India's Contribution to Science & Technology

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saip
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Re: India's Contribution to Science & Technology

Postby saip » 15 Nov 2019 21:24

92 Upper Circular Road (Einstein's letter to SN Bose)? My sister and brother - in - law used to work there in sixties. Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics used to be housed there. I wonder if they knew Prof Bose.

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Re: India's Contribution to Science & Technology

Postby Amber G. » 26 Jan 2020 01:21

Prof Pradeep Thalappil, whose scientific work was recognized today by a Padma Shri, has made 360 degree contributions to the functional nano-materials in general and effective materials for the low cost water purification in particular.

Wishing Pradeep and his coworkers joys of creative pursuits always.

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Re: India's Contribution to Science & Technology

Postby vinamr_s » 27 Jan 2020 12:04

Retired Prof HC Verma, who made high-school Physics interesting through the problems given in this book (some people don't like its theory :lol: although I do), was awarded the Padma Sri on this republic day.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_P ... (2020-2029)

He also has a few other initiatives which are lesser-known to people:

He has co-founded few initiatives like Daltonganj Sopan for the social upliftment of the children of the economically weaker section living near Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur's campus. According to his website, he is currently working on a book about electrostatics, magnetostatics, and electrodynamics for undergraduate students studying science.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H._C._Verma

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Re: India's Contribution to Science & Technology

Postby Amber G. » 29 Jan 2020 11:32

^^^ Thanks for posting this. In addition, I was pleasantly surprised to see a few familiar people ( at least 3 from IIT K alone )...
(Along with the Republic Day, it is also IIT Kanpur’s Diamond Jubilee so this news is celebrated there too)
..
-- Prof. Sudhir Jain, Director, IIT Gandhinagar and formerly a faculty of IIT Kanpur has been awarded the Padma Shri.
As founding Director, he has been instrumental in shaping IIT Gandhinagar.
Dr. Jain has experimented with numerous ideas in the curriculum, student affairs, faculty recruitment and faculty management and has conducted extensive research in the area of earthquake engineering. Heartiest congratulations to him!

-- (As posted above) Harish Chandra Verma, alumnus & retired Professor and now associated as an Adjunct faculty, has been awarded the Padma Shri. He epitomises outstanding teaching ethos of IIT Kanpur.

Prof. Verma was also instrumental in setting up Shiksha Sopan, an NGO that helps children from underprivileged background in their education. Through Shiksha Sopan’s scholarship program, many children have been able to access quality education.

Prof. Verma is a well-known name in the field of Indian education, thanks to his physics books which continue to be widely used in schools and colleges. Apart from his research on nano fabrication using focused ion beam, magnetism in graphite on irradiation by ion beam and nanosize magnetic materials, Prof. Verma has worked tirelessly on developing simple experiments to make science more interesting for school children. He has developed more than 600 physics experiments which can be used by teachers as DEMOs in their classrooms and he has also produced a set of 45 video lectures in Hindi for the school level.

--- Also Vashisht Narayan Singh, an ex-professor of IITK, (Also of TIFR) who passed away last year also been awarded Padma Shri along with Prof HC Verma and Prof Sudhir Jain. ..

There are few other names in related fields which I am very happy that they are being recognized ..

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Re: India's Contribution to Science & Technology

Postby Hiten » 23 Apr 2020 03:26

This Rare Blip Of A Clip Shows India's First Hovercraft Performing Donuts

Dr. Kalam's baby, whose requirement, the Forces are increasingly expressing today.
Earlier Today: A Pair Of IAF Flankers Flanking A Phalcon [Image Of The Day]
This gem is, perhaps, the only video footage available, that captures the 1st ever Hovercraft built in India, as it is put through its paces.


https://www.spansen.com/2020/04/rare-cl ... craft.html

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Re: India's Contribution to Science & Technology

Postby Vips » 30 Jun 2020 19:36

L&T builds cryostat for USD 20 bn global fusion projec.

Engineering and construction giant Larsen & Toubro on Tuesday said it has achieved a major milestone under 'Make in India' initiative by building a cryostat for USD20 billion global fusion project. The final assembly or top lid sectors of the cryostat, a key part of the world's largest nuclear fusion reactor being built in France, were dispatched on Tuesday from the company's Hazira manufacturing complex in Surat district in Gujarat.

Larsen & Toubro (L&T) in 2012 chosen by ITER-India to manufacture and install cryostat - a vacuum pressure vessel made of 3,850 tonnes of stainless steel. L&T Group Chairman AM Naik termed it a "moment of pride for India and Larsen & Toubro".

"The heavy engineering arm of L&T, India's leading engineering, construction, technology, manufacturing and financial services conglomerate, has flagged-off the most complex and final assembly of cryostat, the largest stainless-steel, high-vacuum pressure chamber in the world. "This is an important milestone in the global nuclear fusion arena as well as a moment of pride for the Make in India initiative," the company said in a statement.

The cryostat assembly weighing 650 tonne is to be installed with other cryostat segments for ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) in a reactor pit in southern France.

L&T has already delivered the base section, the lower cylinder and the upper cylinder for the cryostat. The cryostat's function is to provide cooling to the fusion reactor and to keep very high temperatures at its core under control. A virtual flag-off ceremony of the final assembly was held at the company's Hazira manufacturing complex.

Dr Bernard Bigot, Director-General, ITER Global, KN Vyas, Chairman Atomic Energy Commission, India, UK Baruah, Project Director, ITER-India, V K Saraswat, Member, NITI Aayog, A M Naik, Group Chairman L&T and SN Subrahmanyan, CEO & MD, L&T, joined the ceremony virtually.

Naik said: "It is a moment of pride for India and for L&T in particular as we have gathered to flag-off the last section of the Cryostat Vessel for the most ambitious clean energy project limitless carbon free energy that will power the future. L&T has always been proud of this global collaborative research to build a greener planet."

Subrahmanyan the company has used innovative and digital manufacturing techniques to ensure uninterrupted supply of high-precision assemblies to ITER. "This will further pave a way for the installation of cryostat at the project site in France and eventually lead to the demonstration of large scale feasibility of fusion power. It has empowered India to tread towards Atma Nirbhar Bharat by acquiring knowledge in this highly specialised field of science and technology,” Subrahmanyan added.

Anil V Parab, Executive Vice President and Head, L&T Heavy Engineering told PTI that ITER is a USD 20 billion project and India is contributing 9 per cent of the project component.

"With the supply of the Top Lid sector, we have successfully completed our India scope of the project ahead of the schedule. The fabrication of these components has been an engineering marvel both in terms of its massive size and its stringent quality standards.”

The project scope for L&T Heavy Engineering is divided into three aspects, the company said.

L&T's Heavy Engineering business won this prestigious contract from ITER India, a wing of Department of Atomic Energy, for the ambitious mega scientific project, conducted in collaboration of seven elite countries, including India, and with a project outlay of around USD 20 billion.

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Re: India's Contribution to Science & Technology

Postby Amber G. » 05 Jul 2020 23:28

This is a *major* contribution from Indian Scientists


The PIP-II project at Fermilab includes construction of a 215-meter-long particle accelerator that will accelerate particles to 84% of the speed of light. The new particle accelerator will enable Fermilab to generate an unprecedented stream of neutrinos.

This is a major project by USA with international cooperation from India and also UK, Poland, France and Italy.


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Re: India's Contribution to Science & Technology

Postby Amber G. » 07 Jul 2020 21:18

Remembering Mahalanobiss (Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis) - Who was friend/classmate of Ramanujan in his Cambridge days
Mahalanobis was “a physicist by training, a statistician by instinct and an economist by conviction” - A nice article written by Atanu-da

Some excerpts IMO relevant today -
I

.....
Bengal’s famine survey reminds us that we need estimates of the millions who will lose jobs or livelihoods and of the hundreds of millions whose economic conditions will deteriorate in today’s COVID-19-hit India. The extent of feasibility, success and problem of online access, for example, also needs to be properly estimated in this new dawn.


Mahalanobis is perhaps more relevant today when the accuracy of different sorts of data — from economic data to COVID-19 data — is under the scanner. Starting from the first area sample in the whole world for jute forecast in 1934, Mahalanobis built up a strong and trustworthy statistical heritage in India through his tireless efforts over the years, supplemented by his efficiency, wisdom, leadership, innovative ideas and brilliance. Mahalanobis envisaged large-scale sample surveys as statistical engineering rather than pure theory of sampling. He was instrumental in establishing the National Sample Survey (NSS) in 1950 and the Central Statistical Organization in 1951.



Mahalanobis was very careful about data accuracy in his surveys. In Kautilya’s Arthashastra, there is mention of the need for cross-checking by an independent set of agents for data collection: “Spies under disguise of householders (Grihapatika, cultivators), who shall be deputed by the Collector-General for espionage, shall ascertain the validity of accounts (of Gopas, the village officers and Sthanikas, the district officers) regarding the fields, right of ownership and remission of taxes with regard to houses, and the caste and profession regarding families...” (Chapter XXXV). This, according to Mahalanobis, was the “striking feature in the Arthashastra”. This might have prompted him to have an independent supervisory staff during the conduct of field operations by the NSS for collection of reliable data.


Mahalanobis was “a physicist by training, a statistician by instinct and an economist by conviction”. His initial training in Physics might have made him conscious about errors in measurement and observation. Students even called him the Professor of Counting and Measurement, using the initials of his name. The desire to have built-in cross-checks and to get an estimate of errors in sampling led him to introduce the Inter-Penetrating Network of Subsamples, which is now considered as the curtain-raiser for re-sampling procedures like Bootstrap, a revolutionary concept of statistics indeed.
....
At the end of his 1946 article in The Asiatic Review, Mahalanobis wrote: “Statistics are a minor detail, but they do help.” This is an eternal truth. What Mahalanobis didn’t spell out is that one needs a top statistician for listening to the heartbeats of data and for framing data-based policy decisions for human welfare and national development. And unfortunately, there’s no one to fill Mahalanobis’s shoes, even about half a century after his demise.


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Re: India's Contribution to Science & Technology

Postby Mollick.R » 08 Jul 2020 01:40

Amber G. wrote:Remembering Mahalanobiss (Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis) - Who was friend/classmate of Ramanujan in his Cambridge days
Mahalanobis was “a physicist by training, a statistician by instinct and an economist by conviction” - A nice article written by Atanu-da


Just to share a small fact, which i believe (most probably) is known to all gurus here. On several articles i have read that Subramanian Swamy was an student of Mahalanobiss at ISI Kolkata & they had quite bitter professional relationship. Swamy jee & Mahalanobiss jee had confrontation of opinions on several occasions.

Sorry for the OT.

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Re: India's Contribution to Science & Technology

Postby Amber G. » 15 Aug 2020 06:27

When Prime Minister's Modi did the Ram Janm Bhoomi Poojan - his health was guarded by a technology developed at IIT Kanpur and by a prominent incubated companies (E-Spin Nanotech Pvt. Ltd.)

Very proud of these engineers, doctors, scientists and above all great human beings. India which virtually imported all N95 masks and PPE, now has a capacity to produce 300,000 per day. All this - from design to manufacturing and obtaining all government requirements - within few months!)

Stay safe, as our PM prayed on this historic day " दो गज दूरी, मास्क जरूरी. जय सिया राम."
(Keep 2 meter distance and wear mask - always till required by your duty )

Some background: "Espin Nanotech was a startup spun by an IITK colleague, Dr. Sandip Patil, who did his thesis research on, well, electrospun nanofibers! Much before producing masks at a short notice, the company was already making electro-spinning machines and exporting.
Who says research driven, hi-tech, cutting-edge, hardware based startups with well-designed products cannot happen in India and its tier-2 cities, and that they cannot succeed globally with quality?!
One should be prepared to work hard though, be clear of vision and have atma-vishwas! It also helps when GoI listens to scientists and we have some world-class scientists in DST etc.

<Story here>
Image

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Re: India's Contribution to Science & Technology

Postby RajaRudra » 19 Aug 2020 14:30

https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/ind ... 629231.cms

BENGALURU: Scientists from the <!-- -->Centre for Nano and Soft Matter Sciences<!-- --> (CeNS) in Bengaluru have designed a metal mesh structure to make a transparent shield for <!-- -->electromagnetic interference<!-- --> (EMI), which the government calls an ‘invisible’ shield that has various military stealth applications. <br/>Scientists from CeNS, an autonomous institute of the Department of Science and Technology (DST), have fabricated these transparent and flexible EMI shields made of metal meshes using the crack templating method via spray coating which is pioneered in their laboratory. <br/>And, the team led by Prof G U Kulkarni, along with his co-workers from CeNS and industrial partner Hind High Vacuum (HHV) Private Ltd have set-up a semi-automated production plant funded by DST-Nanomission for production of transparent conducting glasses which shows the potential for transparent EMI shields as well. <br/>“The CeNS team has developed a copper metal mesh on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) sheet as its substrate, which exhibited a visible transmittance (T), a parameter of visible transparency of about 85% and high sheet resistance (~0.83 ohm per square),” the government said in a statement.


Gurus - Any idea regarding the application of the same in the defense arena

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Re: India's Contribution to Science & Technology

Postby Cyrano » 20 Aug 2020 00:47

"Predator" camouflage will become reality at last !

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Re: India's Contribution to Science & Technology

Postby Amber G. » 22 Aug 2020 08:04

.
From DST Inida's site" ARIES- Nainital's astronomers have traced the mystery behind dwarf galaxy aberrations of massive star formation. Using two Indian telescopes, scientists have found that disturbed hydrogen distribution could be the reason behind the strange behaviour of galaxies. ..

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Re: India's Contribution to Science & Technology

Postby Amber G. » 29 Aug 2020 00:28

xpost from physics dhaga..
This is quite interesting and this could be huge!.

(Scientists from IIT Bombay proposed a novel setup to carry out quantum information processing at room temperatures. This study is funded by Government of India's Department of Science and Technology. Reputed institute and people involved. India has very heavily invested in Quantum Computing R&D)

May be some other thread be more appropriate..
A new approach to quantum information processing at room temperatures

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Re: India's Contribution to Science & Technology

Postby Varoon Shekhar » 09 Sep 2020 19:12

https://www.thebetterindia.com/237594/g ... ch-ros174/

A great of Indian science has passed

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Re: India's Contribution to Science & Technology

Postby Amber G. » 09 Sep 2020 21:13

^^^ Saddened by the passing away of Professor Govind Swarup- The Father of Indian Radio Astronomy. Many of the astronomy community had the pleasure of closely interacting and learning from him. His legacy lives on.
There is a post in physics dhaga.

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Re: India's Contribution to Science & Technology

Postby Amber G. » 11 Sep 2020 01:01

Happy Birthday to Prof. CR Rao.
A 'living legend', Professor C.R. Rao turns 100 today.
An Indian-American mathematician and statistician, he has been conferred with numerous prestigious awards including the 'Padma Vibhushan' and 'US National Medal of Science', over his long career.

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Re: India's Contribution to Science & Technology

Postby Amber G. » 24 Sep 2020 20:17

xpost:
Dr. Sekhar Basu, former Secretary of the Department of Atomic Energy, an unassuming thinker of keen insights, a problem solver, a committed scientist- technologist and a big hearted cheerful man passed away.

He leaves a rich legacy and a wide imprint that will always be remembered . He worked on several mega science projects and many Indian and international scientists had privilege of knowing/working with him

You will be missed Dr. Basu.

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Re: India's Contribution to Science & Technology

Postby Amber G. » 09 Oct 2020 03:55

xpost:
Along with Hawkins - there are two names - AK Raychaudhuri and CV Vishveshwara, among others.

Some of the foundational work on black holes was done by Indian scientists AK Raychaudhuri and CV Vishveshwara, among others.

Vishveshwara was cited in the first paper reporting gravity waves from black hole mergers (which won a Nobel Prize in 2017). And Penrose and Hawking gave the Raychaudhuri equation its name. Hawking and Raychaudhuri are no longer alive, and the prize could have been different had they been.
Image

One Nice Story: The 2 Unsung Indian Scientists Who Laid The Foundation For 2020 Physics Nobel Prize

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Re: India's Contribution to Science & Technology

Postby Haresh » 16 Nov 2020 20:52

Indians predated Newton 'discovery' by 250 years

https://www.manchester.ac.uk/discover/n ... p4-qymVH_k

A little known school of scholars in southwest India discovered one of the founding principles of modern mathematics hundreds of years before Newton according to new research.

Dr George Gheverghese Joseph from The University of Manchester says the 'Kerala School' identified the 'infinite series'- one of the basic components of calculus - in about 1350.

The discovery is currently - and wrongly - attributed in books to Sir Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibnitz at the end of the seventeenth centuries.

The team from the Universities of Manchester and Exeter reveal the Kerala School also discovered what amounted to the Pi series and used it to calculate Pi correct to 9, 10 and later 17 decimal places.

And there is strong circumstantial evidence that the Indians passed on their discoveries to mathematically knowledgeable Jesuit missionaries who visited India during the fifteenth century.

That knowledge, they argue, may have eventually been passed on to Newton himself.

Dr Joseph made the revelations while trawling through obscure Indian papers for a yet to be published third edition of his best selling book 'The Crest of the Peacock: the Non-European Roots of Mathematics' by Princeton University Press.

He said: "The beginnings of modern maths is usually seen as a European achievement but the discoveries in medieval India between the fourteenth and sixteenth centuries have been ignored or forgotten.

"The brilliance of Newton's work at the end of the seventeenth century stands undiminished - especially when it came to the algorithms of calculus.

"But other names from the Kerala School, notably Madhava and Nilakantha, should stand shoulder to shoulder with him as they discovered the other great component of calculus- infinite series.

"There were many reasons why the contribution of the Kerala school has not been acknowledged - a prime reason is neglect of scientific ideas emanating from the Non-European world - a legacy of European colonialism and beyond.

"But there is also little knowledge of the medieval form of the local language of Kerala, Malayalam, in which some of most seminal texts, such as the Yuktibhasa, from much of the documentation of this remarkable mathematics is written."

He added: "For some unfathomable reasons, the standard of evidence required to claim transmission of knowledge from East to West is greater than the standard of evidence required to knowledge from West to East.

"Certainly it's hard to imagine that the West would abandon a 500-year-old tradition of importing knowledge and books from India and the Islamic world.

"But we've found evidence which goes far beyond that: for example, there was plenty of opportunity to collect the information as European Jesuits were present in the area at that time.

"They were learned with a strong background in maths and were well versed in the local languages.

"And there was strong motivation: Pope Gregory XIII set up a committee to look into modernising the Julian calendar.

"On the committee was the German Jesuit astronomer/mathematician Clavius who repeatedly requested information on how people constructed calendars in other parts of the world. The Kerala School was undoubtedly a leading light in this area.

"Similarly there was a rising need for better navigational methods including keeping accurate time on voyages of exploration and large prizes were offered to mathematicians who specialised in astronomy.

"Again, there were many such requests for information across the world from leading Jesuit researchers in Europe. Kerala mathematicians were hugely skilled in this area."


Erratum

Since the publication of this news release it has come to the attention of the University of Manchester that other researchers have made a significant contribution to knowledge on the transfer of Kerala Mathematics to Europe. The University would particularly like to recognise the significant body of work conducted by Professor CK Raju in this area and would have wished to acknowledge this in the original news release.

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Re: India's Contribution to Science & Technology

Postby Vips » 22 Nov 2020 20:52

India to launch deep sea mission in 3-4 months: Ministry of Earth Sciences.

India will soon launch an ambitious ‘Deep Ocean Mission’ that envisages exploration of minerals, energy and marine diversity of the underwater world, a vast part of which still remains unexplored, a top official of the Ministry of Earth Sciences said.

The ministry’s secretary, M Rajeevan, said required approvals are being obtained for the “futuristic and game-changing” mission, and it is likely to be launched in the next 3-4 months.

The mission, which is expected to cost over Rs 4,000 crore, will give a boost to efforts to explore India’s vast Exclusive Economic Zone and Continental Shelf, another senior official of the MoES said.

Rajeevan said the mission will also involve developing technologies for different deep ocean initiatives.

The multi-disciplinary work will be piloted by the MoES and other government departments like the Defence Research and Development Organisation, Department of Biotechnology, Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) will be stakeholders in this mission, Rajeevan added.

Some of the technologies involved will be developed by organisations such as the ISRO and DRDO.

“One of the main aspects of the mission will be design, development and demonstration of human submersibles,” the MoES official said.

Another aspect is exploring the possibility of deep-sea mining and developing necessary technologies, the official added.

The official said the move strategically significant as it will enhance India’s presence in the Indian Ocean where other players like China, Korea and Germany are active.

Last week, China live-streamed footage of its new manned submersible parked at the bottom of the Mariana Trench. This was part of its mission into the deepest underwater valley on the planet.

India has been ear-marked nearly 1.5 lakh square kilometres of area in the central Indian Ocean for exploration.

In September 2016, India signed a 15-year contract with the International Seabed Authority (ISA) for exploration of Poly-Metallic Sulphides (PMS) in the Indian Ocean.

The ISA is an institution set up under the Convention on Law of the Sea to which India is a Party.

The 15-year contract formalised India’s exclusive rights for exploration of PMS in the allotted area in the Indian Ocean.

The ISA earlier approved 10,000 sq. km for India with a 15-year PMS exploration plan along the Central Indian Ridge (CIR) and Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) region of the Indian Ocean.

Poly-Metallic Sulphides (PMS), which contain iron, copper, zinc, silver, gold, platinum in variable constitutions, are precipitates of hot fluids from upwelling hot magma from the deep interior of the oceanic crust, discharged through mineralized chimneys.

PMS in the Ocean Ridges have attracted worldwide attention for their long term commercial as well as strategic values.

“The aim is to be prepared when rules are formalised in this area. The deep oceans frontier is yet to be explored. We have been working on it on a piecemeal basis but the thrust is to carry out work on mission mode,” the official added.

The mission will also involve the procurement of more advanced deep-sea vessels for explorations. The existing vessel Sagar Kanya is nearly three-and-half decades old.


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