Indian Space Programme Discussion

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby JTull » 09 Sep 2014 21:34

Eutelsat, SES To Add Plasma-Fueled Spacecraft To Fleets

In March 2012, when Boeing announced the sale of the world’s first all-electric satellites, the company sparked a trend in the commercial telecom industry, lighting a fire under competitors in Europe and Asia as they scrambled to catch up.

But two years on, Boeing has yet to announce a follow-up deal for its xenon-ion fueled 702SP satellite bus, while European competitors once thought to be years behind the curve are gaining ground.

Within months of the Boeing announcement, the European Space Agency (ESA) unveiled plans to fund codevelopment of the new Electra all-electric satellite bus with European industry. ESA also said it would help finance the next generation of European satcom buses with manufacturers Airbus Defense and Space and Thales Alenia Space, incorporating an electric propulsion option to raise the new platform, known as NeoSat, into orbit.

But with these developments not expected to enter service for several years, Airbus has pressed ahead with a near-term answer to Boeing, evolving its legacy Eurostar E3000 platform to include an all-electric variant aimed at customers seeking higher payload power and greater flexibility than the 702SP offers today.

In July, Airbus Defense and Space nailed two deals for such spacecraft, including a contract with Paris-based fleet operator Eutelsat to build Eutelsat 172B, the first European communications satellite equipped with electric plasma thrusters designed to raise, maneuver and position itself in geosynchronous orbit.

“Never underestimate us,” says Eric Beranger, head of space system programs at Airbus Defense and Space. “I said after the Boeing announcement in 2012 that we could also provide full electrical transfer capability for satellites, and what you are seeing today is the proof that I was not lying.”

Beranger says Airbus Defense and Space has seven satellites in orbit that use electrical propulsion, albeit for station-keeping only. These spacecraft have provided the company ample data on the technology, which it has used to adapt the Eurostar E3000 for all-electric orbit transfer.

Slated to launch on an Ariane 5 ECA rocket in the first half of 2017, the Eutelsat 172B will be equipped with an impressive 11-kw payload packed into a diminutive 3,500-kg (7,700-lb.) satellite. Located at 172 deg. E. Long., the spacecraft will feature 14 C-band and 36 Ku-band transponders, as well as a high-throughput Ku-band payload customized for aeronautical inflight connectivity over the Pacific Ocean with an overall throughput of 1.8 gbps.

Beranger says a comparable satellite using chemical propulsion would typically run close to 6,000 kg, requiring a heavy-lift Proton or Zenit launcher or a position in the upper bay of the dual-payload Ariane 5. Given its slight launch mass, however, Beranger says Eutelsat 172B is sized to ride in the lower—and far less costly—position available on the ECA configuration of the Ariane 5.

“We are the first in Europe, and even the first in the world, to demonstrate electric propulsion for satellites of this size,” Beranger says.

The Eutelsat announcement followed an Airbus Defense and Space contract signed in July with fleet operator SES of Luxembourg for SES-12, a hybrid chemical/electric satellite that is also based on the Eurostar E3000 platform and will likewise use electric plasma thrusters for orbit-raising and maneuvers. The most powerful satellite SES has ordered to date, the 5,300-kg spacecraft will carry 68 high-power Ku-band transponders and eight Ka-band transponders to combine traditional wide-beam coverage with high-throughput spot beams and a new digital transparent processor for anti-jamming capabilities and much greater payload flexibility.

Depending on the launch vehicle, which SES says will be announced at a later date, SES-12 will need 3-6 months to propel itself to an operating orbit at 95 deg E. Long. Eutelsat 172B, on the other hand, will need just four months in transit, nearly halving the time required for Boeing’s 702SP, which uses lightweight, low-power xenon-ion thrusters developed by L-3 Electron Technologies.

Asia Broadcast Satellite (ABS) of Bermuda and SatMex of Mexico (now Eutelsat Americas), were well aware of the platform’s time to orbit when they signed on for a total of four Boeing 702SP spacecraft in 2012.

Packing less oomph than the all-electric variant of Airbus Defense and Space’s Eurostar E3000, the 702SP offers just 3-8 kw of power, though it can accommodate up to five reflectors and features a next-generation avionics architecture that simplifies operations and provides easier access to data for evaluation of the spacecraft’s health.

While the 702SP’s lengthy transit time to orbit creates a lag between launch and the satellite’s ability to generate revenue, the upside for the fleet operator is that the 702SP can stack in pairs under the fairing of most rockets capable of carrying two satellites at a time, including the SpaceX Falcon 9 v1.1 rocket. In fact, the dual-launch scenario with the Falcon 9 is key to the 702SP’s success, an approach Boeing says saves fleet operators 20% of the cost to launch atop what is already the lowest-priced rocket in its class.

Although Boeing has not announced additional 702SP commercial sales, the company is finalizing a potential deal with an Indonesian operator that could be announced this year. The company also has signed a contract with an unnamed government customer for an undisclosed number of 702SP spacecraft, and several campaigns are underway that could result in sales of more 702SP spacecraft, with a contract to be announced possibly this quarter.

In the meantime, rival manufacturers are taking varied approaches to future spacecraft bus developments that would include more electric-propulsion options. Thales Alenia Space is planning to introduce an all-electric satellite platform starting in 2016, while Lockheed Martin Space Systems is working on an all-electric variant of the venerable A2100 satellite bus using weightier Hall effect thrusters that could offer shorter transit time to orbit.

Space Systems/Loral is also supplying an electric-propulsion option for orbital transfer, but it sees the market evolving to favor hybrid solutions with higher payload power and more rapid ascent to orbit. Meanwhile, Orbital Sciences’ new GeoStar-3 satellite will offer 60% more power and a 30% boost in payload mass but will draw on electric propulsion for station-keeping only.


Something ISRO must consider. While we wait for full commercialisation of various versions of GSLV, this might be a way to deliver more capacity without focusing on throw weight.

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby juvva » 18 Sep 2014 09:15

Mars & Beyond - Eureka with ISRO Chairman K Radhakrishnan

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ALPKTEi ... INtosOgE5W

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby Neela » 18 Sep 2014 11:43

Amber G mentioned this already.
Here it is from ISRO

Image

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby a_bharat » 18 Sep 2014 12:52

Is there any dependency on NASA's deep space network for communication with MOM? If so, is there a scope for mischief by the US?

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby sattili » 18 Sep 2014 13:02

Yes NASA is helping ISRO by letting them use its deep space communication network. NASA also partnered with ISRO on Chandrayaan mission. So the scope of doing mischief is there, but what will they gain by it?

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby vina » 18 Sep 2014 17:33

Hmm. Takla has signed up with ULA to replace the RD-180 engine in Atlas V with a twin LH2/LCH4 engine called BE-4. So what is ISRO doing ? Now that Ukraine has dissolved, there is no hope in hell for the Ukranian semi cryogenic stage to come about, unless ISRO already has everything it needs from the Ukraninans in hand which I doubt.

Time to junk the Kerosene/Lox stuff and go for a LCH4/LOX engine. I had written this earlier before we need to get rid of the "Weakass" engines in the core stages and go for a high Isp semi one. ISP in LCH4/LOX is better than Kerosene/LOX. Time for the dhoti clad yindoos to trust their instincts and go for efficiency, rather than the beef cake solutions of the Russians and Americans.

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby Thakur_B » 22 Sep 2014 14:03

After navy, Airforce too is going for a dedicated satellite, GSAT-7A

https://twitter.com/SJha1618/status/513973063537283074

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby symontk » 22 Sep 2014 19:43

vina wrote:Hmm. Takla has signed up with ULA to replace the RD-180 engine in Atlas V with a twin LH2/LCH4 engine called BE-4. So what is ISRO doing ? Now that Ukraine has dissolved, there is no hope in hell for the Ukranian semi cryogenic stage to come about, unless ISRO already has everything it needs from the Ukraninans in hand which I doubt.

Time to junk the Kerosene/Lox stuff and go for a LCH4/LOX engine. I had written this earlier before we need to get rid of the "Weakass" engines in the core stages and go for a high Isp semi one. ISP in LCH4/LOX is better than Kerosene/LOX. Time for the dhoti clad yindoos to trust their instincts and go for efficiency, rather than the beef cake solutions of the Russians and Americans.


For using cryo engines at ground level you need powerful pumps which India doesn't have. Also cryo engines are more costlier and prone to mishaps than a semi-cryo one

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby Varoon Shekhar » 24 Sep 2014 02:51

Not so well known story...

http://news.oneindia.in/india/isro-revi ... 27540.html

Srinagar, Sept 23: The devastating floods marooned everything in Kashmir, including the fibre-optic based and mobile telephone communication system, but a team of 13 officials from Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) ensured that the Valley was reconnected to the outside world for coordinating relief work. The four communication nodes with direct satellite link set up by the ISRO team proved vital in ensuring round the clock communication between the officials of the state government and other agencies in the flood-affected areas as well as the outside world. The first node was set up on the premises of Hari Niwas Guest House, which had become the make shift seat of the state government with Chief Minister Omar Abdullah, several of his ministers and top officials operating from there. The other t

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby dinesha » 25 Sep 2014 16:13

GSLV Mark-III test flight before December
http://www.business-standard.com/articl ... 031_1.html
If one is going to think scientists at Isro are going to take a break after successfully conducting the Mars Orbit Insertion, then one is wrong. The Indian space agency has lined up a series of launches, including test flight of Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) Mark III - an advanced version of the current GSLV - which will have double the capacity of the current launch vehicle.

GSLV MARK-III will be Isro's next major event, said K Radhakrishnan, chairman, Isro. He said the vehicle is an advanced launch vehicle and it can launch a four-tonne communication satellite into geostationary orbit.

The Indian space agency is planning to launch an experimental mission, with a passive cryogenic engine, which means the cryogenic stage will not be operational. The significance of the flight is that it will test the crew compartment as it re-enters earth and splashes into the Bay of Bengal.

Once this vehicle gets ready, India need not depend on European space consortium, Arianespace, to carry its four-tonne class of Insat communication satellites. This rocket will also be used to fly astronauts from Sriharikota. It may be noted that the Narendra Modi government has increased its budgetary allocation from Rs 10 crore to Rs 171 crore to develop this vehicle, according to reports.

Radhakrishnan said the vehicle would go up to an altitude of 120 km and reach a velocity of nearly 5.3 km per second. During this ascent phase, the aerodynamic characterisation, control system will be tested. "We are also using the opportunity to test the re-enter characteristics of the crew module, by flying unmanned crew model in this," he said.

As on date, all the stages are in Sriharikota, said Radhakrishnan adding that reviews and integration process are on. "The launch of this would be after the PSLV C26. It could be late October or November, based on the weather conditions" he said. With MARK-III, Isro can launch satellites up to four tonne as compared to the current capacity of 2-2.2 tonne.

Speaking about cryogenic engine, required for Mark III, Radhakrishnan said ground test will be conducted at Mahendragiri soon. "A complete engine (C25) has been assembled, and we are going to start the ground testing of the engine in a few months from now. This engine will have a thrust level of nearly 20 tonnes, compared to 7.5 tonne of the GSLV we flew in January 2014," he said.

This engine has to be taken through a series of ground test and then the cryogenic stage will be integrated to it and it will be tested on the ground. Once it qualifies, Isro will use it for the flight. "By the time the cryogenic stage is ready for the flight we will also study from the experimental mission about the vehicle's configuration and aerodynamic behaviour, and if any marginal improvement is needed, we can will do that," said Radhakrishnan.

Before MARK-III, Isro is planning to launch PSLV C26, with IRNSS 1B {1C} satellite, which will be India's third navigation satellite.

Radhakrishnan said by December the fourth navigation satellite will be launched. Three more such satellites will be launched in 2015,.

The GSLV that was flown in January successfully will have its next flight in the second quarter of 2015, and that will be used to launch GSAT 6 satellite. A few more communication satellites are also lined up, said Radhakrishnan.
Last edited by dinesha on 25 Sep 2014 17:32, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby Varoon Shekhar » 25 Sep 2014 16:56

^^^
Really good to know that a PSLV with an IRNSS will be launched in the next month, and another one before the end of the year! And sandwiched between them, the GSLV Mark 3 test. Excellent! Also very encouraging news on the C-20.

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby member_28108 » 25 Sep 2014 20:17

With the basic cryogenic engine succeeding they must now be running with the higher rated cryogenic engine.


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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby Ranjani Brow » 26 Sep 2014 16:01

Image

PSLV C26 stage-2 stacking completed.The launch window opens in October 2014.
Payload: IRNSS 1C navigation satellite.

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby dinesha » 26 Sep 2014 16:22

GSLV-MkIII is ISRO’s next
http://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/scienc ... 447463.ece
The date of its launch depends on an earlier flight of the PSLV-C26.

The flush of the successful Indian Mars manoeuvre will take a while to wear off. Team ISRO has, meanwhile, got down to brass tacks and expects to get one of its biggest projects off the mark this calendar year — GSLV-Mark III.

Success of this heavy-lift, four-tonne satellite launcher is imperative to make India capable of launching its future communication satellites from its soil.

“We are preparing for the GSLV-MkIII experimental mission,” ISRO Chairman K. Radhakrishnan recently told The Hindu.

The first flight of the new vehicle is being considered for October-end if good weather holds, he said. The stages of the vehicle are being put together at Sriharikota.

The date of its launch depends on an earlier flight of the PSLV-C26, which will put into orbit the third regional navigation spacecraft, the IRNSS-1C. If the PSLV is flown in the week starting October 9 as planned, GSLV-MkIII can follow on the second launch pad a fortnight after it, Dr. Radhakrishnan said. The C-26 vehicle is also getting assembled at Sriharikota.

MkIII will test the recovery of a dummy crew module from sea. The module is the core of a future Human Space Project, in which a couple of astronauts will fly close to Earth for a few days.

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby SaiK » 26 Sep 2014 17:57

a_bharat wrote:Is there any dependency on NASA's deep space network for communication with MOM? If so, is there a scope for mischief by the US?

yes. but, then one should go by SLAs and legal contracts for this. in any comm the pipe-filter pattern is well used. I'd not know if the filtered data is fed or the original.. but this requires both hardware and software malawares installed at the receiving DSN places.

I seriously doubt they would have, but given massan capabilities, I'd keep it with two fingers crossed. but for all practical purposes, it would be an embarrassment for America than India. It is a loss that any democracy can bear if they are found guilty. I'd expect them to behave legally.

besides that, there is nothing secret in these data. no?

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby arun » 28 Sep 2014 09:43

Just 2% of Isro’s engineers are from IITs, NITs:

Economic Times

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby member_28108 » 28 Sep 2014 10:16

I am pretty sure that after initial monitoring that the subsequent data transfers will be done through the Byalalu receiver. If you see the Deep space network page now - Data transfer from MOM has considerably decreased (in fact no transfer to any station from the past few hours) after orbital insertion so probably they will be doing data transfers that has been cached during the passage over the India receiver which would be 8 hours a day approximately and use the other DSN of NASA/JPL primarily for telemetry or in emergencies. After the high octane period of orbital insertion it will be the mundane job of data collection which would not have to be done mandatorily 24X7 but depends on volume of data received and time needed for the down link transmission..

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby partha » 28 Sep 2014 10:29

Capability wise, is there any difference between Bylalu DS receiver and NASA's Madrid and Canberra DSN receivers? Does anyone know?

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby member_28108 » 28 Sep 2014 11:04

The age of very large receivers has been replaced by arrays so the 70 meters dishes will be phased out in future in the JPL DSN to multiple 34 arrays. The main advantage of the JPL DSN is that there are 3 units covering the world so they can receive over a 360 Deg area and also there are multiple receivers so technically they can array themselves (or nearby antennae) to form a virtual larger antenna which can capture better signals. For eg the Canberra DSN is made to array with another non DSN antenna to improve reception.The Goldstone antenna can co link with the Canberra antenna to form a huge virutal antenna
IDSN 32 meter antenna
The first antenna is a 32-meter Deep Space Antenna. The wheel and track 32 m antenna is a state-of-the-art system that supported the Chandrayaan-1 mission operations. It is currently supporting Mars Orbiter Mission[3] This is co-located with 18 m antenna in the IDSN site at Byalalu. A fibre optics / satellite link will provide the necessary connectivity between the IDSN site and Spacecraft Control Centre / Network Control Centre. This antenna is designed to provide uplink in both S-Band (20/2 kW) and X-Band (2.5 kW), either through RCP or LCP. The reception capability will be in both S-Band and X-Band (simultaneous RCP & LCP). It can receive two carriers in S-Band and one carrier in X-Band, simultaneously. The system will have a G/T of 37.5/51 dB/K (45° elevation, clear sky) for S/X-Band. The base-band will adhere to CCSDS Standards facilitating cross-support among the space agencies. The station is also equipped for remote control from the ISTRAC Network Control Centre (NCC).[4]


JPL DSN antennae include beamwave antennae. Not sure if the Indian IDSN has this capability. The Indian dish is also supposed to be a beanwave antenna according to some sources,
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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby member_28108 » 28 Sep 2014 11:15

The signal from MOM was received by the IDSN antenna at 11.35 am on Wednesday, approximately after about 3 ½ hrs of reception of radio signals at Canberra station in Australia, when the Mars Orbiter was visible over the Indian sub-continent.

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby KrishG » 28 Sep 2014 11:58

partha wrote:Capability wise, is there any difference between Bylalu DS receiver and NASA's Madrid and Canberra DSN receivers? Does anyone know?


More than capability, NASA has ensured that they have capability to be contact with spacecraft round the clock wrt Earth. I think eventually ISRO has to have such a capability on it's own. For short term, having agreements with NASA etc will work (ISRO is paying NASA for using their DSN for MOM). But ISRO should start looking for prospective strategic locations.

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby member_28108 » 28 Sep 2014 12:41

http://www.scribd.com/doc/17774180/Visit-to-ISDN-Bayalalu
Good information of the Byalalu center.
IDSN consists of two large parabolic antennas, one with 18 m and the other 32 m diameterat Byalalu. Of these, the 32 m antenna with its 'seven mirror beam wave guide system' was indigenously designed, developed, built, installed, tested and qualified. The 32m antenna cans upport Chandrayaan-1 and any spacecraft mission further deep into space

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby member_28108 » 28 Sep 2014 12:44

India actually sells DSN data also mutually to NASA
A very interesting and important part of the instrument was the
“active hydrogen maser" employed for maintaining a precise Universal time (UT). It had the precision of 10-15 milliseconds. If time does not match then the parties reject the data as they pay for their payload data (USA pays $3500 per minute for the data availed)

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby kit » 29 Sep 2014 16:00

http://isp.justthe80.com/launchers/semi ... nic-engine

ISRO plans to develop a 2000 kN Semi Cryogenic Engine (SCE) using liquid oxygen (LOX) and kerosene under a Rs. 1,798 crore six year project cleared by the Union Cabinet on December 19, 2008.

The Semi-Cryogenic engine will be used as the booster engine for the Common Liquid Core of the future heavy lift Unified Launch Vehicles (ULV) and Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV).

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby member_23370 » 29 Sep 2014 21:12

Its been six years. So how far has the semi cryo project advanced?

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby member_28108 » 29 Sep 2014 22:36

Characterisation of injector elements and hypergolic slug igniters with different proportion of Tri-ethyl Aluminium and Tri-ethyl Boron has been completed. Sub-scale models of thrust chamber have been realized and ignition trials have been carried out successfully. Single element thrust chamber hot test in stage combustion cycle mode was also conducted successfully.

Establishment of test facilities like Cold Flow Test Facility and Integrated Engine Test Facility are under various stages of realization. Fabrication drawings are realised for all sub-systems and fabrication of booster turbo-pump and pre-burner subsystem commenced.

In an interview published on The Asian Age on January 13, 2014, ISRO Chairman, when asked about the semi-cryogenic engine, replied:

"We are working on the semi-cryogenic engine for the next generation launch vehicles which can transport satellites weighing six tonnes or more into space.

"Approximately Rs 2,500 crore will be spent on this project where we replace liquid hydrogen with kerosene. It is easier to handle kerosene compared to liquid hydrogen. It will take five years to design the engine which will be 10 times more powerful than the cryogenic engine."

The design of the 2,000 kilo newton semi-cryogenic engine is complete and fabrication of various parts has begun. Component level testing will start next month, reports Times of India.

"The design of the semi-cryogenic engine by LPSC is complete, now the fabrication of sub-systems including booster turbo-pump and pre-burner has commenced and is in the realization stage. The component level testing is set for next month," LPSC director K Sivan said.

He said semi-cryogenic engines would have kerosene in place of liquid hydrogen in combination with liquid oxygen. "Semi-cryogenic engines will have large thrust than energy and will be used as the booster engine to lift heavy mass for the future integrated launch vehicles and reusable launch vehicles (RLV). It can be used for human space flight due to its high thrust value but beyond that, the plan is to develop other modules to ensure that they are brought safely back," Sivan said.

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby Thakur_B » 30 Sep 2014 21:51

Bheeshma wrote:Its been six years. So how far has the semi cryo project advanced?


HAL is setting up the manufacturing facility.
BANGALORE, SEPTEMBER 24:
The HAL-ISRO partnership will further get strengthened in the years to come.

An Integrated Cryogenic Engine Manufacturing Facility (ICMF) will be set-up at HAL’s Aerospace Division here and the division will manufacture cryogenic/semi cryogenic engines for ISRO, said Dr R.K. Tyagi, Chairman, HAL.


http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/news/science/halisro-to-set-up-cryogenic-engine-facility/article6442834.ece

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby Shrinivasan » 01 Oct 2014 09:53

Semi-cryo will be crucial for Desh to be able to lauch heavy satellites. In future we need dedicated mil sats, navigation sats amd above all communication sats. All the best ISRO for GSLV...

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby Shrinivasan » 01 Oct 2014 09:54

What is the current status of the desi GPS? With 2 satellites, is it functional

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby member_28640 » 01 Oct 2014 17:39

a_bharat wrote:Is there any dependency on NASA's deep space network for communication with MOM? If so, is there a scope for mischief by the US?

No chance of mischief, USA Indonesia and South Africa provide only Position Tracking, Commands etc are sent from ISTRAC Bangalore, MOM has 3 antennas commands and telemetry is reserved for the High gain antenna and only ISTRAC can do the same

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby member_28640 » 01 Oct 2014 17:40

Shrinivasan wrote:What is the current status of the desi GPS? With 2 satellites, is it functional

Need a theoretical minimum of 3 saar, but no way of saying before all 7 are launched only then we will get a pan indian coverage

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby Varoon Shekhar » 01 Oct 2014 19:14

Info on IRNSS-1C


http://isro.org/pslv-c26/pdf/pslv-c26-brochure.pdf

Launch is on Friday October 10th. Excellent, they have now reached the 4 launches per calendar year goal, that they were once talking about!

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby Shrinivasan » 01 Oct 2014 21:12

Varoon Shekhar wrote:Launch is on Friday October 10th. Excellent, they have now reached the 4 launches per calendar year goal, that they were once talking about!
Thats a great news... i hope with the third satellite in place, we start experimental usage of the Regional Positioning system. All the best for PSLV C26. Keep it up ISRO.

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby member_23370 » 01 Oct 2014 21:39

How is 4 launches a year the target? With the SLP in place it should be atleast 6 a year.

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby srin » 01 Oct 2014 23:32

ISRO soon needs to have a separate production agency to manufacture PSLV off an assembly line. And another agency to make satellites that conform to some published specs.

There are a lot of things to do in space, and they require ISRO's time. Get out of routine stuff (and PSLV launch is a routine thing now).

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby member_28108 » 01 Oct 2014 23:52

I doubt they will give that up.It is a breadwinner for ISRO and funds other projects.So it will not be given up.Also if you see how they slowly modified PSLV through various versions they may upgrade it wrt other requirements.

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby SSridhar » 02 Oct 2014 13:47

Upgrading Indian rockets for future Mars missions - N.Gopal Raj, The Hindu
After the stunning success of its very first shot at Mars, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) will need to take those capabilities forward, despatching bigger, and more advanced spacecraft in the years to come. That, in turn, requires rockets that can carry such probes on the first leg of their journey and place them in orbit around Earth.

For its first attempt with the Mars Orbiter, ISRO turned to the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV), a rocket with an impeccable track record. Initially, it seemed that this launcher would not be powerful enough for the task and every aspect of the mission had to be carefully optimised in order to make that possible, according to V. Adimurthy, the space agency's senior adviser for interplanetary missions. He led a study team whose 2011 report laid out how India could send probes to the Red Planet.

For future missions, ISRO will have to turn to the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) and GSLV Mark III that can lift much heavier spacecraft than the PSLV. The former, equipped with an indigenous cryogenic stage, had its first successful flight only in January this year. An experimental launch of the Mark III, with a non-functional cryogenic upper stage, is to take place shortly. (The rocket’s operational cryogenic engine and stage are still under development.)

ISRO needed to carry out a system study of how the GSLV and GSLV Mark III launchers could be used to carry probes for Mars, observed its chairman, K. Radhakrishnan “Certainly for the next mission we have to go for [a spacecraft with] higher mass.”

The space agency would not be in a position to send a spacecraft to that planet during the 2016 launch opportunity, he told this correspondent. The launch window that opened in 2018 would be the earliest that the next mission to Mars could go. It was also necessary to be clear what science such a mission could carry out, he added.

In order to utilise the GSLV and GSLV Mark III, the cryogenic engines on those rockets will need ‘multi-start’ capability so that they can be shut down after one burn, undergo a period of coasting and restart, noted Dr. Adimurthy. This was crucial for placing a spacecraft in the proper orbital orientation around Earth, a prerequisite for its eventual injection on a trajectory to Mars. A new liquid propulsion stage for carrying out the trans-Mars injection too was needed.

“Such improved systems will eventually pave the way for larger spacecraft to go into orbits closer to Mars, and have lander and rover operations on the planet’s surface,” he said.

Starting, shutting down and restarting a cryogenic engine in space is complicated, noted S. Ramakrishnan, who retired recently as director of the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, ISRO’s lead centre for launch vehicle development, and earlier headed the Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre that develops liquid propellant engines needed for the space programme.

Restart capability has not yet been demonstrated with the GSLV’s cryogenic engine. As for the cryogenic engine being developed for the Mark III, “once we do the initial engine-level tests, we can look at introducing the restart capability,” he remarked.

ISRO has designed and ground-tested a ‘Payload Assist Module’ using a liquid-propellant engine that powers the PSLV’s fourth stage. This module had originally been developed so that the GSLV could launch Russia's Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS) satellites, a proposal that ultimately did not materialise.

The module could go atop the GSLV or GSLV Mark III and enhance their capabilities to send probes to Mars, said Mr. Ramakrishnan.

Varoon Shekhar
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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby Varoon Shekhar » 02 Oct 2014 20:19

"The space agency would not be in a position to send a spacecraft to that planet during the 2016 launch opportunity, "

What's the explanation for this? It can't be because of the launcher, or is it that the trajectory of Mars in that period is such that a larger launcher would be required? Or is it the satellite, they cannot get a sophisticated one ready by that time?

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby member_28108 » 02 Oct 2014 20:38

Varoon Shekhar wrote:"The space agency would not be in a position to send a spacecraft to that planet during the 2016 launch opportunity, "

What's the explanation for this? It can't be because of the launcher, or is it that the trajectory of Mars in that period is such that a larger launcher would be required? Or is it the satellite, they cannot get a sophisticated one ready by that time?

The cryogenic engine restart will be an issue.Unless tested they may design a satellite that they may not be launchable.


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