India's Contribution to Science & Technology

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ashkrishna
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Postby ashkrishna » 06 Feb 2007 19:26


Sanjay M
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Postby Sanjay M » 08 Feb 2007 05:21

Another article about NRI role in Silicon Valley success:

http://www.physorg.com/news90043591.html

Now if only India would create the economic and deregulatiory incentives that would lure back these strong minds.

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Postby Sanjay M » 11 Feb 2007 04:25

Dr Taleyarkhan exonerated by Purdue on doctoring of fusion results:

http://sciencenow.sciencemag.org/cgi/co ... 2007/207/1

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Postby Alok_N » 11 Feb 2007 13:42

just cause its not doctored doesn't mean its not silly ... :roll:

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Postby Vipul » 18 Feb 2007 03:35

After Vinod Dham, its another Indian Powering Intel.

Mumbai boy chips in to power Intel.

In the next five to 10 years, when your desktop PC, your laptop or your mobile devices will turn into supercomputing workstations, you will have Mumbai-born tech whiz Nitin Borkar and his Intel teams at Oregon, USA and Bangalore to thank. On Tuesday, Borkar, engineering manager at Intel’s Microprocessor Technology Labs, unveiled the world’s fastest, most energy-efficient microprocessor — an 80-core chip the size of fingernail that can perform trillions of operations per second.

“Our research team has kept Moore’s Law alive,â€

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Postby Amber G. » 19 Feb 2007 07:47

News which caught my eye- Physicist George Sudarshan got padm vibhushan this Jan 26.

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Postby Amber G. » 19 Feb 2007 08:00

Alok_N wrote:just cause its not doctored doesn't mean its not silly ... :roll:


From the link above:

In the recent issue of Physical Review Letters, Putterman and Kenneth Suslick ( University of Illinois) report reproducing Taleyarkhan's original sonofusion setup. It didn't work. The experiment is designed to use ultrasound to collapse bubbles and force deuterium atoms to fuse, liberating either tritium and a proton or helium-3 and an extra neutron. Suslick says their experiment detected no excess neutrons despite the team's use of neutron detectors capable of registering as few as 0.01% of the neutrons Taleyarkhan claims to have observed.....

Recent NY Times also has this story
[quote]If the scope of the inquiry was limited to whether it was unethical for Dr. Taleyarkhan to have left his name off the list of authors, “I guess I’m not overwhelmingly surprised that the committee decided ‘Not proved,’ â€

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Postby bala » 20 Feb 2007 01:31

Physics gurus can comment on this new discovery.

India origin professor solves Einstein's twin paradox

The paradox deals with the effects of time in the context of travel at near the speed of light.

Einstein originally used the example of two clocks, one motionless, one in transit. The paradox has been described using the analogy of twins: if one twin is placed on a spacecraft travelling near the speed of light while the other twin remains earthbound, the unmoved twin would have aged dramatically compared with his interstellar sibling.

"I solved the paradox by incorporating a new principle within the relativity framework that defines motion not in relation to individual objects, such as the two twins with respect to each other, but in relation to distant stars," said the scientist Subhask Kak, professor of electrical engineering at the Asian Studies And Cognitive Science Programs at LSU, Baton Rogue.

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Postby Sanjay M » 20 Feb 2007 08:57

Maybe condemnation was premature:

Taleyarkhan's Tabletop Fusion Makes Comeback

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Postby Nandu » 20 Feb 2007 12:46

bala, there NEVER was a real paradox. The "twin paradox" is just a thought experiment. This has been known from the time of Einstein. Even introductory books on relativity usually explain very clearly why there is no paradox.

I would say that all this prof. Subhask Kak has done is to embarrass himself.

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Postby Amber G. » 20 Feb 2007 20:39

would say that all this prof. Subhask Kak has done is to embarrass himself

Certainly the reporter who wrote the above piece, shows him/herself as a complete fool (IMO). It's as if someone who has never understood negative numbers writes about some one solving a "paradox" of "(1-3)" added to 2 gives 0.

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Postby Alok_N » 20 Feb 2007 20:44

Sanjay M wrote:Maybe condemnation was premature:

Taleyarkhan's Tabletop Fusion Makes Comeback


the "condemnation" was not about "misconduct" but about "wrong" ...

I can be ethically honest and yet make mistakes ... that has nothing to do with pulling results out of my musharraf ...

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Postby Rahul M » 21 Feb 2007 00:34

bala, there NEVER was a real paradox. The "twin paradox" is just a thought experiment. This has been known from the time of Einstein. Even introductory books on relativity usually explain very clearly why there is no paradox.

I would say that all this prof. Subhask Kak has done is to embarrass himself.


these type of news reports are plain stupid!! :evil:

and subhas kak, he should eat crow (appropiately enough !) IMHO !! :P

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Postby Nandu » 21 Feb 2007 00:50

Alok_N wrote:
Sanjay M wrote:Maybe condemnation was premature:

Taleyarkhan's Tabletop Fusion Makes Comeback


the "condemnation" was not about "misconduct" but about "wrong" ...

I can be ethically honest and yet make mistakes ... that has nothing to do with pulling results out of my musharraf ...


Alok_N, do you have access to Transactions of the ANS? According to the New Scientist article, vol 95 has a paper titled "Confirmation of Neutron Production During Self-Nucleated Acoustic Cavitation", by Forringer, Edward R.; David Robbins, Jonathan Martin, and this confirmation is what cleared Taleyarkhan.

I can't find this press release on letu.edu site any more. So here it is:

Bubble Fusion Confirmed by LETU Research Fri, Nov 17 2006 LeTourneau University physics professor Edward R. "Ted" Forringer, Ph.D., and an undergraduate student have just returned from the American Nuclear Society (ANS) winter conference in Albuquerque, N. M. where they presented two papers confirming the existence of fusion in collapsing bubbles. It has long been observed by scientists that sound waves in a liquid produce flashes of light when bubbles collapse. This phenomenon is called "sonoluminescence." Professor Rusi Taleyarkhan, Ph.D., from Purdue University was the first to successfully show that these collapsing bubbles can produce fusion of two deuterium nuclei. This process is known as acoustic inertial confinement nuclear fusion, commonly called "bubble fusion." Taleyarkhan's results had been called into question, but now have been substantiated by Forringer and his students. "Articles published March 2006 in the premiere international science journal, Nature magazine, prematurely dismissed Taleyarkhan's work," Forringer said. "Two students and I went to Purdue University in May to conduct our own research, collecting, analyzing and interpreting our own data that substantiated his previous work." One paper on bubble fusion, co-authored by professor Forringer, senior David Robbins and sophomore Jonathan Martin, has already been peer-reviewed and accepted for publication in Transactions, a publication of the American Nuclear Society. A second paper with Robbins as lead author, along with Forringer and Martin, is currently being reviewed for publication. And why has bubble fusion generated so much press? "All other successful methods of producing nuclear fusion are very expensive, requiring large collaborations at national laboratories. But bubble fusion can be replicated inexpensively on a table top with the right conditions and equipment," Forringer said. "Fusion holds promise for clean, cheap and abundant 'green' energy, and our work provides another promising step for further research." Forringer and his students are continuing their bubble fusion research at LeTourneau University.Copyright 2006 LeTourneau University

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Postby Amber G. » 21 Feb 2007 01:46

FWIW:
Nandu - From what I understand, (as it is in the NY times story )) Another paper by Dr. Xu and Mr. Butt was supposed to be "independent" paper which " others" don't consider as "independent" (These guys are from the same university (or were there when the paper was written) and have worked closely with Taleyarkhan etc ) ..True the paper does not have Taleyarkhan as one of the author (though he is thanked in the paper) .. see my quote from ny times:
If the scope of the inquiry was limited to whether it was unethical for Dr. Taleyarkhan to have left his name off the list of authors, “I guess I’m not overwhelmingly surprised that the committee decided ‘Not proved,’

Also from Nature blurp
A physicist at a small Texas college says he has reproduced bubble fusion with the help of Rusi Taleyarkhan.

The work was presented last month at the American Nuclear Society's meeting in Albuquerque, New Mexico, by Edward Forringer of LeTourneau University — a small, evangelical Christian school in Longview. The results were obtained in Taleyarkhan's lab at Purdue University using his equipment, and Forringer believes they tentatively confirm that bubble fusion is occurring.

Forringer went to Taleyarkhan's lab in May after approaching him about his work. Working closely with Taleyarkhan, Forringer says he reproduced Taleyarkhan's earlier results. Forringer adds he did not see any sign that the neutrons he detected might have come from a californium source, as Taleyarkhan's critics have suggested, rather than fusion. But he agrees that reproducing the work in a different lab is what is needed. "We're certainly going to try to do that," he says.

From: Purdue attacked over fusion inquiry
Eugenie Samuel Reich
Nature 444, 664-665(7 December 2006)

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Postby Nandu » 21 Feb 2007 02:28

Thanks, Amber G..

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Postby Amber G. » 21 Feb 2007 08:26

Not to beat a dead paradox, but the press release is simply unbelievable - I mean how gullible or stupid LSU Media-relation people could be:
LSU professor resolves Einstein's twin paradox
Note: What every novice who took even an introductory course in relativity would know about Inertial frame of reference - this press release does not.[quote]“If the twin aboard the spaceship went to the nearest star, which is 4.45 light years away at 86 percent of the speed of light, when he returned, he would have aged 5 years. But the earthbound twin would have aged more than 10 years!â€

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Postby Alok_N » 21 Feb 2007 09:10

when I was younger and in the business of commuting/flying a lot, I once calculated my "average speed" for the year ... it turned out to be about 12 miles/hour ... 8)

I would dunk a cognac, light a cigarette and declare that I had already "gained" enough life for the year that would cancel the cigarette "reduction" in lifespan ... :lol:

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Postby Alok_N » 21 Feb 2007 09:12

ok, why didn't folks say so before? ... fusion occurs in christian universities onlee ... I don't want to question that lest I get banned ... :shock:

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Postby Amber G. » 21 Feb 2007 09:25

okay guys - I thought only the reporters were ddm types, and was giving the benefit of doubt to Dr. kak - The article in the "prestigious journal" supposed to be this from the arxiv database:

http://arxiv.org/abs/physics/0605199

(Yeah it had been for about 9 months here with zero citation!)
I read the paper and ... Kak looses all respect from me.

Added later: The article is as worse as the press release made it out to be. Can't believe such a drivel can pass through as a peer-reviewed paper. Worse, it is not even original - It's crude copy of the "cosmic relativity" previously written up by C. S. Unnikrishnan (equally rubbish IMO).. the paper sites another Unnikrishnan article but omits the one which it copied...

(Unnikrishnan, in 2004, wrote "Cosmic Relativity: The Fundamental Theory of Relativity, its Implications, and Experimental Tests", see: http://arxiv.org/abs/gr-qc/0406023

And yet I see, all the press (TOI, Hindustan-Times, CNN-IBN etc..) are reporting it as a big discovery... can't they find some one with basic knowedge of relativity to point it out to them that its utter nonsense ...

Oh well! :-o

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Postby Nandu » 23 Feb 2007 03:24

Isn't arxiv for preprints, i.e. these are papers submitted, but not necessarily peer reviewed and published yet?

Did these two papers actually appear in serious journals? Which ones?

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Postby Amber G. » 23 Feb 2007 21:04

The Kak's paper appears in the IJTP .. It is same as the preprint except for small formatting changes ..(Paper print version, I believe is still not out, but it is in the latest online version)

(BTW, the editor of IJTP, IMO, himself does not have a good reputation)

There is a blog by a Harvard string theorist, Lubos Motl about this:
http://motls.blogspot.com/2007/02/resol ... radox.html

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Postby Alok_N » 23 Feb 2007 21:15

From that blog ...

Nevertheless, this LSU press release has been celebrated - see news.google.com - by

* Tech Blorge, Australia
* Kashmir Newz, India
* Daily News & Analysis, India
* iTWire, Australia
* CNN-IBN, India
* Hindustan Times, India
* Technocrat.Net, Massachusetts
* Innovations Report, Germany
* SpaceRef.Com
* YubaNet, California
* PhysOrg.COM, Virginia
* EurekAlert, DC


good to see that dorky media is not restricted to bharat mata ... :)

also, note the presence of "PhyOrg.com" ... I keep trying to tell Sanjay M not to take that site seriously ... the Leaping Frogs thread is full of excerpts from that site ...

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Postby Amber G. » 23 Feb 2007 21:36

I keep trying to tell Sanjay M not to take that site seriously ... the Leaping Frogs thread is full of excerpts from that site


Alokji the last paragraph of that blog may have been addressed to people like you:
To make the story even more impressive, the CNN-IBN story in India is rated by the readers. The average rating from 75 users is 9.5 stars: the maximum is ten stars. Well, this shows that about 95% of their Indian readers are complete ignorants about high school physics. (there is only ONE critical comment - all others are "well done Prof kak")

I assure the people in India who know what the "twin paradox" is and what it's not - for example high-energy physicists ;-) (Assumed located at hidden gauge sectors etc :) - that if they're gonna ignore these trends instead of trying to patiently explain the people around how science works, India may simply return to the trees.

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Postby Alok_N » 23 Feb 2007 21:49

Memo to Lubos Motl ...

how about folks like you explaining it to ignoramuses in your backyard, lest america return to "creating" trees ...

:)

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Postby Pmangalik » 26 Feb 2007 04:13

I can't seem to find a more appropriate thread for this but I hope you'll agree that the news is exciting and worthy:

http://cities.expressindia.com/fullstor ... sid=223720

http://www.telegraphindia.com/1070220/a ... 415873.asp

http://www.zeenews.com/articles.asp?aid=352560&sid=FTP

and even though the following one is geographically within today's Iran, notice the exact location and the time period and then consider the ancient Kushan Empire that ruled all the way into modern Sudan..

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/pages/live/a ... =1811&ct=5

and don't forget the recent discovery of Dwarka, yes that one...interesting times ahead for Indian History and its contributions to civilization..now if only the Commies can begin to appreciate their own culture...hmmm..never mind

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Postby Pmangalik » 26 Feb 2007 05:03


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Postby Vipul » 24 Mar 2007 18:55


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Postby mandrake » 28 Mar 2007 01:10

Varadhan wins Abel Prize

Indian-born New York University professor Srinivasa S. R. Varadhan was awarded the 2007 Abel Prize for mathematics on Thursday.
Indian-born American mathematician Srinivasa S. R. Varadhan has been awarded the 2007 Abel Prize.

PHOTO: Sylivant, Cheryl


Varadhan, 67, received the NOK 6 million (USD 975,000) prize for "his fundamental contributions to probability theory."

Varadhan teaches at NYU's Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, and the award said his theories are useful in a broad range of fields, including quantum field theory, statistical physics, population dynamics, econometrics and finance, and traffic engineering.

In a popularized presentation of Varadhan's work, University of Oslo professor Tom Louis Lindstrøm said large deviations are those results that appear to defy normal odds. For example, if a normal coin were tossed 1,000 times, about half the tosses would be expected to turn up as 'heads.'

"But this need not happen," he wrote. "There is a small - extremely small - probability that the coin will show 'heads' every time. ... The art of large deviations is to calculate the probability of such rare events."

Varadhan's Large Deviation Principle sums up how to apply the techniques to the chances of such unlikely outcomes.

The Abel Prize, first awarded in 2003, was created by the Norwegian government and named after 19th Century Norwegian mathematician Niels Henrik Abel

http://www.aftenposten.no/english/local ... 703101.ece

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Postby Bade » 10 Apr 2007 00:04

Interesting presentation on Kerala Mathematics by Prof. Rajeev.

http://www.pas.rochester.edu/~rajeev/canisiustalks.pdf

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Postby Sanjay M » 25 Jul 2007 09:45

Hey, I never knew about this:

Bose Invented Radio, Not Marconi

This was a very interesting item I ran across.

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Postby Rahul M » 25 Jul 2007 19:12

it is quiet well known in WB, I believe. confirmation from the west has come only recently.
in fact J.C Bose was a bit heart broken by this development and thereafter changed fields to plant physiology where he proved that plants were alive and could respond to stimuli.

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Postby Vipul » 04 Aug 2007 19:21

India to set up first Arctic research base.

The first expedition will try to uncover the link between Arctic & Indian Ocean climatic variations.

India launched its first arctic expedition on Friday in its endeavour to join the elite group of countries that have research stations in the polar region.

India has collaborated with the Norwegian Polar Research Institute to take up research activities on measurement of atmospheric aerosols and ions in the Arctic region; earth science studies at Svalbard and to find out if Arctic microbes can be workhorses of biotechnology.

The country has joined a group of nations including Norway, Germany, France, Britain, Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea and China which already have their research stations in Ny-Alesund. India is a signatory to the Svalbard Treaty of 1920, which permits it to operate in the Svalbard archipelago, which is under the control of Norway. Many nations are already using the Ny-Alesund research facilities operated by Norway at Spitsbergen Island and some have developed their own set up as well, including Japan, South Korea and China.

Led by Rasik Ravindra, director of the National Centre for Antarctic and Ocean Research (NCAOR), Goa, the team comprises SM Singh, NCAOR scientist, S Shivaji, deputy director from CCMB, Hyderabad, CG Deshpande, scientist from IIT-Mumbai (Pune) and Dhruv Sen Singh, lecturer, University of Lucknow.

The first phase in August-September, Indian scientists will initiate work on these projects at Ny-Alesund, while in the second phase, starting February 2008, four projects will be initiated: snowpack production of carbon monoxide and its diurnal variability; sea ice microbial communities project; carbon-cycling in the near-shore environments of Kongsfjorden; understanding the link between the Arctic and tropical Indian Ocean climatic variations.

"The first Indian Arctic expedition marks the beginning of long-term scientific research by Indian scientists in yet another arena of global scientific collaborative research in the difficult polar regions. This is the biggest such step since the first Indian scientific expedition landed in Antarctica in 1981," said minister for science and technology and earth sciences Kapil Sibal.

At the Sverdup station, continuous measurements of radiation, air pollution, ozone, seismic activity, etc. are carried out.

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Postby Sanjay M » 14 Aug 2007 07:02


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Postby Rahul M » 14 Aug 2007 10:19


joshvajohn
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Proud to be Indian

Postby joshvajohn » 14 Aug 2007 15:27

Vande mataram..... .....


PROUD TO BE AN INDIAN.

Let the world know what we stand for.


India never invaded any country in her last
100000 years of history.
India invented the Number System.
Aryabhatta invented zero.
The World's first university was established
in
Takshila in 700BC.More than 10,500 students
from
all over the world studied more than 60
subjects. The
University of Nalanda built in the 4th
century BC
was one of the greatest achievements of
ancient India
in the field of education.
Sanskrit is the mother of all the European
languages. Sanskrit is the most suitable
language
for computer software reported in Forbes
magazine,
July 1987.

Ayurveda is the earliest school of medicine
known to humans. Charaka, the father of
medicine
consolidated Ayurveda 2500 years ago. Today
Ayurveda is fast regaining its rightful place

in our civilization.
Although modern images of India often show
poverty and lack of development, India was
the
richest country on earth until the time of
British invasion in the early 17th Century.
The art of Navigation was born in the river
Sindh 6000 years ago.
The very word Navigation is derived from
the Sanskrit word NAVGATIH.
The Word navy is also derived from Sanskrit
'Nou'.

Bhaskaracharya calculated the time taken by
the
earth to orbit the sun hundreds of years
before the
astronomer Smart.; Time taken by earth to
orbit
the sun: (5th century) 365.258756484 days.
Budhayana first calculated the value of pi,
and
he explained the concept of what is known as
the
Pythagorean Theorem. He discovered this in
the
6th century long before the European
mathematicians
Algebra, trigonometry and calculus came from
India; Quadratic equations were by
Sridharacharya in the
11th century ; The largest numbers the
Greeks and the Romans
used were 10 6(10 to the power of 6) whereas
Hindus Used numbers as big as 1053 (10 to the
power of 53) with specific names as Early as
5000 BCE
during the Vedic period. Even today, the
largest
used number is Tera 1012(10 to the power of
12).

According to the Gemological Institute of
America, up until 1896,India was the only
source for
diamonds to the world.
USA based IEEE has proved what has been a
century-old suspicion in the world scientifi
community that the pioneer of Wireless
communication was Prof. Jagdeesh Bose and not
Marconi.

The earliest reservoir and dam for
irrigation was
built in Saurashtra. According to Saka King
rudradaman I of 150 CE a beautiful lake
called 'Sudarshana'
was constructed on the hills of Raivataka
during
Chandragupta Maurya's time.

Chess (Shataranja or AshtaPada) was invented
in India.

Sushruta is the father of surgery. 2600
years ago he and health scientists of his
time
conducted complicated surgeries like
cesareans,
cataract, artificial limbs, fractures,
urinary
stones and even plastic surgery and brain
surgery. Usage
of anesthesia was well known in ancient
India.
Over 125 surgical equipment were used. Deep
knowledge of anatomy, etiology, embryology,
digestion,
metabolism, genetics and immunity is also
found
in many texts.

When many cultures were only nomadic forest
dwellers over 5000 years ago, Indians
established Harappan culture in Sindhu
Valley (Indus Valley Civilization)
The place value system, the decimal system
was developed in India in 100 BC.

QUOTES ABOUT INDIA:

Albert Einstein said: We owe a lot to the
Indians, who taught us how to count, without
which no worthwhile scientific discovery
could
have been made.
Mark Twain said: India is the cradle of the

human race, the birthplace of human speech,
the mother
of history, the grandmother of legend, and
the great
grand mother of tradition. Our most valuable
and most
structive materials in the history of man are
treasured
up in India only.
French scholar Romain Rolland said: If there
is
one place on the face of earth where all
the dreams of living men have found a home
from
the very earliest days when man began the
dream
of existence, it is India.
Hu Shih, former Ambassador of China to USA
said:
India conquered And dominated China
culturally
for 20 centuries without ever having to send
a single
soldier across her border.
============ ========= ========= ========= ========= ========= ========
All the above is just the TIP of the iceberg,
the
list could be endless. BUT, if we don't see
even a
glimpse of that great India in the India That
we see
today, it
clearly means that we are not working up to
our
Potential and that if we do, we could once
again; be an ever shining and Inspiring
country
setting a bright path for rest of the world
to follow.
I Hope you enjoyed it and work towards the
welfare
of INDIA. PROUD to be an INDIAN.
============ ========= ========= ========= ========= ========= ========

JAI HIND


Thanks



Andrew Theogift Jeyanth S

Engineer
Last edited by joshvajohn on 14 Aug 2007 16:48, edited 1 time in total.

abhishek
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Re: Proud to be Indian

Postby abhishek » 14 Aug 2007 15:52

joshvajohn wrote: There are 3.22 Million Indians in America.
38% of Doctors in America are Indians.
12% of Scientists in America are Indians.
36% of NASA employees are Indians.
34% of MICROSOFT employees are Indians.
28% of IBM employees are Indians.
17% of INTEL employees are Indians.
13% of XEROX employees are Indians.




We should stop spreading this. This is not true.

joshvajohn
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second half one can find in this weblink

Postby joshvajohn » 14 Aug 2007 16:29

May be some of these are outdated but i forwarded as I received from an Engineer from Bangalore!
http://www.irisa.fr/lande/lakshmin/india_facts.html
http://www.cs.iitm.ernet.in/~ramya/india.htm
Last edited by joshvajohn on 14 Aug 2007 16:49, edited 1 time in total.

Raj
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Re: Proud to be Indian

Postby Raj » 14 Aug 2007 16:44

joshvajohn wrote:Vande mataram..... .....


PROUD TO BE AN INDIAN.

Let the world know what we stand for.

There are 3.22 Million Indians in America.
38% of Doctors in America are Indians.
12% of Scientists in America are Indians.
36% of NASA employees are Indians.
34% of MICROSOFT employees are Indians.
28% of IBM employees are Indians.
17% of INTEL employees are Indians.
13% of XEROX employees are Indians.

Andrew Theogift Jeyanth S
Engineer


Only a brain dead person can come up with these numbers. There is a wonderful tool called google Use it sometimes.

http://www.usatoday.com/news/health/200 ... tage_x.htm
The nation now has about 800,000 active physicians, up from 500,000 20 years ago.

http://www.aapiusa.org/
and a constituency of 42,000 physicians

Vipul
BRF Oldie
Posts: 3727
Joined: 15 Jan 2005 03:30

Postby Vipul » 14 Aug 2007 18:51

Indians predated Newton ‘discovery’ by 250 years: researchers.

London: A little-known school of scholars in south India discovered one of the founding principles of modern mathematics hundreds of years before Sir Isaac Newton, to whom the finding is currently attributed, according to a new research here.

Dr George Gheverghese Joseph from The University of Manchester says the ‘Kerala School’ identified the ‘infinite series’ — one of the basic components of calculus — in 1350.

The discovery is currently attributed in books to Sir Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibnitz at the end of the 17th centuries, the University of Manchester reported in its website on Monday.

The team from the Universities of Manchester and Exeter reveal the Kerala School also discovered what amounted to the Pi series and used it to calculate Pi correct to 9, 10 and later 17 decimal places.

And there is strong circumstantial evidence that the Indians passed on their discoveries to mathematically knowledgeable Jesuit missionaries who visited India during the 15th century. That knowledge, the researchers argue, may have eventually been passed on to Newton himself.

The research was carried out by Dr George Gheverghese Joseph, Joseph made the revelations while trawling through obscure Indian papers for a yet to be published third edition of his best selling book The Crest of the Peacock: the Non-European Roots of Mathematics, the report said.

“The beginnings of modern maths is usually seen as a European achievement but the discoveries in medieval India between the 14th and 16th centuries have been ignored or forgotten,â€


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