is strictly my interpretation have informally shared with some but not official view) - so we have to wait for some more time till the official version come out

what is sure however is liquid hydrogen booster pump failure after stage ignition caused mission failure - detailed review is under way and report expected shortly

The turbo pump of C25 both liquid hydrogen and oxygen have been qualified with number of trail runs .The thrust chamber of C25 should undergo hot test early next year followed by stage engine test and finally stage qualifying test

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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby Shankar » 15 Oct 2010 17:34

c12 test facility do not have high altitude test facility by the way
where as C25 has such a facility exactly for this kind of problem which can not always be fore seen

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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby geeth » 15 Oct 2010 19:36

Thank you...As I understand it, they had not calculated the clearance between the shaft & housing for vacuum conditions in space (according to you). Could be possible.

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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby Shankar » 16 Oct 2010 00:45

they did as in Russian engine -its a different philosophy how the additional clearance will be created once the pump starts running in vacuum at operating temperature - some reason it did not work -thats why we need the high altitude engine test facility as we have for c25 - very very difficult to predict all the variables simply because out experience on pump operation at high altitude and in space is limited to few launches that too with Russian engine -this was the first indian made one

shall post full details once ISRO publishes its official finding

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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby Juggi G » 18 Oct 2010 15:14


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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby ravar » 19 Oct 2010 18:35

Shankar wrote:C25 indian made cryogenic engine is in advanced stage of manufacture . This includes the cryo engine test facilities too .Carryoing 25T propellant and 20T thrust it will power the CSLV mk 3 - upper stage along with s-200 solid boosters and l110 cluster

No Russian assistance is envisaged her - surely not now . Both s 200 and l110 cluster have been already qualified . C25 is being actually made and the core of the engine the multiple injectors is made . So just dont believe the report

It is 100% indian -ofcourse the knowledge of C12 has helped a lot but thats it . Have been working on its ground test facilities for last 3 years

We may need some help in realizing semi cryo engine -from where and when lets see


My chaiwallah informs that the thrust chamber test for CE20 might happen by Dec '10 and full engine test by Nov '11, if all goes well; with an expected launch of Mk 3 by early '13.

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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby ravar » 19 Oct 2010 18:47

Shankar wrote:c12 test facility do not have high altitude test facility by the way
where as C25 has such a facility exactly for this kind of problem which can not always be fore seen


I pooch my chaiwallah whether the CE20 high alititude test facility could be used for CE7.5. The reply was the facility was customized for the bigger engine and hence not possible. Even if made suitable for the smaller engine, reverting it back to shape to test the bigger engine is a highly complex and not worth it.

He said that earlier, there was a proposal to send the CE 7.5 for high-altitude tests in Russia with a cost of around INR 150 cr. The price tag made them shy away from it :roll:

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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby ravar » 19 Oct 2010 19:05

We may need some help in realizing semi cryo engine -from where and when lets see

Ukraine is already helping, as per chaiwallah. Moreover, IIRC, there was a foreign exchange component of ~ INR 500 cr sanctioned by GOI for the SCE.

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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby dinesha » 03 Nov 2010 17:36

India plans two rocket launches in December
http://www.dnaindia.com/india/report_in ... er_1461634

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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby Juggi G » 04 Nov 2010 23:44


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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby dinesha » 10 Nov 2010 09:21

India Aims High With Satellite Technology
http://www.aviationweek.com/aw/generic/ ... gy&prev=10
...
According to a Defense Ministry official, ISRO will launch the first dedicated military surveillance satellite, for the navy, late this year or in 2011. The multi-band satellite will weigh 2,330 kg. (5,137 lb.), be lofted into a geostationary orbit 1,000 nm. above the Indian Ocean, and network warships, submarines, aircraft and land-based operation centers through high-speed data links. Coverage will be 600-1,000 nm. “Maritime threats can then be detected and shared in real time to ensure swift action,” a naval officer says. The projected cost of the satellite is $212 million.

A new aerospace command is standing up that will provide a space-based military capability for monitoring a vast region, from the Strait of Hormuz in the west to the Strait of Malacca in the east, and from China in the north to the Indian Ocean in the south

..
The indigenous $25-million Communication-Centric Intelligence Satellite (CCI-Sat), being developed by the Defense Electronics and Research Laboratory under the Defense Research and Development Organization, will be operational by 2014. It will reportedly be a test bed for antisatellite weapon technology. CCI-Sat, which also has SAR, has imaging and communication functions besides surveillance. “The satellite will orbit Earth at 500 km. and cover hostile regions in the area by passing on surveillance data to intelligence agencies,” says G. Bhoopathy, director of the Defense Electronics Research Laboratory.

...

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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby dinesha » 10 Nov 2010 09:29

DRDO wary despite Obama's 'Entity List' announcement
Ajai Shukla
http://ajaishukla.blogspot.com/2010/11/ ... -list.html
..And Business Standard learned that, in the run-up to Obama’s visit, the DRDO also firewalled its planned military satellite programme from ISRO’s civil satellite development and launch programme, which could soon be a global leader in commercial launches. This was to ensure that the US could not proscribe ISRO by accusing it of involvement in the militarization of space.

Dr Prahlada, a DRDO Chief Controller, explained the rationale to Business Standard just days before Obama’s arrival, “The DRDO will soon set up its own exclusive organisation for military satellites. We do not want to involve ISRO in the military satellite business. Their collaborations might be questioned; they may not get permits; their satellite programme might suffer. So we will set up our own laboratories.”

According to Dr Saraswat, the DRDO’s satellites will be very different from ISRO’s communications, navigation, cartographic and meteorological satellites. The DRDO’s disposable mini-satellites, which would be built for surveillance, intelligence and electronic warfare, could be quickly launched into a low-earth orbit over a theatre of battle only for the duration of the conflict. Since these would not need expensive and time-consuming launches into geo-synchronous orbit, they could be written off after fulfilling their purpose.


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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby SSridhar » 14 Nov 2010 10:26

ISRO to launch three satellites to study climate
Excerpts
The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) will launch three satellites — Megha-Tropiques, SARAL and RISAT-1 — next year to study climate change, said its Chairman K. Radhakrishnan on Saturday.
India had been invited to be part of the International Space Station and discussions were on the nature of scientific experiments to be conducted on board.
Also to be launched next year, the Radar Imaging Satellite (RISAT-1), a microwave remote sensing satellite, will provide all-weather surveillance. Hylas, a communication satellite, would be launched on November 27; GSAT -5P in December and RESOURCESAT- 2 along with YOUTHSAT in January 2011.

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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby shukla » 16 Nov 2010 10:24

X-post

Gary Locke to lead high-tech trade mission to India from February 6-11, 2011

Removal from Entity List facilitates more opportunities for ISRO and DRDO
Machinist


US Commerce Secretary Gary Locke will lead a high-tech trade mission to India. The February 6-11, 2011 business development mission will promote the export of high-technology products from leading U.S. firms and make stops in New Delhi, Mumbai, and Bangalore. The second trade mission led by Locke, it will highlight export opportunities for U.S. businesses in a broad range of advanced industrial sectors, including civil-nuclear trade, defense and security, civil aviation and information and communication.

Exports represent a critical part of the American economy and are a key component of the Obama administration’s efforts to spur new job creation. Earlier this year, President Obama outlined his National Export Initiative (NEI), which seeks to double exports by 2015, in support of several million new U.S. jobs. "We will work to reform our controls on exports. Both of these steps will ensure that Indian companies seeking high-tech trade and technologies from America are treated the same as our closest allies and partners," Obama said.

"We have agreed on steps to deepen cooperation on nuclear, defence and other high-end spectrum," said Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. DRDO has already separated it's military satellite programme from ISRO's civil satellite development and launch programme. Soon DRDO will set up an exclusive organisation for military satellites.

The United States could outsource lightweight satellite launches to India. Lockheed Martin is also interested in cooperating with ISRO on India's manned space flights. Senior executives from Lockheed Martin had visited Bangalore in August and held discussions with ISRO and Antrix. Some of the US satellites assigned to Lockheed Martin could be outsourced to India. There is a dearth of low-cost launching facilities in the world and ISRO has a good track record in this regard. ISRO could soon be a global leader in commercial launches.

This will benefit ISRO, VSSC (Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre), SDSC (Satish Dhawan Space Centre) and other associated organisations. ISRO's satellite launchers are made at VSSC and launched from SDSC. However[b] it remains to be seen how this would affect the current focus on the indigenous development of technology. To a certain extent, it was the denial of technology that bolstered the introduction of various indigenous research, design and development programmes in the country.

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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby shukla » 16 Nov 2010 18:04

British minister visits ISRO, looks forward to collaboration
Business Standard

A British minister today said his country was looking forward to collaborate with India in the areas of space technology and academics. "We are looking forward to closer cooperation with India", British Minister for Universities and Science David Willetts told PTI after visiting the ISRO Satellite Centre (ISAC) here.

The UK is looking forward to collaboration in the areas of sharing of space technology and academics, he said. As a first concrete example of this strengthened partnership, Willetts invited India to partner with the UK in its TechDemoSat programme. TechDemoSat is an industry-led technology demonstration satellite which aims to provide a low-Earth-orbit test bed to help demonstrate the technical maturity and commercial viability of innovative new space technology. It is a low-cost satellite platform into which payloads will be packaged from a range of industrial and academic organisations.

Director of the ISRO Satellite Centre Dr T K Alex invited the UK to consider possibility of partnering with India to train the next generation of space scientists through academic exchange between the Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Indian Institute of Remote Sensing, Centre for Space Science and Technology Education in Asia and the Pacific and leading UK universities.

Willetts said it was a great honour to be the first visiting UK Minister to tour ISAC. He said he was impressed by the facilities and potential of real-world impact of satellites like Resourcesat-2 on areas such as agricultural production and water resource management.

"I am delighted that Dr Alex shares my vision of much closer cooperation and collaboration between the UK and India on space science and innovation and I look forward to welcoming an Indian delegation to the UK in the near future," he said. Willetts, accompanied by the British Deputy High Commissioner to Karnataka and officials from the UK Space Agency and the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills, viewed the construction of Resourcesat-2 and a satellite testing facility at ISAC.

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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby Juggi G » 17 Nov 2010 02:23


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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby darshhan » 18 Nov 2010 14:54

For aspiring space scientists.

http://www.dnaindia.com/academy/report_ ... ms_1457590
In the quaint physics laboratory of St Joseph’s College, Bangalore, every Saturday, a group of youngsters can be seen nurturing its space dream and be part of India’s highly sophisticated space research programme.

In an attempt to nurture and groom youngsters to be part of India’s space programme, Indian Space Research Organisation (Isro) recently renewed a special memorandum of understanding (MOU) with the St Joseph’s College.

As part of the MoU, Isro will provide all possible help, including finances to the physics department of the college and groom space scientists for the future.

The college is currently issuing admission forms for certificate course in space and rocket dynamics, and the last date for applying to the course is November 29. Undergraduate science and engineering students are eligible to apply for the special programme.


Professor Joselin Jose, coordinator of the course, who also teaches physics in the college, said that Isro had recently renewed its commitment to support the course for the next five years.

“We have been closely working with Isro for the last 10 years. After reviewing the course offered by us, and happy with our performance, Isro has renewed its commitment to support the course for the next five years,” said Jose.

Along with sponsoring books, resource materials and equipment, including telescopes, Isro has decided to give financial aid of Rs50,000 to the department every year.

“Ten years back, we started the course with just a few students. Today, we have 75 students. We are expecting about 100 students in our forthcoming batch,” Jose added.

The entire programme in space and rocket dynamics will be for a duration of 120 hours.

Classes will be conducted by eminent scientists from Isro, Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA), Raman Research Institute and Isro satellite centre (ISAC).

Renowned city-based astrophysicists, C Sivaram and K Subramanian have been the guiding force for students in pursuing their space dream. Sivaram is also the course director.

“The primary objective of this course is to create awareness and kindle interest among students in the highly sophisticated world of space research,” said Dr (Fr) Ambrose Pinto, principal of the college.

Some of the topics to be covered as part of the course include astronomy and astrophysics, rocket dynamics, solar physics, cosmology, astrobiology and high-energy astronomy.

“As part of the course, field visits will be arranged to some of the major facilities like Isro satellite centre—Sriharikota range, Vainu Bappu observatory—Kavalur, Vikram Sarabhai space centre—Thumba and Gauribidanur observatory,” said Jose.

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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby Kailash » 26 Nov 2010 15:52


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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby shukla » 26 Nov 2010 15:55

Courting India In Space

How should India and the USA work together in space? - Dr Morris Jones is an Australian space analyst and writer

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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby svinayak » 27 Nov 2010 02:20

shukla wrote:Courting India In Space

How should India and the USA work together in space? - Dr Morris Jones is an Australian space analyst and writer

Why should an australian worry - odd?

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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby Sudip » 27 Nov 2010 05:10

Hylas-1 co-built by EADS Astrium and ISRO Antrix launched for internet access to remote locations in europe

A signal from Hylas was picked up almost immediately at an antenna sited in India.

Hylas was prepared at the Portsmouth, UK, factory of EADS Astrium, Europe's largest space company, and in Bangalore by Antrix, a commercial arm of the Indian space agency (Isro).

That will put more capacity into the UK but also it puts new capacity into new areas in Africa and the Middle East. And then we are planning more satellites for Latin America, India and other parts of Asia.

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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby shukla » 27 Nov 2010 17:47

^^ add on

Satellite jointly built by ISRO & EADS successfully launched
Indian Express

The contract to build it was won in 2006 after stiff competition with leading manufacturers in USA and Europe through the strategic alliance worked out between Antrix/ISRO and M/s EADS Astrium of France, the space agency said. The alliance was formed to jointly develop communication satellites with ISRO platforms and Astrium payloads and market these internationally.

HYLAS weighing 2,541 kg at lift-off is the heaviest satellite built by ISRO for I-2K bus and is capable of operating for over 15 years mission life as demanded by the customer. Its solar panels generate a maximum of about 3,200 watts of power. Antrix/ISRO is also responsible for the post launch operations of HYLAS, being conducted from Hassan. The operations include firing of its Liquid Apogee Motor (LAM) in three phases to place the satellite in geo-stationary orbit.

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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby Kailash » 03 Dec 2010 17:01

Robotic excavation for Chandrayaan-2

In a significant step towards empowering India’s space technology, the Indian Space Research Organisation (Isro) is considering the use of robotic excavation to extract large scale helium-3 (He-3) deposits on the surface of the moon, said Dr G Madhavan Nair, former chairperson, Isro, on Thursday.

<snip>

“Finding water on the moon’s surface by Chandrayaan-1 is a great achievement for human civilisation. Besides that, Chandrayaan-1 also found large-scale presence of He-3 on the moon’s surface,” said Nair.


I guess He3 amount and distribution are of strategic value.. it will never be shared with all countries.

Considering that fusion reactors wont be built widely for the next 30-50 years, and the cost benefit ratio of mining something on the moon and safely returning it to earth, how much sense does it make?

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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby SaiK » 03 Dec 2010 17:29

If it is that strategic why would he openly say it? In the sense, just like how chandrayan-1's water detection never received attention in the world media, and in fact trusted a NASA report/confirmation is enough to keep defence related news classified until proven working. We say many things, this and that, and finally khans land in with huge machinery and takes it home.

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Re: Indian Space Program Discussion

Postby Craig Alpert » 03 Dec 2010 21:46

Isro, HAL on Sarkozy agenda in city
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Sarkozy is expected to fly directly into Bangalore from Paris on December 4 and stay here for a few hours, focusing largely on space. "Isro will host the French leader and his wife," Isro official sources said. A visit to HAL too is on the cards but there's no confirmation on this.

The space connection is natural, considering the long history of collaboration in this sphere between India and France. Sources said Sarkozy will take stock of one of the biggest Indo-French collaborations -- joint fabrication and launch of Megha-Tropiques climate satellite. Approximately 50% of work on this is complete, with Isro's Bangalore centre playing a crucial role. Sarkozy's visit is expected to speed up work for the 2011 launch.

The second project, SARAL (satellites for ARGOS and ALTIKA) is also expected to be ready in the first quarter of 2011. While France will launch the first, India will launch SARAL.

Sarkozy's visit to Isro is significant as France is the only permanent member of the United Nations. Isro is developing satellites for study of weather and climatic conditions and working closely with French space agency CNES.

The visit signifies a preference to work with Isro, what with the Hylas satellite being launched a few days ago from French Guiana. Earlier, Isro had developed the W2M satellite for France.

Sarkozy's HAL visit is also logical. Among the several collaborations HAL has with France, the Mirage fighter aircraft is the most crucial. The others include production of Cheetah and Chetak helicopters which were developed in collaboration with Eurocopter. Very recently, copter trials for replacement of Cheetah and Chetak were completed.
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