- Compressed schedule - IAF wanted deliveries quicker as additional batches were ordered; some ToT had to be postponed/abandoned as a result. Original plans had 4 stages of progressive assembly in India from CKD to build from raw materials. Russians continued to supply various level of CKD/SKD kits for some of the additional batches.
- Delay in ToT by Russians - they held back without incurring any penalties. That delayed make in India efforts by HAL resulting in more SKDs orders from Russia.
Yes, the plan was, out of 272, the first 32 + 40 2007 + 18 replacements + 42 2012 were kit orders while 140 were to be progressively manufactured with 104 from raw materials.
The reasons cited by you are correct, but the reason is like a school child complaining he didn't get an education because teachers were poor & education system was bad.
Our historical texts have examples of Karna and Eklavya whose endeavour for education were exemplary. Contrast that with HAL behaviour.
HAL is a proper corporation. What did it do when it discovered Russians didn't share ToT? Did it aggressively fight for its "right to ToT" like Karna & Eklavya fought for their "Right to Education"?
No. It just meekly answered questions when CAG came asking.
Let's come to FGFA. HAL was the development partner. No DRDO in picture. IAF wanted a two seater.
HAL did build a model with a Su-30MKI nose & cockpit mated to PAKFA empennage here http://www.livefistdefence.com/2012/09/ ... -fgfa.html
That design used to be there in their website but now it's been replaced with PAKFA http://www.hal-india.com/Product_Detail ... y=&CKey=67
It's an indicator that HAL would be happy with just license manufacture of PAKFA
How much joint R&D did HAL do with Sukhoi to ensure RoI on R&D investment? Negligible. Is HAL fighting with the Russians for its "Right to R&D"? No
It's the IAF that is indignant on lack of development progress, cutting orders, and calling it a third generation figher.
Even better example is MTA. Did HAL ever complain on lack of progress? No.
Did HAL ever advise MoD on Ilyushin Bureau's lack of progress and possibly explore cooperation with others like Antonov or Embraer? No.
How many decades have passed? It's happily building obsolete Do228.
So rather than whining like a school kid complaining bad teachers & education system, nothing stops HAL from coming up on its own.
No one can spoon-feed production engineering or R&D to HAL. It still expects PAKFA & MTA on a silver platter like Su-30MKI.
The nation desperately needs HAL to be much more proactive than its today.