Indian Missiles News & Discussions - May 2017

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Re: Indian Missiles News and Discussions - May 2017

Postby Rakesh » 23 Dec 2017 20:39

https://twitter.com/sjha1618/status/943762406500483072 ---> Expect a round of QRSAM trials very soon. This program is weaving its way towards productionization. The pace of all-up testing has increased across the board for DRDO missile development programmes.

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Re: Indian Missiles News and Discussions - May 2017

Postby andy B » 23 Dec 2017 20:51

Singha wrote:thats a very unique & strange way of TDing a fighter! for a space rocket I can understand some sub-scale stuff to proof techs but no conventional fighter. all the modern ones have always been of the full up size, though design mods were done after TD testing

the chinese J35 and J20 also started off at actual size.

looks the japanis have been trickle funded to the extent they could just create this small plane under the fig leaf of proofing next gen techs ... the FCS will need to be totally tested, new bigger engines, .... at best they can do some RCS measurements but that needs a inert model on a stick onlee.
the avionic and radar can be tested on the ground and in a business jet like everyone does.

the eurofighter looked like this http://imgproc.airliners.net/photos/air ... .jpg?v=v40

http://www.sae.org/aeromag/techupdate_6 ... es/05b.jpg

GD the only thing I can add without making this discussion too OT and getting a hellphyr from the brand spanking fleet of Bredators roaming is this may very well also be related to the fact that the Japanese potentially maybe be inching slowly towards developing more Sword systems given their past and need Unkil's nod for same.

In addition I reckon a lot of sub systems, avionics etc can be ported and developed with the F2. Also I wonder if they are testing and developing dual tech for ucav type platforms with this.

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Re: Indian Missiles News and Discussions - May 2017

Postby kit » 24 Dec 2017 06:22

andy B wrote:
Singha wrote:thats a very unique & strange way of TDing a fighter! for a space rocket I can understand some sub-scale stuff to proof techs but no conventional fighter. all the modern ones have always been of the full up size, though design mods were done after TD testing

the chinese J35 and J20 also started off at actual size.

looks the japanis have been trickle funded to the extent they could just create this small plane under the fig leaf of proofing next gen techs ... the FCS will need to be totally tested, new bigger engines, .... at best they can do some RCS measurements but that needs a inert model on a stick onlee.
the avionic and radar can be tested on the ground and in a business jet like everyone does.

the eurofighter looked like this http://imgproc.airliners.net/photos/air ... .jpg?v=v40

http://www.sae.org/aeromag/techupdate_6 ... es/05b.jpg

GD the only thing I can add without making this discussion too OT and getting a hellphyr from the brand spanking fleet of Bredators roaming is this may very well also be related to the fact that the Japanese potentially maybe be inching slowly towards developing more Sword systems given their past and need Unkil's nod for same.

In addition I reckon a lot of sub systems, avionics etc can be ported and developed with the F2. Also I wonder if they are testing and developing dual tech for ucav type platforms with this.


OT but https://thediplomat.com/2017/03/japan-and-uk-to-collaborate-on-advanced-stealth-fighter-jet/

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Re: Indian Missiles News and Discussions - May 2017

Postby neeraj » 24 Dec 2017 08:31

Rakesh wrote:https://twitter.com/sjha1618/status/943762406500483072 ---> Expect a round of QRSAM trials very soon. This program is weaving its way towards productionization. The pace of all-up testing has increased across the board for DRDO missile development programmes.


Is this 100% desi / ability to completely manufacture in India.

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Re: Indian Missiles News and Discussions - May 2017

Postby Singha » 24 Dec 2017 09:56

japan it seems started making AAM in 1969 with a copy of the sidewinder and is now onto AIM9x and Derby class already in use of F15J and F2.

they need to get over the boo boo defensive weapons and start churning out ballistic and cruise missiles - will drive the panda batnuts. anything that can strike noko can also smack the cheen coast.

and they needed to go nuclear long ago. Trump should withdraw nuclear umbrella. then we will know they had ready use designs salted away.

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Re: Indian Missiles News and Discussions - May 2017

Postby arun » 24 Dec 2017 10:06

ashishvikas wrote:Hemant Rout - #BREAKING: India successfully test fires next-generation Quick Reaction Surface-to-Air Missile (QRSAM) from a defence base off #Odisha coast. The homegrown canister-based high-speed #missile can deceive enemy radars making it difficult to be detected. @NewIndianXpress

https://twitter.com/Hemant_TNIE/status/ ... 7066341376



No other media source besides Hemant Rout/ New Indian Express has reported a QRSAM test by DRDO on Dec 22, 2017. In the absence of corroboration, I am taking this news article by Hemant Rout to be a case of what Donald Trump would call Fake News :wink: .

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Re: Indian Missiles News and Discussions - May 2017

Postby Karan M » 24 Dec 2017 10:09

Probably because DRDO did not release a press release, which is usually how most agencies pick up the news and then add to it.

However, Saurav Jha did note QRSAM tests were on the anvil.

Let us see.

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Re: Indian Missiles News and Discussions - May 2017

Postby Karan M » 24 Dec 2017 10:12

As I had predicted -Akash NG will have a new radar as well. :D
This is really amazing stuff for India.

I hope the DRDO displays some chunkian arthashaster thinking and uses the Akash NG to supplant imports.

http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/com ... 610597.ece

BEL's upcoming Defence Systems Integration complex at Palasamudram in Ananthpur district of Andhra Pradesh is set to help the firm expand its missile systems business.

At the facility, BEL will carry out manufacturing and integration for ongoing and upcoming projects such as QRSAM (quick-reaction surface-to-air missile), and MRSAM (medium-range surface-to-air missile) developed by the DRDO.

"BEL is associating with the DRDO in the joint development of the indigenous QRSAM system and it is progressing well," said the official.

The QRSAM weapon system, currently under development, is an indigenous missile system, which will have canister launchers and is expected to be a highly mobile air defence system.

The official added that the company is in discussions with the DRDO for the joint development of the next-generation Akash Missile system. "This will have a new radar and seeker with better range as compared to the Akash Missile System inducted by the IAF and Army," added the official. The order for the next-generation Akash missile system is expected to be worth $1 billion.


The official said the Palasamudram facility "will be built in 3-4 phases as various projects mature, and the estimated investment will be about ₹800 crore over the next three-four years."

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Re: Indian Missiles News and Discussions - May 2017

Postby Indranil » 24 Dec 2017 10:21

arun wrote:
ashishvikas wrote:Hemant Rout - #BREAKING: India successfully test fires next-generation Quick Reaction Surface-to-Air Missile (QRSAM) from a defence base off #Odisha coast. The homegrown canister-based high-speed #missile can deceive enemy radars making it difficult to be detected. @NewIndianXpress

https://twitter.com/Hemant_TNIE/status/ ... 7066341376



No other media source besides Hemant Rout/ New Indian Express has reported a QRSAM test by DRDO on Dec 22, 2017. In the absence of corroboration, I am taking this news article by Hemant Rout to be a case of what Donald Trump would call Fake News :wink: .


Hemant Rout is the final word on defence reporting from Chandipur. I wait for his reports to corroborate others. Not the other way around.

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Re: Indian Missiles News and Discussions - May 2017

Postby Karan M » 24 Dec 2017 10:21

So current list of new radar projects from DRDO:

IA:
ADTCR (90km surveillance radar)
ADFCR (Atulya for replacing Flycatcher systems)
LLLWR Mk2 (Bharani Mk2 for mountain deployment)
QRSAM BSR and FCR (surveillance and fire control)
New radar program for Akash NG (likely fire control, surveillance will be the Ashwini LLTR)
TWIR (Through wall)
GPR (Ground penetrating radar)
FPR (Foliage Penetrating radar)
BFSR-XR (BFSR Extended range, replacing the earlier BFSR)

IAF:
Arudhra MPR
Ashwini LLTR (Replaces Rohini variant of 3D CAR)
Project India (replaces AEW&CS)
Mountain radar program
SAR for UAVs (with GMTI/ISAR; IAF can even ask for it to be upscaled and put on a desi platform for a cheaper alternative to expensive imports)
Uttam (LRDE is taking it forward which means fighter radars will come)

BMD:
LLTR
MFCR
Extended range versions of LLTR/MFCR

Navy:
Revathi
Radar program for IAC
Likely surveillance/FCR for SRSAM

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Re: Indian Missiles News and Discussions - May 2017

Postby Karan M » 24 Dec 2017 10:22

Indranil wrote:Hemant Rout is the final word in Indian Defence reporting when it comes to Chandipur. I wait for his reports to corroborate other reports. Not the other way around.


Yes, he is right on the test occurring but sometimes he has been wrong in the past, attributing successful tests as failed ones.

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Re: Indian Missiles News and Discussions - May 2017

Postby arun » 24 Dec 2017 10:34

Indranil wrote:
arun wrote:

No other media source besides Hemant Rout/ New Indian Express has reported a QRSAM test by DRDO on Dec 22, 2017. In the absence of corroboration, I am taking this news article by Hemant Rout to be a case of what Donald Trump would call Fake News :wink: .


Hemant Rout is the final word on defence reporting from Chandipur. I wait for his reports to corroborate others. Not the other way around.



IMO a too generous estimation of Hemant Rout. While specifics elude me, my memory says Hemant Rout has got his Chandipur / Orissa located reporting wrong in the past on more than one occassion. Hemant Rout is certainly no T.S.Subramanian {fomerly?} of Hindu / Frontline. Will await corroboration.

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Re: Indian Missiles News and Discussions - May 2017

Postby Karan M » 24 Dec 2017 10:45

^^
He usually gets the fact the test occurred right. If he says a QRSAM test occurred, more than likely he is right in that. But no harm in waiting for corroboration. Two tests have already occurred for the QRSAM anyhow.

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Re: Indian Missiles News and Discussions - May 2017

Postby pankajs » 24 Dec 2017 13:02

On Rout baba's reporting
http://www.newindianexpress.com/nation/ ... 34849.html
The homegrown canister-based high-speed weapon system, which can deceive enemy radars making it difficult to be detected, is capable of destroying aerial targets, tanks, bunkers and short range missiles.

Per him, QRSAM can
1. Deceive enemy radars. Strange claim to make for a SAM. Usually such claims are made wrt offensive missiles.
2. Capable of destroying ... tanks and bunkers. For a SAM this is beyond strange.

To me it looks like he has inside source(s) but he doesn't have any real understanding of missiles, weapon systems, etc. When forced to fill in the gaps on his own he sometimes makes some very basic mistakes.

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Re: Indian Missiles News and Discussions - May 2017

Postby srai » 24 Dec 2017 13:05

^^^
:rotfl:

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Re: Indian Missiles News and Discussions - May 2017

Postby Thakur_B » 24 Dec 2017 13:11

Probably meant system has LPI radars.

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Re: Indian Missiles News and Discussions - May 2017

Postby Karan M » 24 Dec 2017 19:59

Can't believe I am "defending" Rout, the same fellow who used to take glee in Indian missile failures and even cooked up some stories. But anyhow..

pankajs wrote:On Rout baba's reporting
http://www.newindianexpress.com/nation/ ... 34849.html
The homegrown canister-based high-speed weapon system, which can deceive enemy radars making it difficult to be detected, is capable of destroying aerial targets, tanks, bunkers and short range missiles.

Per him, QRSAM can
1. Deceive enemy radars. Strange claim to make for a SAM. Usually such claims are made wrt offensive missiles.


I take this to mean somebody may have told him the system has a low radar footprint. One of the IA's objections to Akash was it was a large system with many distributed vehicles and large radars

2. Capable of destroying ... tanks and bunkers. For a SAM this is beyond strange.


Not necessarily.
SAMs can have dual roles.
US Naval SAMs for instance, often double up as SSMs.
http://nationalinterest.org/blog/the-bu ... sile-15436

Its possible the QRSAM can have a dual role as a multi-role sort of missile.

http://www.army-technology.com/projects/pantsyr/
Pantsyr-S1 (also known as Pantsir) is a close-in air defence system designed to defend ground installations against a variety of weapons including fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters, ballistic and cruise missiles, precision-guided munitions and unmanned air vehicles. It can also engage light-armoured ground targets.



To me it looks like he has inside source(s) but he doesn't have any real understanding of missiles, weapon systems, etc. When forced to fill in the gaps on his own he sometimes makes some very basic mistakes.


That part, is unfortunately, very true.

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Re: Indian Missiles News and Discussions - May 2017

Postby Karan M » 24 Dec 2017 20:00

Thakur_B wrote:Probably meant system has LPI radars.


That could be true too.

However, it can equally be that both of us are clutching at straws to explain Rout-ji's phenomenal filler-work in the article and somebody in DRDO reading this is shaking his head. :lol:

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Re: Indian Missiles News and Discussions - May 2017

Postby AdityaM » 24 Dec 2017 20:43

Missile bad news

Posting from mobile so not pasting excerpts

https://theprint.in/2017/12/24/setback- ... ion-stuck/


K-4 missile failed in pontoon

recent test of the Quick Reaction Surface to Air Missile (QRSAM) failed during its test on 22 December at Chandipur-on-Sea in Odisha. It hit turbulence within 1.5 seconds of the missile taking off, as an actuator did not respond to a software command, according to sources.

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Re: Indian Missiles News and Discussions - May 2017

Postby Karan M » 24 Dec 2017 20:46

^^ Actuator-software linkup issues for the QRSAM are not such a big deal. Can be resolved with some more TLC @ vendor end or some additional reliability measure. So we know test occurred but Rout was too quick off the mark in making up details for it. I'd expect more QRSAM tests soon.

K-4 issue is more critical.

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Re: Indian Missiles News and Discussions - May 2017

Postby Karthik S » 24 Dec 2017 20:48

^^

Surface-to-air missile test fails on 22 December, submarine test failure five days before raises major concerns over India’s nuclear triad expansion.

New Delhi: The Indian missile development programme has encountered a setback with two successive failures within a week, including a worrying development in which a submarine-launched nuclear-capable missile got stuck in its testing canister following an unsuccessful test.

Sources told ThePrint that a recent test of the Quick Reaction Surface to Air Missile (QRSAM) failed during its test on 22 December at Chandipur-on-Sea in Odisha. It hit turbulence within 1.5 seconds of the missile taking off, as an actuator did not respond to a software command, according to sources.

QRSAM is being developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) to meet urgent requirements of the Indian Air Force for protection of vital assets. It is meant to complement the Akash short-range surface-to-air missile. It is supposed to take down fast-moving incoming air targets like missiles and fighter jets at extremely short notice. This was the third test of the missile.

More worryingly, there has been major concern with the failure of the K-4 submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM), which is being developed for the nuclear triad to give India the capability to take down long-range targets from under water.

A test carried out on 17 December ended in failure after the missile did not launch from an underwater pontoon, it is learnt. The missile, believed to have a range of over 3,500 km, is to be equipped on the INS Arihant and Arighat nuclear submarines as a second strike option.

Sources said that the K-4 missile did not activate during the test, with its battery getting drained after the launch command was given. It is believed that DRDO scientists were even unable to retrieve the missile from the test pontoon following the failure, raising safety concerns for the programme.

India’s lone nuclear missile-carrying submarine, the INS Arihant, is currently equipped with the 750 km range B-05 SLBM. However, the limited range of the missile and a struggle to keep the Arihant functional raises concerns on the effectiveness of the nuclear triad.

The 3,500-km range K-4 missile was to be the real game changer, giving India a second strike option over all potential target positions. While it has been tested three times before, the unsuccessful test last week raised concerns as the missile was to be launched from the INS Arihant shortly. Careful assessments are now being made to pinpoint the reason for the failure, and assess whether it would lead to safety considerations for a submarine launch.

DRDO has also started work on the K-5, a 5,000 km range SLBM that would be fitted onboard nuclear-powered submarines, as well as a futuristic K-6 project to develop an underwater launched missile with a range of up to 6,000 km.

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Re: Indian Missiles News and Discussions - May 2017

Postby Surya » 24 Dec 2017 21:06

Karan M wrote:Can't believe I am "defending" Rout, the same fellow who used to take glee in Indian missile failures and even cooked up some stories. But anyhow..

To me it looks like he has inside source(s) but he doesn't have any real understanding of missiles, weapon systems, etc. When forced to fill in the gaps on his own he sometimes makes some very basic mistakes.


That part, is unfortunately, very true.


not just him - others who are beloved here too

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Re: Indian Missiles News and Discussions - May 2017

Postby vasu raya » 24 Dec 2017 22:06

Karan M wrote:So current list of new radar projects from DRDO:

IA:
ADTCR (90km surveillance radar)
ADFCR (Atulya for replacing Flycatcher systems)
LLLWR Mk2 (Bharani Mk2 for mountain deployment)
QRSAM BSR and FCR (surveillance and fire control)
New radar program for Akash NG (likely fire control, surveillance will be the Ashwini LLTR)
TWIR (Through wall)
GPR (Ground penetrating radar)
FPR (Foliage Penetrating radar)
BFSR-XR (BFSR Extended range, replacing the earlier BFSR)

IAF:
Arudhra MPR
Ashwini LLTR (Replaces Rohini variant of 3D CAR)
Project India (replaces AEW&CS)
Mountain radar program
SAR for UAVs (with GMTI/ISAR; IAF can even ask for it to be upscaled and put on a desi platform for a cheaper alternative to expensive imports)
Uttam (LRDE is taking it forward which means fighter radars will come)

BMD:
LLTR
MFCR
Extended range versions of LLTR/MFCR

Navy:
Revathi
Radar program for IAC
Likely surveillance/FCR for SRSAM


Karan ji, anyone specific to VLO detection? the coastal radars or only S-400 system's Nebo-M is the only option, are we even procuring it?

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Re: Indian Missiles News and Discussions - May 2017

Postby Singha » 24 Dec 2017 23:30

Battery getting drained suddenly usually happens in
Android phones with old batts at 20% of design capacity when cpu makes a large power demand on it

Apple has a much criticised fix for it lol

Could just be a bad duracell battery nakli made in cheen

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Re: Indian Missiles News and Discussions - May 2017

Postby Prem Kumar » 25 Dec 2017 00:14

Possibly (speculation hat on), K4 was tested in quasi-real conditions, whereby it was left inside the pontoon to soak for a few days, before it is fired. Like how it would happen in a real submarine. It was a possible K4 test + a test of the "wooden round". Failed the latter.

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Re: Indian Missiles News and Discussions - May 2017

Postby SaiK » 25 Dec 2017 03:49

I can understand battery getting drained when the actuators or for some reason, it got drained.. but what the heck is safety concerns after "DRDO officials unable to retrieve the missile from the test pontoon" following the failure mean?

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Re: Indian Missiles News and Discussions - May 2017

Postby John » 25 Dec 2017 04:04

Not necessarily.
SAMs can have dual roles.
US Naval SAMs for instance, often double up as SSMs.
http://nationalinterest.org/blog/the-bu ... sile-15436

Its possible the QRSAM can have a dual role as a multi-role sort of missile.


Even Shtil-1 posses this capability to hit both naval as well targets in the shore however it’s handicapped by its reliance on FCR so its range is limited to radar horizon.

One thing I do find confusing is why we need to wait for QR SAM to give Kamorta class their much needed SAM. When both Barak-1 or Barak 8 can fill this need.

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Re: Indian Missiles News and Discussions - May 2017

Postby Singha » 25 Dec 2017 06:36

High cost

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Re: Indian Missiles News and Discussions - May 2017

Postby kit » 25 Dec 2017 06:53

Singha wrote:Battery getting drained suddenly usually happens in
Android phones with old batts at 20% of design capacity when cpu makes a large power demand on it

Apple has a much criticised fix for it lol

Could just be a bad duracell battery nakli made in cheen


built in obsolescence ..apple is known to do it to previous gen iphones by ..software updates .. drain batteries faster.

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Re: Indian Missiles News and Discussions - May 2017

Postby ramana » 25 Dec 2017 06:58

pankajs wrote:On Rout baba's reporting
http://www.newindianexpress.com/nation/ ... 34849.html
The homegrown canister-based high-speed weapon system, which can deceive enemy radars making it difficult to be detected, is capable of destroying aerial targets, tanks, bunkers and short range missiles.

Per him, QRSAM can
1. Deceive enemy radars. Strange claim to make for a SAM. Usually such claims are made wrt offensive missiles.
2. Capable of destroying ... tanks and bunkers. For a SAM this is beyond strange.

To me it looks like he has inside source(s) but he doesn't have any real understanding of missiles, weapon systems, etc. When forced to fill in the gaps on his own he sometimes makes some very basic mistakes.

It means QRSAM can be used in surface to surface mode. Many SAM can be used in SSM mode.

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Re: Indian Missiles News and Discussions - May 2017

Postby ramana » 25 Dec 2017 07:05

Singha wrote:Battery getting drained suddenly usually happens in
Android phones with old batts at 20% of design capacity when cpu makes a large power demand on it

Apple has a much criticised fix for it lol

Could just be a bad duracell battery nakli made in cheen


Batteries for strategic missiles have electrolyte separate in a plastic container which get breached on command. If battery drained means a series of commands were sent and worked. Most likely there was a mfg defect in battery which drained it. I leave it to electrical members to come up with scenarios that can lead to the battery draining situation.

The missile would be safe to remove from pontoon tube as its the battery that arms it. If it drained there is no arming voltage.
I think the moron telling stuff about unsafe to remove could belong to the 'utter disaster' brigade in DRDO.

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Re: Indian Missiles News and Discussions - May 2017

Postby John » 25 Dec 2017 08:36

Singha wrote:High cost

Barak 1 cost around 1/2 mil USD each so they are not that expensive. We don’t have breakdown for LR SAM but recent order for 4 systems for P-15B was around 650 million USD. So I expect LR SAM to cost more than QR SAM but Barak 1 should cheaper. Rather than introducing another SAM to complicate the supply chain why not just use what we have, to make matters worse Russia is going to shove Kashtan M1 and Vl shtil with Grigorovich order.

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Re: Indian Missiles News and Discussions - May 2017

Postby ramana » 25 Dec 2017 09:39

I think the battery had a short circuit induced during mfg. You can`t test it as there is no electrolyte. Needs very carefulf assembly.

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Re: Indian Missiles News and Discussions - May 2017

Postby Karthik S » 25 Dec 2017 09:46

So Nirbhay first and now K4, both missile tests failed because of a component defect.

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Re: Indian Missiles News and Discussions - May 2017

Postby Singha » 25 Dec 2017 10:43

does anyone use lithium ion batteries in missiles ? commercial aviation uses it now . has a very long shelf life and stable...no liquids moving around.

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Re: Indian Missiles News and Discussions - May 2017

Postby Singha » 25 Dec 2017 10:44

John wrote:
Singha wrote:High cost

Barak 1 cost around 1/2 mil USD each so they are not that expensive. We don’t have breakdown for LR SAM but recent order for 4 systems for P-15B was around 650 million USD. So I expect LR SAM to cost more than QR SAM but Barak 1 should cheaper. Rather than introducing another SAM to complicate the supply chain why not just use what we have, to make matters worse Russia is going to shove Kashtan M1 and Vl shtil with Grigorovich order.


I believe israel has not invested in any Barak1-mk2 to tackle supersonic targets unlike RAM and ESSM which have seen constant rolling upg. the naval threat to israel is 0 and they are busy with arrow, david sling and iron dome on land.

IN is going to have supersonic ASMs fired at it, even by the Pakis in a few short years. anything we do has to work vs such targets not just harpoon, exocet and C-80x.

secondly there will not be any domestic R&D for any barak1-mk2 so gains are minimal.

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Re: Indian Missiles News and Discussions - May 2017

Postby ramana » 25 Dec 2017 11:02

Singha wrote:does anyone use lithium ion batteries in missiles ? commercial aviation uses it now . has a very long shelf life and stable...no liquids moving around.



Not really. For long shelf life you need electrolyte separate from the electrodes.

DRDO is on right path. Some mfg defect. By now the root cause must be found.The fact the said battery drained and not activate is a powerful statement.

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Re: Indian Missiles News and Discussions - May 2017

Postby ramdas » 25 Dec 2017 15:26

Hope they test the K-4 soon after the defect is corrected and not wait for 10 more months. Rapid all up testing is better than overdoing simulations etc. North Korea’s recent successes show this clearly. A lot of time has already been lost between January (when a scheduled test did not take place) and now. Attempts to test once every few weeks are essential.
Last edited by ramdas on 25 Dec 2017 15:29, edited 1 time in total.

abhik
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Re: Indian Missiles News and Discussions - May 2017

Postby abhik » 25 Dec 2017 15:28

IIRC one of the info boards quoted a max target speed of 700m/s limitation for the QRSAM radars, so it probably can't defend against brahmos type missiles.

kit
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Re: Indian Missiles News and Discussions - May 2017

Postby kit » 25 Dec 2017 16:11

Looking at the previous posts one comes to the realisation future of Indian warfare vs China will be fought in defence labs first as tech vs tech .. all the more important to support DRDOs efforts .They will need to retain their top talent


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