Leapfrog / Disruptive Technologies

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Sanjay M
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Leapfrog / Disruptive Technologies

Postby Sanjay M » 05 Apr 2006 15:37

I am proposing this thread so that we may broadly discuss new developments and innovations in science and technology which may provide significant improvements and benefits for industrial and even military applications.

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Electroactive Lenses

Postby Sanjay M » 05 Apr 2006 15:49

As you may be aware, Phillips among others had developed electrically focusable lenses without mechanical moving parts, by using electro-wetting effect to change the meniscus curvature of a small droplet through application of electric charge.

Now another type of electrically focusable lens has been developed, using LCDs which can change their very refractive index under electric field:

http://www.physorg.com/news63385938.html

These electroactive lenses have the potential to change the optical industry by allowing lenses which can immediately and precisely re-focus themselves without the use of moving parts, thereby simplifying the cost of manufacture, the durability and reliability.

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kilocore chip

Postby Sanjay M » 05 Apr 2006 15:57

IBM and a small Silicon Valley start-up named Rapport Inc have announced the development of a "kilocore" processor:

NYT article here

also

http://www.cio.com/blog_view.html?CID=19912

This iteration of the product is basically a PowerPC processor surrounded by 1024 smaller 8-bit cores. The chip is purported to be able to offer tenfold improvement in image-processing speed at one-fifth the power (ie. overall 50 times improvement in processing power)

The trend towards multicore processors is a newer alternative to the past practice of merely seeking ever faster clock speeds.

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Re: Leapfrog / Disruptive Technologies

Postby B Singh » 05 Apr 2006 16:37

Sanjay M wrote:I am proposing this thread so that we may broadly discuss new developments and innovations in science and technology which may provide significant improvements and benefits for industrial and even military applications.


Thanks for the new thread and I hope it will get many interesting responses.

However, the worrying part is that in the high technology area, India remains a consumer of technology and not a producer of it - yes I know we have niche specialties in nuclear, space and aerospace technologies, but we are completely absent in almost everything else.

This goes down to the very low priority given to the development of experimental basic sciences in Indian universities which remain second/third class when it comes to graduate work. There is a lot of talk about setting up new centers of excellence etc. but its a big waste. Equipment is purchased and almost never used in a really effective fashion. And research funding (not salaries) for scientists trying to set up labs remains so low that it is an impossible prospect.

Until the government gets serious about properly funding research in existing Universities and not waste money on white elephants, we are not going to get any leapfrog technologies in the vast peacetime sphere. Every year, with each Western trained Indian Ph. D. that chooses to join a US company or take up a faculty position at a US university, we gift more and more of our intellectual capital away, while doing absolutely nothing to attract it. This is the most effective form of technological transfer available (just ask the Americans and Japanese). The kind of funding available for young scientists at DST is a joke.

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Nanopore Sequencing

Postby Sanjay M » 07 Apr 2006 06:18

Nanopore technology may revolutionize genetic medicine:

http://www.physorg.com/news63553078.html

It may soon be possible to sequence an entire genome at a fraction of the cost and time it now takes to sequence a genome. Such an advance could give doctors unprecedentedly detailed information on their patients, for the purpose of diagnosing and curing ailments.

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Postby vsudhir » 07 Apr 2006 06:46

B Singh:
yes I know we have niche specialties in nuclear, space and aerospace technologies, but we are completely absent in almost everything else.


What dya expect for the amounts budgeted for S&T R&D? The US for example puts its money where its mouth is and spends bigtime on basic masters and PhD level research upwards. Israel, with a relatively tiny budget has also managed 2 do well in defense and electronics tech. maybe they should be our inspiration and model to adopt?

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clockless processor

Postby Sanjay M » 09 Apr 2006 09:50

ARM has announced a clockless processor:

article here

Since it doesn't make use of a regular clock cycle, it does not need to use any power when it isn't processing something. This asynchronous design gives it a low power consumption attractive for mobile devices with limited power supplies.

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stronger glue

Postby Sanjay M » 11 Apr 2006 02:46

A glue secreted by a tiny bacterium is 3 times stronger than the world's best industrial glues:

article here

Perhaps this may really keep the envelope shut next time you lick it.

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Postby bala » 11 Apr 2006 03:38

Scientists fashion semiconductors into flexible membranes

University of Wisconsin-Madison researchers have demonstrated a way to release thin membranes of semiconductors from a substrate and transfer them to new surfaces-an advance that could unite the properties of silicon and many other materials, including diamond, metal and even plastic.

Lagally says: "We're no longer held to a rigid rock of material. We now have the ability to transfer the membranes to anything we want. So, there are some really novel things we can do."

Potential applications, he says, include flexible electronic devices, faster transistors, nano-size photonic crystals that steer light, and lightweight sensors for detecting toxins in the environment or biological events in cells.

Although the Wisconsin team grew their nanomembranes on silicon-on-insulator substrates, the method should apply to many substances beyond semiconductors, says Lagally, such as ferroelectric and piezoelectric materials. All that's needed is a layer, like an oxide, that can be removed to free the nanomembranes.

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Postby khan » 11 Apr 2006 07:16

How about something simpler and less esoteric:
Cellphone, Wi-Fi, Wi-Max, Sattelite TV? No need to spend all that money digging and laying cable....

The only wire you need is an electrical wire.

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Coal to Diesel

Postby Sanjay M » 14 Apr 2006 20:42

It may soon be possible to convert coal to diesel fuel at economically competitive rates:

http://www.physorg.com/news64157533.html

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Postby bala » 15 Apr 2006 04:43

Coco-biodiesel scores better than diesel

Coco-biodiesel, coconut methyl ester (CME), is derived from coconut oil. CME has a cetane number of 70, while diesel only has 56. The higher cetane number of CME means it burns more completely, resulting in more power, better engine performance, longer mileage and lower emission for vehicles. CME's flash point is 107 degrees Celsius, compared to diesel fuel's flash point of 79 degrees Celsius. CME is nearly sulphur-free, unlike diesel fuel. A higher flash point means CME is safer to handle and store than diesel, because it will take a higher temperature to ignite it. CME-blended diesel showed similar levels of stability as diesel, meaning they will not clog fuel filters and injectors and are just as safe for the engine as diesel.

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instant ice defrost

Postby Sanjay M » 15 Apr 2006 23:31

New research into the properties of ice may enable instant defrost of ice-coated surfaces while using less power:

article here

Variety of applications, including automotive and aviation.

here's a videoclip demo

It really does seem to work quickly.

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Services Science

Postby Sanjay M » 18 Apr 2006 08:02

How does the West intend to beat India in services sector?
Through "services science":

http://www.iht.com/articles/2006/04/17/ ... rvices.php

Can we do it too? I don't see that we're lacking in understanding the potential of mathematics, engineering, and management science.

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Postby ASPuar » 20 Apr 2006 13:23

Some of you may have heard of the "Kardashev" index, i think its called. Essentially details civilisations by the amount of energy they can consume.

I think presently we (humanity) are at Zero... disruptive technologies, leading to a tech epoch change, are important for adbancement on this scale.

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Biodiesel generator

Postby Sanjay M » 20 Apr 2006 17:09

Small credit card-sized device converts vegetable oil into biodiesel:

http://www.forbes.com/work/feeds/ap/200 ... 81244.html

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smaller engines

Postby Sanjay M » 25 Apr 2006 02:44

Ethanol injection could reduce engine knock, allowing for downsizing of engine:

http://www.techreview.com/read_article. ... ch=biztech

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Dual Mode Hybrid

Postby Sanjay M » 28 Apr 2006 07:58

Western Automakers Announced Dual Mode Hybrid Engine:

http://www.gizmag.com/go/5569/

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DNA Sequencer on a Chip

Postby Sanjay M » 29 Apr 2006 09:07

A DNA-sequencing biochip (lab-on-a-chip) has 99% accuracy in sequencing de novo DNA sequences:

picture here

summary here

abstract here


For those of you who don't speak latin, de novo means reading new stuff from scratch! Just like Mr Spock's tricorder. ;)

If it's a plastic lab-on-a-chip, then it sounds likely to be an economical device to mass-produce and to operate. Who knows - it may even be disposable. But what are its limitations? How fast does it work?

Wow, we need some Moore's Law to happen here.

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Electric Soliton

Postby Sanjay M » 02 May 2006 10:07

Researchers have developed an electronics design that is conducive to generating electrical solitons:

http://www.physorg.com/news65711987.html

This could be a breakthrough for creating new types of long range radar, or even long range telecom. I wonder how long it will take the wireless industry to incorporate this discovery?

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Cloaking Technology

Postby Sanjay M » 04 May 2006 08:15

Scientists are trying to develop a 'superlens' that will cloak an object, making it invisible:

article here

Raju

Postby Raju » 04 May 2006 13:22

Wind to water
Image


Devices that make water from air are now hitting the consumer market – this, after they’ve already been used by the military and rescue forces in calamity-affected areas



Anand Birai



Magic? Not really. Actually, science. Machines that make water from nothing but air and which were initially meant for military and emergency uses are now available in the country. Courtesy – US-based Atmospheric Water Technologies Inc.

The firm had patented the process of making water from air – developed in Israel in 2000 – and is now producing these machines based on the same technology.

The range includes these ‘air-water’ machines as well as refrigerators that magically produce water and ice for office and household uses.

The machines complete nature’s distillation process by capturing water vapour before it touches the earth. They provide a localised source of pure drinking water and do not require external water sources, pipes or catch basins.

“Air-water requires electricity or alternate power sources – such as solar power – to condense, collect, filter and dispense potable water,â€

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Postby Sudhir » 04 May 2006 21:04

This is a glorified dehumidifier! No reason to buy it

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Video Display Glasses

Postby Sanjay M » 06 May 2006 04:39

An Israeli firm has developed a video display device that fits into the form factor of ordinary glasses:

http://blogs.zdnet.com/emergingtech/?p=230

Produces an image comparable to viewing a 40-inch screen from 7 feet away. Not on the market yet, but very impressive.

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low-power microchips

Postby Sanjay M » 09 May 2006 05:08

Startup claims new type of low-power chips:

article here

He's claiming that square-loop timing circuits will radically save on power consumption.

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Postby Sanjay M » 10 May 2006 09:26

Cancer-resistant strain of mice produces white blood cells capable of killing aggressive cancer in ordinary mice:

article here

Hopefully this could make cancer a thing of the past.

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Bodypad

Postby Sanjay M » 11 May 2006 13:30

I thought this invention was interesting:

http://www.gizmag.com/go/5612/

It's a new type of game controller called the Bodypad. Basically, it's a bunch of electronic pads you can wear, allowing your own body motions to be wirelessly tracked and used as controller input.

Maybe this will make videogames more popular as exercise and fitness tools, and in helping people to reduce weight.

"Children, please report to Nintendo class after lunch, and don't be late..."

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Newton's Bucket

Postby Sanjay M » 13 May 2006 13:15

Suppose you could rotate the bottom of a cylinder filled with water, while leaving the walls stationary.

A whirpool (vortex) will form, and at certain speeds that whirlpool will not be round, but instead will be in the shape of a triangle, square, pentagon, hexagon, etc:

http://physicsweb.org/articles/news/10/5/8/1

Look at the pictures in the article to see these strange whirlpools.

Is this a disruptive technology, rather than some mere scientific curiosity? I dunno, but I'm wondering if it couldn't have some novel application in industry, or even a military application.

Er, maybe it could do something new for your toiletbowl...

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Postby Kati » 23 Jun 2006 09:11


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Postby Stan_Savljevic » 23 Jun 2006 10:34

khan wrote:How about something simpler and less esoteric:
Cellphone, Wi-Fi, Wi-Max, Sattelite TV? No need to spend all that money digging and laying cable....

The only wire you need is an electrical wire.

There are two sides to this. The industry side and the academia. Academia-wise, India is not doing much except for some space-time coding stuff from IISc. This I say cos I have seen it over the last few years.

Industry-wise, some of the major tech companies are slowly introducing the R&D component in India. But this still remains in the MAC layer and above, where there is some kinda competition but not the level of innovation that you see at the physical layer. The physical layer innovation remains centered around R&D divisions in Qcom, Nokia, Intel, IBM, NTT DoCoMo, Samsung and other wireless majors, almost all of them in the US/JapanKorea/Finland.

TI, Qcom and Intel have brought in some of their divisions to India, but they are nowhere near closing down their shops in the US. The top-level managers are clearly not confident that this would even be viable in the medium-run. The training aspects of students and fresh grads from colleges/universities in India in wireless stuff is abysmal. Even students from elite places like IITs do not set the places on fire.

Money is the key driver here. The US is the main funding sponsor for wireless research in the world. But the Koreans/Oiropeans funding contribution has also been increasing noticeably. I am learning that the Koreans are starting to lure some US-based academics with funding money/seed grants etc. This has two aspects: to diversify the Samsung component of Korean research and to push in Korean people into the US.

I have not seen such an attitude from any official jurisdiction in India. There are many Indian players in wireless research in the US, yes, but most of these people got in through their own ways. There has been a clear lack of institutionalization in research avenues in wireless communication in India. Not only has this been pitiable, but we have also done some groundwork in celebrating less innovative contributions due to its indigenous origins, safely forgetting the indigenous origins of many other contributions in mainland US.

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Gills May be Possible

Postby Sanjay M » 17 Sep 2006 13:01

People may be able to breathe underwater indefinitely, through the use of artificial gills:

http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/14853396/

This seems quite doable. It's just like the Lotus principle -- hydrophobic hairs generate a thin air film into which oxygen permeates from the surrounding water.

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Postby vishalb » 17 Sep 2006 15:53


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Postby Alok_N » 18 Sep 2006 07:05

There is a test rig with wheels and cogs and four magnets meticulously aligned so as to create the maximum tension between their fields and one other magnet fixed to a point opposite. A motor rotates the wheel bearing the magnets and a computer takes 28,000 measurements a second. The magnets, naturally, act upon one another. And when it is all over, the computer tells us that almost three times the amount of energy has come out of the system as went in. In fact, this piece of equipment is 285% efficient


such modesty! ... 285% onlee? :roll:

Raju

Postby Raju » 18 Sep 2006 09:08


Raju

Postby Raju » 18 Sep 2006 09:14

ON PLANETARY MOTION CAUSED BY SOLAR SPACE-VORTEX

By
Paramahamsa Tewari , B.Sc.Engg
Former Executive Director (Nuclear Projects)
Nuclear Power Corporation , India

Introduction

Rene Descartes, in 17th century before the formulation of mechanics by Newton, had postulated a Vortex Theory, which explained motion of the planets in elliptical orbits around the Sun due to the eternal existence in space of a fluid matter, ether, that as a vortex with the Sun at its center, moved the planets. He also proposed that, on similar lines, the satellites were propelled around their parent planets, that too have ether circulation around them; and the ether surrounding the Sun and the planets had no relative motion with respect to these cosmic bodies.

Near the end of the seventeenth century (1689), Leibniz too believed that the planets are moved by their ethers', and had proved that such a motion will lead to Kepler's third law, as per which, the area swept by the radius drawn from the center of circulation to the planet will be proportional to the time elapsed. In 1673 Huygens stated that a body, in uniform circular motion, will experience a central force (centrifugal force) which is directly proportional to the square of the speed and inversely proportional to the radius of the circle. With the discovery of the electron by the close of the nineteenth century, knowledge on its annihilation with positron in the thirties of this century, quantitative values of mass and charge of electron, and the postulate of Einstein, at the start of this century, that speed of light is the highest possible speed in the universe; it had been possible (mid seventies) for the author to postulate space vortex structure for the electron, which shows further in this article that the centrifugal force of Huygens is produced only when there is relative motion between the space and a body in circular motion. Therefore, the question arises whether such a force will be exerted on the planets even if they have no relative motion with their surrounding space. And if the radial and outward centrifugal force on the planets does not exist, the centripetal force as gravitational attraction postulated by Newton becomes redundant in celestial mechanics. The following analysis shows that such, indeed, is the case for the motion of the planets and the satellites of the solar system and, therefore, will be generally applicable for all the cosmic bodies in the universe. Brief description that follows on the nature of space, mass, charge and inertia of electron, will enable in providing proof to the above conclusion.



CREATION OF GALACTIC MATTER, AND DYNAMICS OF COSMIC BODIES THROUGH SPATIAL VELOCITY- FIELD

By
PARAMHAMSA TEWARI *

Introduction

The medium of space surrounding the cosmic bodies is in continuity with each particle of matter constituting these bodies, and rotates as a vortex that imparts angular momentum to them, thus causing their axial rotation (excluding those that do not rotate axially) and, further, the orbital motion of the bodies is also caused by the motion of the medium of space; this conclusion was reached in the recent article " On Planetary Motion caused by Solar Space Vortex"[1]. Supposing that a certain volume of space does not contain any field like gravity field or electromagnetic field, then, this volume will be defined by the contemporary physics as an empty extension of void- ness or nothing- ness. However, contrary to this modern concept on the basic nature of space, the postulates of Space Vortex Theory (SVT), assign the medium of space with non- material properties like, zero- viscosity, incompressibility, continuity, and mass less-ness .The other postulate is that the space can flow at any speed up to a maximum speed of light; and it is this property that is utilized as a physical process for the creation of the fundamental particle of matter, identified in SVT as electron. (The present physics of elementary particles does not recognize electron as the only fundamental particle. Whereas, as per SVT, if any stable particle with mass and charge less than those of electron is ever found, then all the conclusions of SVT are to be taken as incorrect). The structure of electron is shown (Fig.1 and Fig.2) as a space-vortex with a central spherical- void, which does not possess within it any energy field. Basic equations on the properties of mass and charge (exhibited by electron) are derived from the vortex-structure of electron (Fig1), wherein it is seen that the dimensions for the electron's mass and charge, in CGS unit, are cm 4 /s and cm 3 /s respectively. The other new relationship is : gram = 7.8 x 10 6 cm 4 / s.



CONCEPTUAL ERROR ON THE FUNDAMENTAL NATURE OF LIGHT- PHENOMENON IN CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS, LED TO THE COMPLEXITIES IN QUANTUM PHYSICS

Paramhamasa Tewari, B.Sc. Engg. *

Introduction

James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) had theoretically concluded that the oscillations of electric current in a straight conductor, or circulation in a loop of wire, "radiates away" energy, which is "lost" from the oscillating charges constituting the current. This concept, later, conflicted with the atom's model of Rutherford in which electrons moved around the nucleus in closed orbits; and the question arose that like any other vibrating or revolving charge, the electrons should lose energy by emitting electromagnetic waves as per the classical electrodynamics, eventually falling into the nucleus. The quantum theory of light by Planck and Einstein had accepted the possibility of "emission" and "absorption" of light by electron; the atomic model of Bohr attempted partial solution to the aforesaid problem. However, it is shown in this paper through the space-vortex structure of electron, which provides deeper insight into the basic nature of mass, inertia, energy, electrical charge and light; that during vibration, or revolution around a center , an electron does not lose either its structural or kinetic energy; though it produces electromagnet field (light), which is shown to be created due to mere cyclic changes in the magnitudes of its electrostatic and gravitational potentials in space; on account of to-and-fro displacement of the electron's center(discussed further). Thus, if loss of energy from the orbital electrons in an atom can be shown to be non existent, similar to the solar system in the Rutherford's model of atom, the revolving electrons will have stable elliptical orbits; and this would lead to the right course of development of the atomic physics, provided an alternative explanation for the production of light from the vibrating atoms (rather than the orbital electrons) is given. The physical aspects of the process of electron's creation and annihilation, wave length and frequency of light, briefly outlined in this paper (from author's earlier works), enable drawing comparison with the corresponding ideas of quantum physics and, thereby, tracing down those phenomena of quantum theory that led to digressions, one after the other, from reality in the early years of this century.



Genesis of Free Power Generation

Chapter 7 from The Physics of Free Power Generation
also appeared in Explore Vol. 6, No. 3, 1995

By
Paramahamsa Tewari, B.Sc.Engg.

Introduction

As per Lenz's law, the electromotive force (EMF) induced in a conductor has such a direction that the current produced by it opposes any flux change. More precisely, in a specific case of a conductor moving relative to magnetic field, the magnetic field produced by the current due to the induced EMF in the conductor interacts with the external magnetic field; that initially induced the EMF and, thereby, produces a net- force on the conductor opposing its movement across the magnetic-field. If the configuration of the conductor, through which the current flows, is made in such a way that the magnetic fields produced by the currents in the above two conductors cancel each other partially (if not fully), then there is a way to beat the Lenz's law, due to which the mechanical power required to move the conductor across the magnetic field to generate electrical power will get proportionally reduced.

The design of the modern dc generator has difficulties in achieving the above configuration of the conductors since the generating element is the rotating conductor within the generator, whereas, the entire outer circuit is a stationary loop connected to the loads. It is shown below as to how the physical constraints in achieving the desired relative dispositions of the conductors can be overcome, and Lenz's law can be partly made ineffective. With the efficiency- increase to higher than unity in the above scheme, the question arises on the source of additional power. Through brief discussion it is shown that only with an alternate theory, which postulates generation of matter from space- medium, satisfactory explanations for over-unity machines can be had.

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Postby Alok_N » 18 Sep 2006 10:03

Table 1. Tests Results of the SPG Generating AC Power December 1993

1. Speed (rpm) 1960
2. EMP on no load (volts) 1.98
3. Electrical input to driver motor (windage and friction) on no load (watts) 2145
4. Electrical input to drive motor on load (watts) 3575
5. Rise in mechanical input to the SPG from no load to on load (watts) 1430
6. Mechanical input to drive motor on load with the combined efficiency of 0.8 for the drive motor and the coupling (watts) from step 4 3575 x 0.8 = 2860
7. Output electrical current on load from the SPG (amps) 1493
8. Electrical output (I2R) from 1 and 2 in watts 1.98 x 1493 = 2957
9. Magnetic excitation power (watts) 676
10. Total input to the SPG from 6 and 9 in watts 2860 + 676 = 3536 watts
11. Efficiency of the SPG (ratio of electrical output to corresponding mechanical output, divided by the efficiency of drive motor and coupling) from steps 8 and 5 2957 / 1430 x 0.8 = 2.584 Improvement in the Direct Current SPG's Design


as far as I can tell, Tewari-ji's jadoo lies in step 5 above.

Raju

Postby Raju » 18 Sep 2006 11:39

Another Tiwari-ji...

http://physicsweb.org/press/4555

A 7 year study of "free energy" devices, sometimes called "over unity" devices, was done to determine if any of these devices generated power by transferring energy from unknown sources and if so to determine where the energy was coming from. Included in the study is research of related devices with claimed antigravity effects. The study attempted to determine validity of claims, commonalities of device characteristics and to determine how these devices could work. The results conclude that some devices can generate economically free energy. This study also concludes there is a possible link between gravity and electromagnetism that can be exploited to generate antigravity or electrogravity effects.


But on current web search I find that this Vasant Corporation ka naam aur nishan web space se mita diya hain.

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Postby vina » 18 Sep 2006 11:46

Alok_N wrote:such modesty! ... 285% onlee?


Yawnn....YAPMM -- Yet Another Perpetual Motion Machine... And just as quixotic ..

Gosh.. How I wish this 285% onlee claim can even be remotely true.. Then the civlized world can put Saudi and other Middle Eastern bad guys collective asses back on the Camel's hump and stop the giant sucking sound of them hoovering dollars from all ower the world in exchange for oil.. Hopefully when the easy wealth and indolence wears off and they have to go back to herding camels to keep their body and souls together and do an honest day's work and start chaning to moden industrial societies if they dont want to herd camels any more, then we will see a lot less of their religion inspired fundamentalism and terrorism..

But seriously , beyond these 285% onlee claims, the world needs to find a source of energy (renewable or not like Nookelear ) which is a viable subsitute for oil and takes wealth away from the former camel herders, the better..

If only GW Bush instead of his foolhardy Iraq (mis) adventure, had spent all that dollars that he poured in to the Iraq black hole, into a Manhattan like project to find an alternative to Soddy oil..

Raju

Postby Raju » 18 Sep 2006 11:57

If only GW Bush instead of his foolhardy Iraq (mis) adventure, had spent all that dollars that he poured in to the Iraq black hole, into a Manhattan like project to find an alternative to Soddy oil..


He and his clique are profiting enormously from the present energy trade setup. If any alternatives are found they stand to lose the most.

So the present system will remain in place until the last drop of oil is sucked out. So in a perverse way our redemption lies in even higher oil consumption or helping pricing it out of reach.

But that day seems to be not too close since analysts like Mark Mobius are now predicting that oil prices will come down to $40 in 2-3 years. :lol:

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Location: the grasshopper lies heavy

Postby Singha » 19 Sep 2006 11:45

a co called Nethercomm says it has a WDM method to transmit residential bband via the atmosphere inside gas pipelines and needs some $ to prove it can work within plastic pipes also (everyone agrees it will work inside metal pipes)

http://www.nethercomm.com/

next we know someone will transmit bband up the sewer pipe and network 'congestion' and the means to clear it will clearly need a 'hands on' approach.


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