Indian Naval Discussion

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Re: Indian Naval Discussion

Postby Shrinivasan » 30 May 2011 19:40

Singha wrote:$700 mil for 5 boats means it has to be smaller than P28 corvette size for sure - P28 is plenty heavy in weapons. methinks its a Sukanya class based OPV design for around $120 mil each


The Main guns would be critical. We probably would have multiple 76mm gun being made by BHEL (Otobreda 76 mm) on these, I am not sure if they can carry a 100mm or 130mm main gun?

An 100mm rapid fire gun similar to the ones used by the French frigate Courbet shelling Misrata, Libya...would be great. see link below -> http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qkYRqL77 ... r_embedded

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Re: Indian Naval Discussion

Postby SNaik » 30 May 2011 19:47

cheenum wrote:
pragnya wrote:http://igorrgroup.blogspot.com/2011/05/trikand-after-launch.html
some pictures of Trikand post lauch.


I am confused with the 4th picture posted (Trikand in a flooded dock? is this an old picture? because after launch the ship rolled off from the dry dock into the water, did they again tow it back into the dock after flooding it?

Also they raise the Indian flag once it is launched and rolls of from the dock, this picture does not have the flag on the bow mast? or elsewhere?

Another thing i noticed, Trikand seems to be very thin? is it to help in Stealth? would it affect its stability in heavy seas?


The ships in Kaliningrad are launched from the slip not directly into the water, but first rolled into a dry-dock, from which they are actually launched into water.

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Re: Indian Naval Discussion

Postby John » 30 May 2011 21:14

cheenum wrote:
Singha wrote:$700 mil for 5 boats means it has to be smaller than P28 corvette size for sure - P28 is plenty heavy in weapons. methinks its a Sukanya class based OPV design for around $120 mil each


The Main guns would be critical. We probably would have multiple 76mm gun being made by BHEL (Otobreda 76 mm) on these, I am not sure if they can carry a 100mm or 130mm main gun?

An 100mm rapid fire gun similar to the ones used by the French frigate Courbet shelling Misrata, Libya...would be great. see link below -> http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qkYRqL77 ... r_embedded

Talwar and Delhi's have 100mm gun (A-190 and AK-100), A-190 is on par/superior to the compact 100 mm gun which is used by the french (which PRC has reverse engineered). But IN is moving towards the Oto 127 mm gun and ordered a large number of them but its unlikely it will be fitted into OPVs.

BHEL along with Italian conglomerate Finmechanica may supply as many as 30 heavy duty 127-mm naval guns. With each gun costing Rs 130-150 crore, this means an order worth Rs 4,500 crore.

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Re: Indian Naval Discussion

Postby Shrinivasan » 31 May 2011 03:27

John wrote:...IN is moving towards the Oto 127 mm gun and ordered a large number of them but its unlikely it will be fitted into OPVs.
BHEL along with Italian conglomerate Finmechanica may supply as many as 30 heavy duty 127-mm naval guns. With each gun costing Rs 130-150 crore, this means an order worth Rs 4,500 crore.

So what will be the main armmament of this "Gun Boat", Navy Design Bureau usually freezes the design, does anyone remember seeing an RFI floated by the navy for this purpose?

the Terms "Gun Boat diplomacy" rings nicely though.

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Re: Indian Naval Discussion

Postby uddu » 31 May 2011 07:09

Indigenising defence - the 70:30 fallacy

The empirical reality of “indigenisation” is evident in the Indian Navy, the only service that pursues indigenisation systematically (the Indian Air Force and the Army talk the talk but oppose indigenisation in practice, demanding aircraft, tanks and guns now, not ten years down the line). The navy takes justifiable pride in building most of its warships in Indian shipyards, but a closer examination reveals that indigenisation is only skin-deep. Defence shipyards have developed the crucial skills needed for designing and constructing sophisticated warships, and for harmonising myriad sensors and weapons into an integrated battle management system. But there is little headway in indigenising the multiplicity of components and systems that are the vital innards of a battleship.

Consequently, India’s four defence shipyards – the flagship Mazagon Dock Ltd, Mumbai (MDL); Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineers, Kolkata (GRSE); Goa Shipyard Ltd (GSL); and the newly acquired Hindustan Shipyard Ltd, Visakhapatnam (HSL) – must necessarily look overseas for the engines, gas turbines, propulsion systems, gearboxes, generators, hydraulic systems, air-conditioning and countless other systems, which add up to the bulk of the cost of modern warships. {The Kaveri Marine GT will be of help here}

These are all lost opportunities for India’s private sector companies, which could be building these systems as their route into the lucrative business of defence production.

This regrettable situation exists largely because the MoD, particularly its Department of Defence Production (DDP), has failed to coordinate and sponsor the development of indigenous capability. Warship builders still import even warship- grade steel, the toughened alloy that comprises the basic structure of a modern battleship. This is not because the technology is beyond us. Years ago, India’s public sector metallurgical establishments – the Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory; Mishra Dhatu Nigam; and Steel Authority of India Ltd – developed and manufactured warship-grade steel (termed D 40S), which has been used in the navy’s reputed Shivalik class frigates. But cross-ministerial coordination is needed to produce the relatively small volumes required for warship programmes while remaining profitable for both steel makers and shipyards. Essar Steel had offered to produce warship steel, subject to some conditions. But the MoD has preferred to continue reliance on import. {Atleast when we have the capability to build things in India, we must do it now itself or it's gross failure of the MOD.}

{Also the Navy can go for the Rustom-1 UAV instead of any more Heron UAV's, since the Rustom-1 is almost ready}

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Re: Indian Naval Discussion

Postby Austin » 31 May 2011 07:53

another one from rian

Russia delivers another batch of naval fighters to India

Russia's MiG aircraft maker delivered a new batch of five MiG-29K/KUB carrier-based fighters to the Indian navy in May, the company said.

"A flight training simulator and other technical equipment has also been delivered," MiG said in a statement on Monday.

The two countries signed a contract stipulating the supply of 12 single-seat MiG-29Ks and four two-seat MiG-29KUBs to India in January 2004. The contract is part of a $1.5-billion deal to deliver the Admiral Gorshkov aircraft carrier, currently being retrofitted in Russia for the Indian Navy.

India's first four MiG-29Ks and MiG-29KUBs officially entered service in February 2010.

In March 2010, Russia and India signed a $1.5-billion contract on the supplies of 29 additional MiG-29K Fulcrum-D carrier-based fighter jets to New Delhi. The start of the supplies is scheduled for 2012.

The contracts for the jets also stipulate pilot training and aircraft maintenance, including the delivery of flight simulators and interactive ground and sea-based training systems.

The Indian Navy has named its MiG-29K squadron the "Black Panthers." The fighters will be based at an airfield in the state of Goa on India's west coast until the Admiral Gorshkov joins the Navy under the name of INS Vikramaditya in early 2013.

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Re: Indian Naval Discussion

Postby Rakesh » 31 May 2011 08:05

That would make a total strength of nine aircraft delivered to date (four in Feb 2010 + five in May 2011). That leaves three more to go from the original contract of 12 aircraft.

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Re: Indian Naval Discussion

Postby Rahul M » 31 May 2011 08:09

can anyone identify the ship in the background ?

Image

if it is a shardul or magar class, anyone knows why it has not 'beached' for the BMP's to disembark ?

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Re: Indian Naval Discussion

Postby Rakesh » 31 May 2011 08:14

That is the Shardul Class...compare the radar masts in the picture to this one;

http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/NAVY/Images/Shardul01.jpg

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Re: Indian Naval Discussion

Postby Singha » 31 May 2011 09:00

the Oto 127mm/64cal weapon can fire the "vulcano" family of long range shells. it is analogous to the ultra long range guns the USMC/USN is playing with on platforms like DDX21 for shore bombardment.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Otobreda_127/64

FREMM and F125(germany) will use this gun. its the best out there or atleast in top3.

http://defense-update.com/products/d/davide-vulcano.htm

70km unguided shells
100km guided shells with 20m CEP

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Re: Indian Naval Discussion

Postby Austin » 31 May 2011 09:06

Rahul M wrote: anyone knows why it has not 'beached' for the BMP's to disembark ?


Coz the BMP's knows to swim :rotfl:

Seriously though could be the water level near the beach might not be deep enough for it to hang close or it could be part of the exercise where the BMP need to travel certain distance through the water to reach the shore , could very well test its amphibious capability and the ship can remain at a safe distance from shore to avoid direct fire.

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Re: Indian Naval Discussion

Postby Shrinivasan » 31 May 2011 09:25

Rahul M wrote:can anyone identify the ship in the background ?

if it is a shardul or magar class, anyone knows why it has not 'beached' for the BMP's to disembark ?

How do I Post pictures from my hard disk as against a web site?

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Re: Indian Naval Discussion

Postby pragnya » 31 May 2011 09:35

Singha wrote:iirc we had got around 6 Mig29K in goa before this. so now we have 11.

18 more to go.


singha sir,

you sure about 29?? are you not taking into account the original order of 16 for a total of 45 Mig 29k/kubs??

Russia and India have signed a $1.5-billion contract on the supplies of 29 more MiG-29K carrier-based fighter jets to New Delhi, the head of the Russian Aircraft Corporation MiG said on Friday.


Russia and India signed a contract stipulating the supply of 12 single-seat MiG-29Ks and four two-seat MiG-29KUBs to India in January 2004. The contract is part of a $1.5 billion deal to deliver the Admiral Gorshkov aircraft carrier, currently being retrofitted in Russia for the Indian navy.


http://en.rian.ru/mlitary_news/20100312/158174946.html

so if 11 is down, 34 more to go!!!

btw the Topowl I HMD (SAMTEL supplied) on the crafts seem to have a name change and also are now qualified for Mirage 2000 too -

Divy Drishti

Indian Helmet Mounted Sight and Display for Indian fighter aircraft

A multi-role system improvement for Air-to-Air and Air-to-Surface missions

The safest solution for operational effectiveness enhancement

Based on Thales advanced and mature technologies, already flying on Indian Navy MiG-29K and qualified on Mirage 2000


http://www.samteldisplays.com/?page=hmd

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Re: Indian Naval Discussion

Postby Shrinivasan » 31 May 2011 09:38

Singha wrote:the Oto 127mm/64cal weapon can fire the "vulcano" family of long range shells. it is analogous to the ultra long range guns the USMC/USN is playing with on platforms like DDX21 for shore bombardment.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Otobreda_127/64

Are you thinking that they will use Oto 127mm/64cal gun for these Gun Boats? if we have couple of 127mm guns, we can pack a huge punch.

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Re: Indian Naval Discussion

Postby tsarkar » 31 May 2011 09:45

Any beaching structually impacts the ships, post operations, it has to be throughly inspected and if necessary refitted. Why damage the ship during exerises? The BMP and T-72s can swim, or offloaded via LCMs.

IN ships were grounded on a sandbar during the 71 Cox Bazaar operations & the ships had to be refitted.

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Re: Indian Naval Discussion

Postby Shrinivasan » 31 May 2011 09:57

LST Kesari a Kumbhir class landing ship unloading T72/BMPIIsImage

Magar class LPDs unloading BMPSIIs Image

I think some of these LPDs can come close, all landing crafts can come right unto the waterline. in Future we would even have a fleet of Hovercraft delivering our troops to the beach head.

Nice if we can have couple of Gun Boats giving them covering fire!!!

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Re: Indian Naval Discussion

Postby Rahul M » 31 May 2011 10:05

Coz the BMP's knows to swim :rotfl:

yeah Austin I know that. :D
do you know what is the range limitation on BMP's while operating in the seas ? how far from the coast can they be offloaded and in what weather condition ?
also, the shardul class carries the WM-18 rocket launchers for beach clearing and it does not have a particularly long range. they would need to come close to operate those.

cheenum sahab, in the pic posted the BMP is clearly 'swimming' to shore. yes, it was offloaded from the LST in the background but the question I was asking was why has the LST not beached. because while the BMP can float, the tanks, whether T-90 or something else, can't. the only way to deliver them is by beaching or by using smaller amphib boats like LCM. the LCAC's we were looking for haven't materialised so far.
I think some of these LPDs can come close, all landing crafts can come right unto the waterline.
not LPD's, which are very large ships.
tsarkar wrote:Any beaching structually impacts the ships, post operations, it has to be throughly inspected and if necessary refitted. Why damage the ship during exerises? The BMP and T-72s can swim, or offloaded via LCMs.

IN ships were grounded on a sandbar during the 71 Cox Bazaar operations & the ships had to be refitted.
I don't think that's right.

now, why am I asking all these questions ? because of this article.
http://indiatoday.intoday.in/site/story ... 00770.html
But the navy currently only has the capacity to transport a little less than two battalions on expeditionary missions. The move now is to crank up that capacity more than twice over for a full IBG. Former navy chief Admiral Arun Prakash said it was absolutely essential that the navy built up the capacity to transport a brigade- sized group across the seas. "We have 1,200 island territories. We have energy investments worth thousands of crores far from our shores. We have huge diaspora in the Middle East. If there was a Kargil-like situation on any of our island territories, we would need adequate boots on the ground for combat. There are also other liabilities such as piracy and potential hostage situations.

Being able to transport a couple of battalions isn't nearly enough," he said.

now, we have 5 large LST's (3 shardul class and 2 similar magar class) and an LPD (jalashwa/trenton),

the shardul's/magar's can transport 11 X tanks + 10 X AFV's + 500 X troops
the jalashwa can transport ~ 800 troops (we have bought 4 LCM8 with 200 troop capacity each)

that's 3300 troops + 30 each of tanks and AFV, about a brigade strength. what am I missing ?
only idea that comes to my mind is that the amphib bde is expected to have a higher armour component than what is available now, which would cut down on troop numbers.

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Re: Indian Naval Discussion

Postby Kartik » 31 May 2011 10:31

Singha wrote:iirc we had got around 6 Mig29K in goa before this. so now we have 11.

18 more to go.


nope. Even with the first 5 delivered, this means we have 10 delivered now..that means 6 more to go from the first batch itself..there are 29 more in addition to the first 16. Means that we have another 35 MiG-29Ks yet to be delivered.

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Re: Indian Naval Discussion

Postby Singha » 31 May 2011 10:39

er RahulM, your landing capacity just covers getting the people and armour to the beach with what they can carry in backpacks. a strong helicopter airlift component and followup of supply ships, oilers , engineers to build / repair jetties needed to make them stay and fight . else it would be nothing more than a dieppe style hit n run raid than a 'invasion'

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Re: Indian Naval Discussion

Postby Shrinivasan » 31 May 2011 10:52

What we want is the capability to do something ala Normandy!!!

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Re: Indian Naval Discussion

Postby Singha » 31 May 2011 11:00

imo a reasonable sized 'invasion' fleet would be
1 x new LPHD of the Mistral/Juan Carlos size ie full featured TFTA type (full complement of new medium helis, LCAC, a few LCH)
2 x smaller rotterdam/trenton sized LPD (full complement of new medium helis, LCAC)
5 x LST (build no more, spend money on new ships & LCAC above)
3 x fleet tankers with POL for the ships + diesel for the embarked vehicles
1 x supply ship with ammo & food
1 x hospital ship
1 x survey ship for seabed mapping and exploration
2 x MCMV
1 x CV for air cover
2 x DDG/FFG for surface/air threats (with oto127mm and vulcano 100km shells)
3 x P28 type corvettes for ASW & screening
1 x SSK with chariot/chamber for SF insertion
1 x SSK for ASW
1 large prison ship to round up and bring back the POWs :)

the SSK/CV/DDG/FFG would reach first with one oiler and sanitize the area
MCMV and survey ship next to clear mines and map routes
LST/LPHD next with body of invasion fleet screened by a few FFG , accompanied by supply ship and oilers
hospital ship in the rear

and its not as if IJN Yamato or Bismark would emerge from the fog suddenly but IAF/IN LRMP patrols would no doubt scope things out much before the ships set sail.

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Re: Indian Naval Discussion

Postby Singha » 31 May 2011 11:10

I am talking about retaking Maldives from the jihadis not a invasion of Kraachi obviously.

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Re: Indian Naval Discussion

Postby Nikhil T » 31 May 2011 13:14

Russia delivers 5 more MiG-29K fighters


MOSCOW: Indian naval aviation has acquired new teeth with induction of nine MiG-29K carrier-borne fighter jets from Russia with an extended range of 3,000 kms and capable of firing air-to-air and air-to-sea missiles.

The Russian MiG Aircraft Corporation has delivered the second batch of five MiG-29K fighter jets to the navy, to add to its four, for which it has raised the new "Black Panthers" squadron.

India along with Russia, the manufacturer of the naval fighter, are the only countries to have acquired these fighters, which will be deployed on the INS Vikramaditya (former Gorshkov) aircraft carrier, under re-fit in Russia.

The newly acquired Russian carrier-operated MiGs are considered to be far superior to Indian Navy .s current Sea harrier jump jets.

Under the Gorshkov aircraft deal inked between the two countries in 2004, Russia is to supply 12 single-seater MiG-29K fighters and four two-seater MiG-29KUB trainer-cum-combat jets.

According to a MiG release first of four MiG-29Ks and MiG-29KUBs delivered to India have been formally inducted by the Indian Navy's "Black Panthers" squadron in February 2010.

MiG Corporation has also delivered flight simulator and other technical equipment to the Indian Navy.

In March 2010, Russia and India signed another USD 1.5 billion contract on the supplies of 29 additional MiG-29K Fulcrum-D carrier-based fighter jets and the deliveries are scheduled to commence next year, about the time Moscow is expected to deliver retrofitted Gorshkov aircraft carrier after serious delays.

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Re: Indian Naval Discussion

Postby Pratyush » 31 May 2011 13:14

^^^

Here I was thinking smash and dash at Gwadar :(( :((

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Re: Indian Naval Discussion

Postby Rahul M » 31 May 2011 13:24

Singha wrote:er RahulM, your landing capacity just covers getting the people and armour to the beach with what they can carry in backpacks. a strong helicopter airlift component and followup of supply ships, oilers , engineers to build / repair jetties needed to make them stay and fight . else it would be nothing more than a dieppe style hit n run raid than a 'invasion'

boss, it's not 'my' landing capacity, it's what we have. :P

our amphib requirements do not envisage deployment 100,000 km from home, most realistic target area would be in sindh, that's within 400 km from ports in gujarat. most of the ships would be able to deploy that distance without needing refueling during transit. in any case, I didn't include *any* ships or other assets other than those for sealift since that need is obvious.

it's incorrect to say that what we have now does not take into account supplies for the troops, the LPD can carry a decent # of trucks and 6 sea king helos. considering that mech inf can operate on its own for sometime, that's not too bad. marine troops are always supplied via repeated trips by the smaller amphibs and via helo's for those further inland. there is no reason why we can't do that with land based helos and even airdrops.

the main problem with your speculative invasion fleet is that it makes no mention of the main thing, the invasion force i.e the land component. :P
that is the centrepiece around which a fleet would be build. it has to be light enough to be transported by sea, mobile enough on land not to get crushed by the larger defending forces it will encounter and yet have enough hitting and staying power to fight it out for against numerically superior foe for limited durations (with the help of air support, that goes without saying). I was trying to second guess what our marine brigade would look like when it's done and what we would need more to make it a reality.
I am talking about retaking Maldives from the jihadis not a invasion of Kraachi obviously.
I kind of doubt maldives is a priority right now. :P

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Re: Indian Naval Discussion

Postby Singha » 31 May 2011 13:31

do the seacobra gunships used by the USMC remain tethered to the Amphib ships as the marines advance inland or they are capable of deploying to land bases for the inland push alongwith the weapons and repair infra?

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Re: Indian Naval Discussion

Postby Pratyush » 31 May 2011 13:34

^^^

The Sea Copra along with the Harriers will deploy to the rear areas of the Marine force and they will shift the support infrastructure to the area. Like it was done diring the Operation Mushtakoh (Sp??) in Afghanistan

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Re: Indian Naval Discussion

Postby Rahul M » 31 May 2011 13:42

the later. even the harrier was acquired to be used in such a role.
in our case, given our lack of dedicated marine carriers like the wasp class, allocating a carrier to any such ops is a must.

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Re: Indian Naval Discussion

Postby Austin » 31 May 2011 13:47



Exactly he has hit the nail , The IN ships has many key systems which are outright imported from many countries contrary to the popular perception that IN has maximum indiginous content compared to IAF or IA which is far from the truth. Many systems are Lic Manufactured by BEL with Indian designation giving it an appearance of being indian system.

The problem is Indian Navy has this fettish of integrating Western and Russian/Ukrainian system later on it went on integrating specific Israel and Indian system , making it perhaps the only navy in the world that has ships with so many diverse systems , but this process made IN the best system integrator in the world !

Now what is of more concern is in areas where we managed to develop equivalent sytem like D40S steel the MOD still prefers the import route and for SY it still tries to favour private SY.

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Re: Indian Naval Discussion

Postby pragnya » 31 May 2011 14:02

don't know if these pictures of Mig 29K were posted. love this one. :P

Image

more at - http://en.rian.ru/photolents/20070123/59541189.html

Image

http://en.rian.ru/images/15791/22/157912286.jpg

pl delete if posted already.
Last edited by pragnya on 31 May 2011 14:08, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Indian Naval Discussion

Postby Singha » 31 May 2011 14:05

the LCH being 2 engined and seacobra size is a natural candidate for INs future amphib ships for CAS, recce, ATGM, SF support. some minor changes like more rust protection and tougher undercarriage to land on bouncy steel decks could be needed but nothing major other than a FOLDING ROTORS !!

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Re: Indian Naval Discussion

Postby Chinmayanand » 31 May 2011 14:06

OT,

Austin mian, MOD also needs to make money like its sister ministries and ministers. Importing is a better way to collect your largesse in a phoren bank directly. Sab bahar bahar ho jaata hai.

MOD has the same right to corruption as other M's . Let it follow the least path of resistance.

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Re: Indian Naval Discussion

Postby K_Rohit » 31 May 2011 14:16

Another question-

The Mig-29K is supposed to operate only off Vik. What changes would be needed to Viraat to fly the Ks and how difficult is it?

- Arrested landing gear
- Lifts and hangars
- Length of take-off run
- Angled deck

In this I think points 2 and 3 should already be there? Question is:
-How difficult is it to fit the arrested landing gears?
- Why cant we use the Viraat as a through-deck carrier? We can fit lesser number of aircraft and potentially limit the number of parallel operations, but we have more capable aircraft.

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Re: Indian Naval Discussion

Postby Pratyush » 31 May 2011 14:40

Virat will continue to serve with the Sea Hariers. She is too old to be retrofited with the infrastructure required to operate STOBAR jets.

The better option would be to order the second IAC now and try to get her in service by 2018/9. As that is the time when the Virat is scheduled to retire.

PS the Wiki Page suggest the IAC2 as INS Vishal at 65000 tons. Has this design been approved by the Cabinet.

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Re: Indian Naval Discussion

Postby ranjithnath » 31 May 2011 17:45

Pratyush wrote:Virat will continue to serve with the Sea Hariers. She is too old to be retrofited with the infrastructure required to operate STOBAR jets.

The better option would be to order the second IAC now and try to get her in service by 2018/9. As that is the time when the Virat is scheduled to retire.

PS the Wiki Page suggest the IAC2 as INS Vishal at 65000 tons. Has this design been approved by the Cabinet.

nop.there was a report a few weeks back citing the navy chief saying that IAC2 is a long way off :cry:

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Re: Indian Naval Discussion

Postby Rahul M » 31 May 2011 17:59

which is a good thing.

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Re: Indian Naval Discussion

Postby Austin » 31 May 2011 20:17

SNaik what kind of combat management system does Trikand class uses , Sigma-E ?

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Re: Indian Naval Discussion

Postby K_Rohit » 01 Jun 2011 09:49

Pratyush wrote:Virat will continue to serve with the Sea Hariers. She is too old to be retrofited with the infrastructure required to operate STOBAR jets.

The better option would be to order the second IAC now and try to get her in service by 2018/9. As that is the time when the Virat is scheduled to retire.

PS the Wiki Page suggest the IAC2 as INS Vishal at 65000 tons. Has this design been approved by the Cabinet.


How many LUSH SHARs will Viraat have in 2013-14? 6? Viraat will be no more than a helicopter carrier with some self defence capability.

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Re: Indian Naval Discussion

Postby Austin » 01 Jun 2011 09:57

Rahul M wrote:do you know what is the range limitation on BMP's while operating in the seas ? how far from the coast can they be offloaded and in what weather condition ?


I have read 8 hours limited only by its engine and bilge system running in that mode , its not really designed to be remain at sea for long and is poor at high sea states ( i would assume its only good in calm waters and not high rolling wave states ) , it was designed to cross rivers and lakes , so they are better off delivering it close to the shore or better use hovercraft to deliver as there is a possibility that beach could be heavily mined.

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Re: Indian Naval Discussion

Postby Pratyush » 01 Jun 2011 11:33

Even as a helo carrier, the IN will have a more capable Carrier fleet at that time. compaed to what they have had since the retirement of the old Vikrant.


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