Indian Space Programme Discussion

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arshyam
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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby arshyam » 28 Apr 2016 21:08

In the first pic above, one can see some wires around the launch pad. Any idea what they are for?

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby shravanp » 28 Apr 2016 21:11

Amazing pics. Specially with Ashoka emblem imprinted on top of heat shield.

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby Suraj » 28 Apr 2016 21:30

arshyam wrote:In the first pic above, one can see some wires around the launch pad. Any idea what they are for?

Lightning protection system. Visible as the wires strung between the four towers in this pic.

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby member_23370 » 28 Apr 2016 22:43

Ho-hum....I refuse to celebrate the routine PSLV launch. Its too boring and ordinary. Waiting for GSLV-III launches. GSLV-II has 3 launches this year..hopefully equally boring.

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby vishvak » 28 Apr 2016 22:47

Austin wrote:Nice , Finally we are there with our GPS , Congratulation ISRO for a boring textbook precise launch :)

Singha , We can just mandate the phone makers to get IRNSS Signal as standard for any mobile launched after 2017 or 2018 they will have to comply period !

Local Navigation System? Congratulations to ISRO!

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby Suresh S » 29 Apr 2016 07:35

well now today the circle is complete and we should demo it with a A5 cansister launch to antarctica using this signal as one of the guides. for good measure lets make it MIRV and launch at dusk to have the re-entry flaming trails clearly visible to all scientific stations on the seaboard there to photograph in high res.

Believe it or not singha for many years I have thought of that. Either launch it to splash right on the north edge of antarctica or even better fly over and land on the other side so that the deaf can hear and blind could see.This Jingo is burning with anger for the humiliation meted out to my country and culture for centuries.

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby Hari Seldon » 29 Apr 2016 08:04

Because IRNSS was the first of its kind for India, and has civilian apps, makes sense to declare an launch like this.

But such PR also makes it a target for ASAT weapons come wartime. I can only hope we have enough undeclared payloads with just as good a resolution and eyes and ears orbiting the planet, which would be harder to ID and shoot down... perhaps.

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby shiv » 29 Apr 2016 08:09

arshyam wrote:In the first pic above, one can see some wires around the launch pad. Any idea what they are for?

If you are referring to those wires seen across the blue sky they are most likely internet/cable wires that are slung zig zag across so many buildings in an area where the photographer must have stood - perhaps a km or 2 away from the launch

OK Just saw Suraj's reply. Maybe that is right. Not sure

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby Prasad » 29 Apr 2016 12:42

Lightning protection is right. Been on that launch pad and was told so. Camerawork was really good this time, following the rocket's path. An 8th pass grandmother was in awe watching the rocket go up and was asking questions as to what was happening and what were all those traces they were showing on tv. We need HD videos from all sorts of angles - shock and awe might be a derided amriki concept but crisp clear pictures and videos make everyone salivate. We need better video!

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby rsingh » 29 Apr 2016 18:46

sooraj wrote:
Kashi wrote:Textbook launch..Perfect Satellite Launch Vehicle.

PM viewing the launch from his office(?)



Image


Special feed far pardhan mantri ji.

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby member_28108 » 29 Apr 2016 19:36

Hari Seldon wrote:Because IRNSS was the first of its kind for India, and has civilian apps, makes sense to declare an launch like this.

But such PR also makes it a target for ASAT weapons come wartime. I can only hope we have enough undeclared payloads with just as good a resolution and eyes and ears orbiting the planet, which would be harder to ID and shoot down... perhaps.


ASAT to Geostationary orbit - no one has done it. Though people claim that they can do it

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby Indranil » 29 Apr 2016 20:30

rsingh wrote:Image

Special feed far pardhan mantri ji.[/quote]
It is likely that he might witnessed the whole launch, but that picture is photoshopped.

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby SwamyG » 29 Apr 2016 20:55

Image

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby srin » 29 Apr 2016 22:32

indranilroy wrote:
rsingh wrote:Image

Special feed far pardhan mantri ji.

It is likely that he might witnessed the whole launch, but that picture is photoshopped.[/quote]

Why do you say that ? During the DD telecast, the video of Modi watching (and some babu coming into sit next to him) was shown. The picture is a screengrab from the DD telecast

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby SSSalvi » 30 Apr 2016 05:47

^^^
Surely ( and there is nothing wrong in that ) PM is watching a Direct Telecast which is used for internal usage by/for different centres of ISRO. Not the DD cast.
The omnipresent Yellow DD National logo in Left Top corner of TV screen is not present.
And why should someone photoshop the things?
BTW, it is not the present PM alone who is watching this telecast.
Link was available to earlier PM also. And he was also watching it.
Publicizing the fact is a different issue. ;)

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby Kashi » 30 Apr 2016 06:05

indranilroy wrote:It is likely that he might witnessed the whole launch, but that picture is photoshopped.


I don't think so. The live telecast of the launch actually showed him watching the proceedings and the screenshot seems to be taken from there.

That's when I asked if he was watching the launch form his office and Suraj posted the image.

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby shiv » 30 Apr 2016 06:31

Prasad wrote:Lightning protection is right.

The only problem I have with the lightning conductor explanation is the thickness of the wire - it simply does not look thick enough to meaningfully conduct lightning current without burning up like a fuse wire in microseconds. I don't know if anyone really uses strung up cables of that sort - typically lightning is grounded using a huge, thick conductor and the current is not required to travel along long dangling cables. Only CCTV, TV and internet cables dangle in that way in India.

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby arun » 30 Apr 2016 07:38

Picture of “Lightning Towers” doing their protective job during the run-up to the launch of Space X’s Falcon 9 booster carrying (?) AsiaSat 6 (?):

Clicky for Photo


The photograph itself was posted by Space X promoter Elon Musk on his Twitter feed. Note he refers to the structure as "Lightning Tower":


Twitter

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby shiv » 30 Apr 2016 07:41

arun wrote:Picture of “Lightning Towers” doing their protective job during the run-up to the launch of Space X’s Falcon 9 booster carrying (?) AsiaSat 6 (?):

Clicky for Photo

The towers do the job. And they are earthed directly. The cables in the ISRO image cannot be for lightning protection

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby arun » 30 Apr 2016 07:59

The cables are apparently part of the system and termed Catenary Wires.

Refer NASA eClip “Launchpad Lightning Protection System” linked below.

See especially bit on “Rolling Spheres System” around 3.45:

Clicky

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby TSJones » 30 Apr 2016 09:55

....learn something new everyday....I did not know that the lightning towers were connected almost like a circus tent with a large donut hole for the rocket to pass thru upon launch.......thanks for the info. :)

can you see a rocket hitting the wires on launch? whut a scene, lightening towers collapsing, launch director director defecating in his pants, then flames every where....... :shock:

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby member_28108 » 30 Apr 2016 15:39

The wires are really far away. Appears close due to Parallax

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby member_28108 » 30 Apr 2016 15:45

The wires are really far away. Appears close due to Parallax

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby sivab » 30 Apr 2016 17:45

http://www.insidegnss.com/auto/novdec14-THOMBRE.pdf

This paper describes IRNSS accuracy measurements using signals received from 3 sats (available at that time) in Finland.

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby SSSalvi » 30 Apr 2016 20:31

Wires connected between Lightning towers :
Image

May not be carrying Lightning current.

BTW Suraj's photo is 2nd Launch Pad. ( 4 towers ).
1st Launch Pad has 3.

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby Prasad » 01 May 2016 09:42

Not sure if you can see them on google maps/earth but those towers and wire are well clear of the launch pad.

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby vishvak » 01 May 2016 12:33

ramana wrote:Origami based designs are used for these unfurling antennas.

Can this be patented, because if it can be then it should be, even with the help of Japan.

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby SaiK » 01 May 2016 21:05

prasannasimha wrote:The wires are really far away. Appears close due to Parallax


of course you can't see them in these pics. but you can see the towers.
Image

sss ji has got a clear pic

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby arun » 02 May 2016 10:09

X Posted from the “IRNSS Launch and Discussions” thread.

PSLV-C33 / IRNSS-1G Update : The first apogee raise maneuver of IRNSS-1G has been successfully carried out for 1147 sec from 13:05 hrs IST on April 29,2016.Orbit Determination results from this LAM firing are: Apogee X perigee height was changed to 35903 kmX 317.74 km. Inclination is 17.86 deg. Orbital period is 10 hr 35 min. –

See: Clicky 1

XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX

Apr 30, 2016. PSLV-C33 / IRNSS-1G Update : Second LAM firing of IRNSS-1G, at apogee for 1581 sec has been successfully completed on April 30, 2016 starting from 04:52:17 hrs IST. –

See: Clicky 2

XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX

May 01, 2016. Orbit Determination results from second LAM firing are:apogee X perigee height was changed to 35803km,7750km,Inclination is 10.77deg.Orbital period now is 13h 03m 35sec –

See : Clicky 3

XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX

May 01, 2016. Third LAM firing of IRNSS-1G, for 1609sec has been successfully completed on 01.05.2016 starting from 06:59:07 hr IST. –

See: Clicky 4

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby SSridhar » 02 May 2016 13:04

India’s Space Security Policy: A Proposal - Ajay Lele, IDSA
Several advancements made in the field of space technology over the last few decades have significantly benefitted mankind. Today, space technology is considered critical to human survival and progress. Since space offers numerous socio-economic benefits, the number of states investing in satellite technology has grown over the years. Satellites are now being used for many purposes: meteorology, television broadcasting, mobile telephony, navigation and internet. Space systems are increasingly being used in multiple fields, such as financial management, education, tele-medicine, scientific research and disaster management, to gather real time information and increase efficiency and connectivity. Satellite technology is also playing a crucial role in measuring greenhouse gas emissions globally. In fact, space is rapidly emerging as an important component of the global economy.

At the same time, however, the dual use nature of space technology enables its utilisation for security purposes too. In the last few decades, military campaigns have demonstrated the significance of space technology for military purposes. The use of outer space for military support functions like reconnaissance, communication and navigation have received global acceptability since such usage does not directly violate any existing international legal regime.

Owing to growing dependence on space resources, there exists a possibility of intentional tampering with such assets and the associated ground setup, either by state or non-state actors. A space-faring country like India needs to ensure that its interests in respect of orbital slots, radio frequency spectrum, etc., are protected. The rapidly changing global space order could also give rise to newer challenges. Given all this, it is important that India formulates an effective policy to secure its interests in space.

India’s Adherence to Space Norms

India’s dependence on space technology and satellite derived products has been increasing. As a leading space-faring nation, it has a major future agenda aimed at developing its own space assets for socio-economic as well as strategic purposes. India believes in protecting space sustainability to allow peaceful uses of outer space by all stakeholders. India adheres to various multilateral conventions or guidelines that seek to ensure continuous space access for all, on the one hand, and mitigate potential man-made or natural risks, on the other.

The UN General Assembly (UNGA) had established a Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS) in 1959, and had proposed five treaties for approval and ratification by the member states. India is committed to the observance of the following UN conventions/guidelines that have broader global acceptability:

India adheres to the 1967 Outer Space Treaty (OST), 1968 Rescue Agreement, 1972 Liability Convention and 1974 Registration Convention. Also, India is a signatory to the 1979 Moon Agreement.


The COPUOS has addressed various issues over the years leading to various declarations by the General Assembly with which India is in agreement. These include:
1963 Declaration of Legal Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space
1982 Principles Governing the Use by States of Artificial Earth Satellites for International Direct Television Broadcasting
1986 Principles Relating to Remote Sensing of Earth from Outer Space
1992 Principles Relevant to the Use of Nuclear Power Sources in Outer Space
1996 Declaration on International Cooperation in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space for the Benefit and in the Interest of All States, Taking into Particular Account the Needs of Developing Countries.
India is a member of the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC) and adheres to the Debris Mitigation Guidelines of 2008.
India actively participates in all discussions at the Conference on Disarmament (CD). India was the co-sponsor of the UNGA resolution 68/29 on Prevention of an Arms Race in Outer Space (PAROS). India had also joined the G21 working paper in CD 1941 submitted to the Conference in 2013.
Though India was not the part of the Group of Governmental Experts (GGE, 2011-13) committee, it agreed to the use of Transparency and Confidence Building Mechanisms (TCBMs) to ensure space security. Also, India is constructively debating the European Union (EU)-sponsored proposal for creating an International Code of Conduct (ICoC) as an interim measure until a legally binding space treaty mechanism is formulated.
India is prepared (in principle) for deliberations on the revised Treaty on Prevention of the Placement of Weapons in Outer Space and of the Threat or Use of Force Against Outer Space Objects (PPWT) presented by Russia and China, as a contribution to the various proposals for negotiating a legally binding instrument in the CD {We should be careful in this as it should not turn out into another NPT with an arbitrary cutoff date of January 11, 2007 when China first tested its ASAT. Soon after the test, the Indian defence minister, A.K.Antony wondered, “how long India would remain committed to the policy of the non weaponization of space even as counter space systems are emerging in India’s neighbourhood”. Between June-August 2010, the Chinese Space agency also conducted a series of “rendezvous and proximity operations (RPO)” involving two ELINT gathering polar sun-synchronous-orbit satellites at an altitude of 600 Kms{the newly launched SJ-12 (International designator 2010-027A) and an older SJ-06F (International designator 2008-053B)}. Such an on-orbit satellite inspection capability raised further fears of an ASAT weapon in development by the Chinese}.


Requisites

Capabilities in space have the potential to influence the international balance of power. For India, it is important to focus on space applications of strategic significance and also use diplomatic means to ensure that space remains a medium for conducting peaceful activities in support of mankind.

It is argued that space is becoming an increasingly ‘congested, contested, and competitive’ medium. Space is a strategic resource for civilian (societal), commercial and military uses. Over the years, it has been observed that many states are exploiting space technologies for peaceful purposes. Also, in some cases, space technologies are being used for enhancing military capabilities in the field of surveillance, navigation and communication, which do not directly interfere, damage, degrade or destroy and hence are not considered as offensive capabilities. However, policies of some states do show signs of gradual militarisation and weaponisation of outer space and their actions appear to be exploiting the ambiguities in the existing space law regime.

Space as a medium is useful for hosting artificial platforms like satellites and space stations. This medium is also important for the passage of ballistic missiles and for operating various military systems like missile defence system, spy planes (orbital UAVs), near-space systems, and anti-satellite weapons like Kinetic Kill Weapons, etc. The satellite operations could be hindered by using either ground or space based jammers or even by cyber means. It has been observed that space debris and intentionally created hindrances like space mines, pre-programmed micro satellites and inclement space weather could have adverse impacts on various space-based operations. There also exists a possibility of deployment of space-based weapons, laser-directed energy weapons, etc., either for targets in space or on the ground. From the geostrategic prism, space is increasingly being viewed as a foreign policy tool and a force multiplier, and simultaneously also as the fourth medium of warfare.

Since the inception of its space programme, India has believed in using space technology only for purpose of socio-economic development. However, it is now time India devised a cohesive national policy to guard its interests in space and effectively address existing and emerging challenges. The purpose here though is not to propose an all-encompassing document addressing various civilian, commercial and strategic challenges in the space domain. The scope of the proposed document is rather restricted to suggesting ways to approach the idea of formulating India’s space security policy.

Policy Viewpoint

Aspect 1: Develop an institutional structure to implement space security policy

As the Indian space programme is civilian in nature, the existing institutional structure is meant to cater mainly for civilian requirements. Presently, the Space Commission is responsible for the growth, development, sustenance and furtherance of the space programme. To cater for strategic requirements, a National Authority for Space Security (NASS) needs to be established under the defence ministry to oversee all aspects of space security.

Under NASS, a Space Security Centre (secretariat to the Authority) could be established for coordinating the activities of the various stakeholders and to liaise with various agencies of the Space Commission. The proposed centre could also suggest modifications in the exiting policy architecture as found necessary from time to time.

The aforesaid Space Security Centre would, however, be required to invest in building a pool of qualified personnel, space scientists, strategic technologists, technology managers, lawyers and diplomats.

Aspect 2: Establish a Space Command

It is important to appreciate that all present and future military operations, and various military training activities and exercises undertaken during peacetime, would be heavily dependent on satellite technology. The Army, Navy, Air Force and other services like the Coast Guard and the Border Security Force are likely to increase their reliance on satellites for purpose of intelligence gathering, communication, navigation and operating various weapon systems.

There is also a need to develop Intelligence-Surveillance-Reconnaissance (ISR) capacities in space to support network centric strategies. A dedicated Space Command needs to be established for administering various military-related aspects of satellite technology. This command would directly liaise with NASS for all policy matters and budget requirements.

Aspect 3: Enhance Space Situational Awareness Capabilities

It is important for India to protect its critical space assets and infrastructure from possible tampering. For launching of satellites and ensuring that operational satellites do not suffer damage from space debris, it is important to get timely warnings. For this purpose, there is a need to develop a combination of an IR-microwave-radar network for gathering technical intelligence in space. As of now, no country is in a position to establish and maintain such a network on its own.

The issue of space situational awareness is directly connected with the issue of global space governance. It is important for India’s foreign policy establishment to ensure that the country has stakes in any global programme on space situational awareness. In fact, India could take the initiative to develop such a global programme. Alongside, there is also a need to put in place a Space Collision Warning System.

With increased activity in the space domain, satellites are being positioned in various layers of outer space, from near space to geostationary orbit to ionosphere to deep space regions for planetary missions. For effectively utilising such assets to their full potential, it has become essential to study, monitor and forecast space weather continuously. Also, it is important to monitor the movements of asteroids, comets, etc. For this purpose, a separate space weather monitoring and forecasting capability needs to be developed by engaging the Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) and the proposed Space Command.

Aspect 4: Legal Architecture

Alongside the scientific community, diplomats and space lawyers too have a key role in developing a space security agenda. The stakes for private industry in the space arena are rapidly growing. Further, there is a need to update existing national laws and consider legislating new space laws. The development of such a legal regime should also cater to the need for international space treaty obligations. Presently, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is in the process of developing a Space Act. This act should form the basis for the development of future legal frameworks and structures. There is also a need to evolve guidelines to respond to any hostile activity in outer space.

Aspect 5: Strategic Technologies

There is a need to identify and develop various critical strategic technologies. Technological innovation needs to be encouraged and agencies like the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) should be actively engaged in this regard. Also, private industry should be encouraged to undertake various technology development and production projects. ISRO has already started transferring launch vehicle technology to the private industry. Technologies available in the realm of communications, small satellites, sensors, etc. are to be shared with the DRDO/private industry to create an ecosystem for space technologies of strategic importance.

India is against the weaponisation of space, but it needs to remain prepared for any eventuality at the same time. Emphasis should therefore be given to the development of satellite hardening and anti-jamming technologies as well as for building launch on demand capabilities. It is essential to identify broad sectors of technologies of importance in the counter-space arena, while building an indigenous technology base to meet future challenges. Both satellites in space and ground infrastructure could become vulnerable to cyber attacks. Hence, a specific cyber security mechanism also needs to be put in place.

Aspect 6: Counter-space Capabilities

India’s increasing military dependence on space would also make space assets more vulnerable to attacks by adversaries. Hence, redundancy mechanism needs to be ensured. Adversaries should be aware of India’s retaliatory capabilities. For this purpose, India would have to develop effective counter-space capabilities. India needs to undertake a debris-less Anti-satellite Weapons (ASAT) test as a deterrence demonstration. This demands initiating a Kinetic Energy Anti-Satellite (KE-ASAT) programme and conducting a demonstrative test at an altitudes of {I think 'not' was omitted, by mistake} less than 250 km. Also, there is a need to develop methods for satellite jamming at various orbits. However, at the same time, India should voluntarily commit to a No First Use (NFU) policy with regard to any offensive action in space.

Implementation

This space security policy document presents an approach to address the existing and emerging space security challenges. India so far has continued with its original space agenda of using space technology specifically for the purpose of socio-economic development. The need for the proposed document however arises in the context of the rapidly changing global space security dynamics.

ISRO has been pivotal to developing the space programme for all these years and today it even competes with the best in the world. Consequently, ISRO would remain central to the formulation and implementation of India’s space security policy. In fact, there would be both horizontal and vertical level interactions between the various departments of ISRO and the agencies that have been proposed here for devising the country’s national space security architecture.

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby arun » 03 May 2016 05:50

Clicky:

May 02, 2016.

Orbit Determination results from the third LAM firing are: apogee X perigee height was changed to 35813km, 29050km, Inclination is 5.72deg. Orbital period now is 21hr 08m 09sec.

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby SSridhar » 03 May 2016 10:14

‘Sathyabamasat’ to be launched next month - T.Madhavan, The Hindu
The ‘Sathyabamasat,’ a satellite developed by students and faculty of Sathyabama University, will be launched along with the Cartosat 2C satellite in the PSLV C34 mission in June.

Announcing this at a pre-launch programme at the university on Saturday, Project Director (Cartosat 3A & 3B projects) at ISRO’s Satellite Centre, C.A. Prabhakar, asked students to be innovative. He received the satellite from the university founder-Chancellor Jeppiaar.

Mr. Prabhakar said that there were three threats in the world — terrorism, global warming and energy crisis.

“With change in weather, global warming will affect many people. Sathyabamasat can monitor green-house gases. So, you will know the sources of emission and curb it,” he added.

Mr. Jeppiaar said the project was initiated in 2009. “ISRO and Sathyabama University signed an MoU to support the design, development and launch of the satellite. Subsequently, a space technology centre was established on the university campus to conduct advanced research in rocketry, satellites and space applications. A team of students and faculty members have been working on the project, periodically reviewed by ISRO scientists,” he said.

Director of Sathyabama University, Mariazeena Johnson, said that the aim of the satellite project was to provide real time design and development experience of compact space systems to students.

“ISRO will be the primary agency to use the satellite data. Later, it will be shared with other agencies like Indian Meteorological Department for interpretation. Once the life span of the satellite gets over, it can be used for amateur radio communication,” she added.

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby SSSalvi » 05 May 2016 02:09

A rather stale topic :

prasannasimha wrote:The wires are really far away. Appears close due to Parallax



Here is a geometry of SHAR FLP ( First Launch Pad ) which I had created a couple of years back.
( Sorry for watermark. I could not remove it because posting now from my daughter's laptop. Do not have original figure right now. )

Image


Figure on Left is looking from approx south while Right side is a view from Top.
( Created using the shadow lengths in Google Earth image )

Central object is MST ( Service Tower ) which is 76 M height. PSLV is 44 M in height.
One of the lightning protection tower is exactly on West of MST

Minimum distance of MST from wires strung on Lightning Protection Tower is 50M.

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby Gagan » 05 May 2016 05:23

More Vehicle Assembly buildings seem to be coming up on the new launch pad.
There are already 2 along the main railway transport line, one seems to be perpendicular and another at an angle...
Image

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby Singbhai » 06 May 2016 09:42

Dear Gurus

The NAVIC related press release by Prime Minister Modi talks about 'Integration with Mobile Phones.' While I do understand that the GAGAN Satellite system is similar to GPS in terms of functionality. But would anyone know if there is a possibility of 'Data Relay' through this SBAS system? Could it rival INMARSAT or Iridium to some extent? Applicability - Soldier Handheld satellite communication system + usage in UCAVs + Commercial usage in Airlines industry ACARS through satellite .. etc

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby SSSalvi » 08 May 2016 06:18

An update on MOM operation ( updated on 7th March 2016 )

ISRO and its Ahmedabad based unit SAC have released latest images of MOM:

Image Image

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby member_28108 » 08 May 2016 06:59

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/wol1/doi/10.1002/2016GL067707/full

http://www.isro.gov.in/menca-observed-evening-exosphere-of-mars

MENCA observed the evening exosphere of Mars
Hindi Version





The Mars Exospheric Neutral Composition Analyser (MENCA), onboard Indian Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) is a mass spectrometer, provides in-situ measurements of the neutral composition of the exosphere of the Mars. MENCA is capable of measuring relative abundances of neutral constituents in the mass range 1 to 300 atomic mass unit (amu); the major gases in the Martian atmosphere fall in this range. In addition to acquiring the mass spectra in a specified mass range, the instrument has a provision to track the time variation of the abundances of a set of selectable species. The observation from MENCA will help in understanding the escape of the Martian atmosphere.

At the surface of Mars, the atmosphere is rich in Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and very thin (~6 millbar), about 1% of that of Earth. In the upper part of the Martian atmosphere, at around 100 km, the ultraviolet (UV) rays of sunlight breaks CO2 molecule into Carbon Monoxide (CO) molecule and Oxygen (O) atom. The CO also can be broken by solar UV radiation into C and O atoms. The oxygen atoms are about three times lighter than the CO2 molecules and two times lighter than CO molecules. Hence, oxygen atoms have larger scale height, which means it's density at higher heights falls-off slower compared to that of CO and CO2. Hence, there comes a region in Martian upper atmosphere where the number of O atoms exceeds the number of CO2 molecules. The altitude at which this change-over (CO2 dominance to O dominance) happens depends on how deep the solar UV rays penetrate the Mars atmosphere.

The figure below shows the MENCA-measured abundances of the major gases, namely, atomic Oxygen (O, 16 amu), Nitrogen molecule (N2) plus Carbon Monoxide (CO, 28 amu), and Carbon Dioxide (CO2, 44 amu), in the exosphere of Mars on 21 December 2014, during Martian evening (around sunset in the sky of Mars), from 265 km to 400 km altitude. These observations correspond to moderate solar activity conditions and when MOM’s periapsis altitude was the lowest (~265 km).

MENCA observations have shown that the abundance of Oxygen exceeds that of Carbon Dioxide at an altitude of 270 ±10 km during Martian evening. From the variation of the abundances of different gases with the altitude, the temperature of the Martian exosphere was found to be about 271 ±5 K (-7 to +3 °C). These measurements were conducted when Mars was closer to the Sun in its elliptical orbit (i.e., at perihelion); it is still cooler when Mars is farthest from the Sun.

These are the first in-situ measurements of composition during the local dusk sector on Mars, which would help in setting up the boundary conditions for models dealing with thermal escape processes. The models are basically used to understand the evolution of atmospheres to its present state and its response to various forces.

It is important to note that the CO2-to-O dominance transition altitude differs in day and night, and also varies with different seasons of Mars (due to similar tilt of rotation axis as on Earth, Mars has seasons similar to that on Earth), as well as depends on how active is the Sun.

MENCA has provided several measurements of the composition of the key species of the Martian neutral exosphere.
The above results are published in American journal, Geophysical Research Letters. vol. 43, pp. 1862–1867, (2016).
[img]
http://www.isro.gov.in/sites/default/fi ... _menca.jpg[/img]

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby member_28108 » 08 May 2016 07:03

iRNSS 1 G STATUS

May 03, 2016
Orbit Determination results from fourth LAM firing are : apogee X perigee height was changed to 35811 km,35211 km,Inclination is 5.1 deg. Orbital period now is 23 hr 42 min 04 sec
Last edited by member_28108 on 08 May 2016 08:54, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby SSSalvi » 08 May 2016 07:30

Just for records .. lest one confuses with MOM posts:

Above post refers to: PSLV-C33 / IRNSS-1G Update

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Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion

Postby member_28108 » 08 May 2016 09:05

^ EDITED


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