Tejas Mk.1 & Mk.1A: News & Discussions: 04 January 2021

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Re: Tejas Mk.1 & Mk.1A: News & Discussions: 04 January 2021

Postby ramana » 18 Apr 2021 03:27

ramana wrote:I read a blurb saying HAL integrating Astra on LSP Tejas. Will find the exact wording.
And ASRAAM.


HAL Plans to Certify Astra Mk1 and ASRAAM Air to Air Missile
Indian state-owned aerospace and defence company, Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) is carrying out integration works on one of the Limited series LCA-Tejas aircraft that will enable it to fire Astra Mk1 Beyond Visual Range Air to air missile by end of this year.

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Re: Tejas Mk.1 & Mk.1A: News & Discussions: 04 January 2021

Postby Alec A » 18 Apr 2021 13:47

[/quote]
sankum wrote:Rakesh,

Please update the specifications of Tejas mk1 on page 1 based on new and latest infoboards from ADA.

• Empty Weight: 7,040 kg
• Take-Off Clean Weight: 10,330 kg
• Maximum Take Off Weight: 14,240 kg
• Maximum External Payload Capacity: 3,910 kg

MTOW is sum of CTOW + external payload

Indranil can you please confirm the latest data.


Dear Gurus,

I think the figure for Maximum External Payload Capacity (MEPC) mentioned above (3910 kg) needs further clarification.

To me it appears that this figure has been arrived at by simply substracting take-off clean weight (10,330 kg) from MTOW (14,240 kg) and represents the max. external load LCA is permitted to take-off with while also carrying full internal fuel. But a fighter can take-off with less than full internal fuel also especially one equipped with IFR. Hence, the actual MEPC should be equal the weight for which all 8 weapons stations combined are cleared for, which in case of LCA should be 5300 kg.

Does this make sense or there's an error in my understanding. Would request some insights on this. Thanks

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Re: Tejas Mk.1 & Mk.1A: News & Discussions: 04 January 2021

Postby Aditya_V » 18 Apr 2021 15:10

Alec A in your scenario, Tejas fill have to take off with 900kg fuel reach an altitude burning some off that fuel , tank up with fuel and carry out its mission, theoretically possible but 2 things, IAF will have to refuelers available for every such mission and what are handling charectertics with 5300kg external payload, will be able to do 8g turns? What will be stress on the airframe with 5300kg payload plus 2485kg internal fuel?

For all practical purposes Tejas will be limited to 3900 kg payload and most mission will be 2500kg payloads.

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Re: Tejas Mk.1 & Mk.1A: News & Discussions: 04 January 2021

Postby srai » 18 Apr 2021 17:14

^^^
No fighter can perform 8G in a heavy “Max” payload configuration. Typically, will be limited to less than 5G.

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Re: Tejas Mk.1 & Mk.1A: News & Discussions: 04 January 2021

Postby Alec A » 18 Apr 2021 18:04

Aditya_V wrote:Alec A in your scenario, Tejas fill have to take off with 900kg fuel reach an altitude burning some off that fuel , tank up with fuel and carry out its mission, theoretically possible but 2 things, IAF will have to refuelers available for every such mission and what are handling charectertics with 5300kg external payload, will be able to do 8g turns? What will be stress on the airframe with 5300kg payload plus 2485kg internal fuel?

For all practical purposes Tejas will be limited to 3900 kg payload and most mission will be 2500kg payloads.


Dear Aditya ji,

Thanks a lot for your response.

As Srai ji has already pointed out, the envelope limitations due to MTOW you have listed are incurred by all fighters and are not limited to just LCA.

But my initial query wasn't in the operational context of the IAF but an attempt to understand whether the new brochure figures are correct or not before they go on the first page of this thread.

If it's a convention to calculate MEPC in this fashion and other manufacturers are doing the same then it's fine (like how empty weight is reported) but if it's not and the actual capability of our beloved product is higher, then I think we should mention the correct figures even if they deviate from the official brochure. It's important from perception management perspective. Regards

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Re: Tejas Mk.1 & Mk.1A: News & Discussions: 04 January 2021

Postby ashishvikas » 18 Apr 2021 18:20

Mission Control
#Tejas CATS Mothership

https://twitter.com/hvtiaf/status/13837 ... 48262?s=20

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Re: Tejas Mk.1 & Mk.1A: News & Discussions: 04 January 2021

Postby raghava » 18 Apr 2021 18:30

Alec A wrote:... and the actual capability of our beloved product is higher, then I think we should mention the correct figures even if they deviate from the official brochure. It's important from perception management perspective. Regards


You are right Alec A ji, this confusion has been there since before FOC times

Payload - Tejas capable of carrying an external payload of 4.5 tons. (** whether this is due to taking off with reduced fuel followed by aerial refuelling is not yet clear.. more clarity required on clean weight and MTOW)


see post from 2016
https://forums.bharat-rakshak.com/viewtopic.php?f=16&t=7112&p=1970504#p1970504

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Re: Tejas Mk.1 & Mk.1A: News & Discussions: 04 January 2021

Postby Alec A » 18 Apr 2021 19:02

raghava wrote:
Alec A wrote:...

You are right Alec A ji, this confusion has been there since before FOC times



see post from 2016
https://forums.bharat-rakshak.com/viewtopic.php?f=16&t=7112&p=1970504#p1970504


I know Raghava ji, have been lurking around these corners since 2009 :D

And let me add to the confusion... here's the official reference for the figure stated by me in the previous post (5300 kg):
https://hal-india.co.in/Product_Details ... y=&CKey=20

But at the same time, if we add the total carriage capacity of all weapons stations on Tejas, it actually comes to 5700 kg (1200*3, 800*2, 150*2 and 200).

So now the question to the gurus is this - within the constraints of the MTOW of 14,240 kg, what's the maximum external load Tejas is allowed to carry on it's hard points? I think that should be the figure mentioned as MEPC.

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Re: Tejas Mk.1 & Mk.1A: News & Discussions: 04 January 2021

Postby Rakesh » 20 Apr 2021 04:55


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Re: Tejas Mk.1 & Mk.1A: News & Discussions: 04 January 2021

Postby jaysimha » 20 Apr 2021 17:26

Some more Tejas videos...

HAL Tejas (LCA) : Wings Of The Future


LCA Tejas technology development - 1/2


LCA Tejas technology development - 2/2

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Re: Tejas Mk.1 & Mk.1A: News & Discussions: 04 January 2021

Postby Rakesh » 20 Apr 2021 22:51

https://twitter.com/Defence_XP/status/1 ... 08801?s=20 ---> Profile illustration of FOC Tejas SP-17 (SP-21) LA-5017 in clean configuration. Wider canopy and other intricate details represented as well.

P.C. Praneeth Franklin

Image

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Re: Tejas Mk.1 & Mk.1A: News & Discussions: 04 January 2021

Postby Atmavik » 20 Apr 2021 23:48

when i was a kid my dad bought a book that had pictures like these of all the foreign aircrafts like Mirage, F14 etc.. Tejas looks just as good

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Re: Tejas Mk.1 & Mk.1A: News & Discussions: 04 January 2021

Postby Kartik » 21 Apr 2021 16:49

ramana wrote:
ramana wrote:I read a blurb saying HAL integrating Astra on LSP Tejas. Will find the exact wording.
And ASRAAM.


HAL Plans to Certify Astra Mk1 and ASRAAM Air to Air Missile
Indian state-owned aerospace and defence company, Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) is carrying out integration works on one of the Limited series LCA-Tejas aircraft that will enable it to fire Astra Mk1 Beyond Visual Range Air to air missile by end of this year.


Could you please post the source of this? Which year end was being reported? 2020 or 2021?

Ok, I found the source, and it seems that they're referring to 2021 end for the Astra Mk1 integration. ASRAAM (also referred to as NG-CCM) integration for the Mk1A as well, by this year end.

HAL plans to certify Astra Mk1 and ASRAAM for Tejas

But their original source is IDRW, which means that someone else is the true source of this info since IDRW never ever posts original content. That needs to be checked out.

Indian state-owned aerospace and defence company, Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) is carrying out integration works on one of the Limited series LCA-Tejas aircraft that will enable it to fire Astra Mk1 Beyond Visual Range Air to air missile by end of this year, Plans are also been prepared to start computer-generated data for integration of Advanced Short Range Air-to-Air Missile (ASRAAM) from the European missile-maker MBDA that has been approved for fitting on LCA-Tejas after talks were held between HAL and MBDA.

Heat-seeking, ASRAAM air-to-air missile will be supplementing Russian R-73 for Close Combat air to air combat for the entire LCA-Tejas fleet starting with the Tejas Mk1A fleet that goes into production in 2023. ASRAAM is already been integrated on the Darin-III upgraded Jaguar ground strike fighter jet fleet and IAF is keen that next-generation Close Combat air to air missile becomes a standard missile type across the fleet.

IAF also has been offered I-Derby-ER that has a range of 100km by Israel since Tejas Mk1 already has been integrated with older 60km range I-Derby, which according to Israeli company will be Plug and play system, that will be requiring no changes in the hardware or the Mission Computer system of the aircraft.

A final call on I-Derby-ER might be taken at a later stage, while the focus remains on enabling Astra Mk1 and ASRAAM on the Tejas Mk1A fleet, which will also be supplemented with I-Derby and R-73. Astra Mk2 a Dual-Pulse motor based 160km Beyond Visual Range Air to air missile is also being developed to be tested from Sukhoi-Su-30MKI later this year, it is expected that the missile will take few years of developmental and user trials before it is cleared for production. Astra IR (imaging infra-red homing seeker), along with the Astra Mk2 (160km) and Astra Mk3 (340km) will eventually replace imported air-to-air missiles in long run.

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Re: Tejas Mk.1 & Mk.1A: News & Discussions: 04 January 2021

Postby vijayk » 21 Apr 2021 21:30

Aren't we using GE engines for new Tejas being built? WIll Biden admin put a hold on these?

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Re: Tejas Mk.1 & Mk.1A: News & Discussions: 04 January 2021

Postby Rakesh » 21 Apr 2021 21:50

Yes to the first question and no to the second question.

It is vital to America's strategic interests that the Armed Forces of India operates and is reliant on American military technology. Thus, if a large percentage - if not all - of the IAF fleet is using American engines, it makes both commercial and geopolitical sense. Going against that would be counterproductive for the US. It is ALWAYS about leverage, which is a far more valuable tool than sanctions. See below.

Non-Allied Forever: India’s Grand Strategy According to Subrahmanyam Jaishankar
https://carnegieendowment.org/2021/03/0 ... -pub-83974
03 March 2021

India seeks to leverage American power to build its own national strength in order to engender multipolarity; the United States must seek to leverage India’s rise in order to preserve its own global primacy.

We can continue the discussion in this thread ---> viewtopic.php?f=3&t=7649&start=680

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Re: Tejas Mk.1 & Mk.1A: News & Discussions: 04 January 2021

Postby srai » 22 Apr 2021 05:35

vijayk wrote:Aren't we using GE engines for new Tejas being built? WIll Biden admin put a hold on these?

What makes you say that?

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Re: Tejas Mk.1 & Mk.1A: News & Discussions: 04 January 2021

Postby ramana » 22 Apr 2021 07:09

Srai Please take that to strat forum.

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Re: Tejas Mk.1 & Mk.1A: News & Discussions: 04 January 2021

Postby Kartik » 22 Apr 2021 13:47

Tejas Mk1 FOC fighter landing with 3 drop tanks in what would be almost a ferry configuration.

Image

Twitter link

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Re: Tejas Mk.1 & Mk.1A: News & Discussions: 04 January 2021

Postby Manish_Sharma » 23 Apr 2021 04:25

TWITTER

@AskAnshul:

The 'On-Board Oxygen Generation System' developed for the LCA Tejas Fighter Jets is now ready to fight against Covid-19.

LCA Tejas oxygen technology to be used to provide oxygen for Covid patients.

https://twitter.com/AskAnshul/status/13 ... 41316?s=19

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Re: Tejas Mk.1 & Mk.1A: News & Discussions: 04 January 2021

Postby srai » 25 Apr 2021 17:18

Technology trickle-down: Tejas fighter's oxygen plant pressed into Covid-19 duty
...

In an innovative example of sophisticated defence technology being directly adapted to combat the Covid-19 pandemic, the On-Board Oxygen Generation System” (OBOGS) developed for the Tejas light combat aircraft, has been translated into a civilian-use oxygen generation plant that can produce 1000 litres of oxygen every minute.

Defence Minister Rajnath Singh was briefed on Tuesday on this innovation by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO). The technology has been transferred to the private industry and the Uttar Pradesh government has already placed an order for five such plants, according to a Ministry of Defence (MoD) statement on Tuesday.

DRDO chairman, Dr Satheesh Reddy informed the defence ministry that more plants can be supplied by the industry to cater to the burgeoning hospital requirements.

...

Reddy offered that a supplemental oxygen delivery system that the DRDO had developed for soldiers posted at extreme high-altitude areas, could be used for Covid-19 patients, as their medical conditions were similar in both cases. The DRDO expects the product, which is based on SpO2 (Blood Oxygen Saturation), to be available in the market soon.

Developed by a DRDO laboratory called Defence Bio-Engineering and Electro Medical Laboratory (DEBEL), Bengaluru, the system delivers supplemental oxygen based on the SpO2 levels and prevents the person from sinking in to a state of Hypoxia, which is fatal in most cases.

Hypoxia is a state in which the amount of oxygen reaching the tissues is inadequate to fulfill all the energy requirements of the body. This situation gets replicated in Covid-19 patients due to the virus infection.

Reddy also informed Rajnath that the DRDO has restarted a Covid-19 facility in New Delhi and efforts are being made to soon increase the number of beds from 250 to 500.

Reddy also said that the Employees' State Insurance Corporation (ESIC) Hospital in Patna, had been converted to a Covid-19 hospital and it had started functioning with 500 beds.

The DRDO chief said that his organisation was working “on a war footing” to operationalise a 450-bed hospital in Lucknow, 750-bed hospital in Varanasi and 900-bed hospital in Ahmedabad.


...

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Re: Tejas Mk.1 & Mk.1A: News & Discussions: 04 January 2021

Postby srai » 25 Apr 2021 17:22

Image

Image
Image

Compact enough to be put into an emergency/ICU ward itself directly providing on-demand oxygen to beds!

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Re: Tejas Mk.1 & Mk.1A: News & Discussions: 04 January 2021

Postby hemant_sai » 25 Apr 2021 19:56

Looking at the events unfolding, sanctions by early 2022 are more likely now.
Some of utub channels are predicting case of M88-3 or M88-4 as option. But why HAL and ADA is not even giving it a try on one of LSP?
If sanctions became reality, all Tejas programs will detail.
And once imports are made to fill the gaps, we can forget Tejas for good.

Remember 2024 will also have potential of change in the regime. And forces have not yet found the way to secure India's defence preparedness irrespective of political party in power.

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Re: Tejas Mk.1 & Mk.1A: News & Discussions: 04 January 2021

Postby YashG » 25 Apr 2021 23:02

hemant_sai wrote:Looking at the events unfolding, sanctions by early 2022 are more likely now.
Some of utub channels are predicting case of M88-3 or M88-4 as option. But why HAL and ADA is not even giving it a try on one of LSP?
If sanctions became reality, all Tejas programs will detail.
And once imports are made to fill the gaps, we can forget Tejas for good.

Remember 2024 will also have potential of change in the regime. And forces have not yet found the way to secure India's defence preparedness irrespective of political party in power.


Engines for atak helicopter of Turkey haven't been restricted inspite of S400 sanctions.

But the events have nevertheless indicated we should have it guards up when going for us based supply chains. While i have been loud about unnecessarily fearing sanctions but the caatsa natak changed my perspective. Less so cz of the covid vaccine supply restrictions.

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Re: Tejas Mk.1 & Mk.1A: News & Discussions: 04 January 2021

Postby Rakesh » 25 Apr 2021 23:59

@ hemant_sai: Please visit this link ---> viewtopic.php?f=3&t=7266&p=2495981#p2495981

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Re: Tejas Mk.1 & Mk.1A: News & Discussions: 04 January 2021

Postby srai » 26 Apr 2021 14:32

X posting...

Great breakthrough on Tejas OBOGS! Exactly like how I was imagining it to be deployed :idea:

Lucknow: DRDO hospitals to harness Tejas tech for oxygen fix


LUCKNOW: At at time when the gap between the demand and supply of oxgen is continuously widening, the makeshift hospitals to be set up by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) in Lucknow are likely to have their own oxygen supply with the help of a technology used in light combat aircraft Tejas fighter jets.
This is the first time that the self-sustainable oxygen generation technology for fighter pilots will be used in makeshift hospitals in Uttar Pradesh.


Defence minister and Lucknow MP Rajnath Singh sent a team of DRDO officials to the state capital on Friday to start the process for setting up of hospitals at Haj House and Golden Blossoms resort. The hospitals, likely to get ready by next week, will have around 250-300 beds each and will be run by the doctors, nurses and support staff of Armed Forces Medical Services.

According to defence ministry sources, DRDO has developed a medical oxygen plant as a spin off technology of the ‘On board oxygen generation system’ (OBOGS) of LCA Tejas.

On condition of anonymity, an official told TOI: “This plant can provide medical grade oxygen round-the-clock at a high-flow rate catering to at least 50 ventilator ICU beds. This technology will be used to activate oxygen plants at Covid hospitals.”

The technology, which has been developed by DRDO’s Defence Electromedical & Bio-Engineering Laboratory (DEBEL), breaks down molecular components of the atmospheric air to provide continuous oxygen to pilot within the aircraft for long duration and high altitude flights.

Once set up, the technology will help in continuous supply of oxygen to critical beds for Covid patients, refilling of oxygen cylinders and eradicating logistical problems related to cylinder transportation from one point to another, apart from sharing the burden of oxygen demand and supply.



Image

Image
Image

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Re: Tejas Mk.1 & Mk.1A: News & Discussions: 04 January 2021

Postby srai » 27 Apr 2021 04:21

A lot more details by AK

DRDO offers spinoff tech from Tejas onboard oxygen system to hospitals fighting COVID-19

...

The system can cater to 60 patients at a flow rate of 5 LPM (litres per minute) and can charge up to 60 cylinders per day.

...


Hm ... wonder if it will be part of Mk1A or MLU ...
...

For the Tejas OBOGS, the scientists have used a zeolite-based technology and the system will undergo trials soon.

“We have completed all ground-based trials of OBOGS on the test rigs and the pilots are satisfied with the results. It will now be integrated on one of the test variants of Tejas for flight trials. It has been already cleared by the Regional Centre for Military Airworthiness,” says an official.

...

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Re: Tejas Mk.1 & Mk.1A: News & Discussions: 04 January 2021

Postby Philip » 27 Apr 2021 11:17

Hemant,I've been saying for 2 decades now that Tejas and future fighter prototypes should have an alternative engine both for performance comparison and as insurance policy against US sanctions! We have learnt NOTHING from the HF-24 -saga and US sanctions that severely delayed the LCA programme after the P-2
N-tests. How this same NDA govt. is so obtuse on the importance of the issue may be explained by the butler behaviour of the MEA to Uncle Sam. We cannot put all our desi defenceware projects into one firang basket, form either east ( Ru) or west ( US). It puts us at great risk if sanctions are applied and the Biden boys still keep threatening us about the S-400 deal!

The PRC is expanding and improving its nuclear arsenal, massively expanding its navy into the world's largest,just days ago commissioning its latest Jin class SSBN,its latest amphib flat top and its largest surface combatant of cruiser class with over 110 universal missile silos all in the same day! It's air force vastly outnumbers us with both Ru ( Flanker) and US ( JSF ) clones in large numbers. Tejas is our only answer to the light and cheaper part of the IAF's inventory. A huge critical programme to making us more self reliant in mil. aviation. It cannot be held hostage for a second time.

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Re: Tejas Mk.1 & Mk.1A: News & Discussions: 04 January 2021

Postby chetonzz » 27 Apr 2021 16:04

a wild pooch as following...

why cannot we replace Tejas's single engine with 2 X Indigenous engines (i.e Kaveri Dry or HTFE-25 or HTFE-40) development of which is in good shape?

current Tejas engine= 1 × GE 404F2/J-IN20 turbofan, 53.9 kN (12,100 lbf) thrust dry, 90 kN (20,200 lbf) with afterburner
1 X Kaveri dry= 11,700 lbf (52 kN) thrust each dry
1 X HTFE-25 and 40 has 25kN and 40kN thrust respectively

consider following example from USAF

F-5 tiger used 2 × General Electric J85-GE-21 afterburning turbojet engines, 3,500 lbf (16 kN) thrust each dry, 5,000 lbf (22 kN) with afterburner

Image

F-20 tigershark used 1 × General Electric F404-GE-100 afterburning turbofan engine, 11,000 lbf (49 kN) thrust dry, 17,700 lbf (79 kN) with afterburner

Image
Last edited by chetonzz on 27 Apr 2021 18:21, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Tejas Mk.1 & Mk.1A: News & Discussions: 04 January 2021

Postby Rakesh » 27 Apr 2021 20:52

Click on link below....

https://twitter.com/GODOFPARADOXES/stat ... 92134?s=20 ---> Know your Tejas series.

Image

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Re: Tejas Mk.1 & Mk.1A: News & Discussions: 04 January 2021

Postby ashishvikas » 28 Apr 2021 13:52

Tejas, India's indigenous Light Combat Aircraft, added the 5th generation Python-5 Air-to-Air Missile (AAM) in its weapons capability yesterday, 27th April 2021. Trials were also aimed to validate enhanced capability of already integrated Derby Beyond Visual Range (BVR) AAM.

https://twitter.com/DRDO_India/status/1 ... 36705?s=19

Image

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Re: Tejas Mk.1 & Mk.1A: News & Discussions: 04 January 2021

Postby sankum » 28 Apr 2021 14:16

Good news, IAF has a large stock of python 5 certified for use on fighters in spyder SAM inventory.

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Re: Tejas Mk.1 & Mk.1A: News & Discussions: 04 January 2021

Postby Kartik » 28 Apr 2021 14:24

Fantastic!

That makes the Tejas the deadliest WVR fighter in the IAF today. The combo of the DASH HMDS and Python V is deadly and can engage targets in an almost 360 degree sphere almost upto near BVR ranges. The Mirage-2000I with MICA-IR is the only one nearly as capable but I don't see HMDS being used on the Mirage-2000I, which gives the Tejas Mk1 an advantage over the Mirage-2000I in WVR combat.

Posting the full size pic of the Python V launch

Image

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Re: Tejas Mk.1 & Mk.1A: News & Discussions: 04 January 2021

Postby ashishvikas » 28 Apr 2021 14:57

ashishvikas wrote:Tejas, India's indigenous Light Combat Aircraft, added the 5th generation Python-5 Air-to-Air Missile (AAM) in its weapons capability yesterday, 27th April 2021. Trials were also aimed to validate enhanced capability of already integrated Derby Beyond Visual Range (BVR) AAM.

https://twitter.com/DRDO_India/status/1 ... 36705?s=19

Image


Are they also referring to Derby-ER here ?

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Re: Tejas Mk.1 & Mk.1A: News & Discussions: 04 January 2021

Postby srai » 28 Apr 2021 15:08

+1 Tejas

Needs to be part of Mk1 Picture thread. All the weapons in action!

Israelis don’t give up. Just a couple of years ago Python-5 was “written” off due to excessive vibrations. But they solved it. It is one of the reasons Indian armed forces love Israeli products ... their products work and work well.
Last edited by srai on 28 Apr 2021 15:09, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Tejas Mk.1 & Mk.1A: News & Discussions: 04 January 2021

Postby basant » 28 Apr 2021 15:08

Great news! Derby ER is the icing on the cake! :D

@Kartik, the range of Python-5 being 20 km is still about of half of near BVR range (20 nm). Or am I missing something?

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Re: Tejas Mk.1 & Mk.1A: News & Discussions: 04 January 2021

Postby srai » 28 Apr 2021 15:10

^^^
Python-5 is around the same size as Derby.

Image

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Re: Tejas Mk.1 & Mk.1A: News & Discussions: 04 January 2021

Postby basant » 28 Apr 2021 15:21

+ But I-Derby ER is identical to (already qualified) I-Derby in size and shape! :|

srai
BRF Oldie
Posts: 4935
Joined: 23 Oct 2001 11:31

Re: Tejas Mk.1 & Mk.1A: News & Discussions: 04 January 2021

Postby srai » 28 Apr 2021 15:31

^^^
It’s bit interesting how the Israelis managed to extend a 60km missile to 100km by changing the propellant mixture and adding dual pulse technology. Also, software updates and miniaturization of components.

basant
BRFite
Posts: 417
Joined: 20 Mar 2020 20:58

Re: Tejas Mk.1 & Mk.1A: News & Discussions: 04 January 2021

Postby basant » 28 Apr 2021 15:46

+60 to 100 km is about as much as Astra's 110 to 160 km DP motor upgrade. Not sure about the size of the DP version though. Are specs available?



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