ABM/Missile Defense Discussion

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Kartik
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Re: ABM/Missile Defense Discussion

Postby Kartik » 06 Mar 2009 21:54

which is why they're called Desi Dork Media. most of them are illiterate when it comes to anything related to science and are only looking to giving anything a "glamourous" or slick look.

and even the somewhat better DDMs like Shiv Aroor are basically videshi brochure lickers, who've zero industry experience working on any products and hence always underestimate the effort involved in developing and testing any technologically advanced product.

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Re: ABM/Missile Defense Discussion

Postby Kailash » 06 Mar 2009 22:03

ramana wrote:IMHO a bonus of this test was a naval/ship launched missile that has 1500km range. TSP will now worry everytime there are naval exercises in Arabian Sea.


I believe it was a dhanush which was made to "simulate" the trajectory of a 1500km range ballistic missile (possible the angle and speed of descent). I dont think the missiles actual range is 1500 km.

SRay
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Re: ABM/Missile Defense Discussion

Postby SRay » 06 Mar 2009 22:07

When the directional warhead fragments in 360 degrees all round, the target missile coming in from only one direction is sure to be blown up.

I keep seeing this quote from the hindu getting posted. My impression is that if its a gimballed directional warhead, it shouldn't fragment in 360 degrees, but rather in a smaller cone, thereby maximizing the delivery. This correlates with this part of the same article:
A directional warhead weighs less than 30 kg but its lethality is equivalent to a 150-kg warhead

So whats this 360 degree thing all about? Or is the warhead rotated and then ejected/shot/propelled separately?

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Re: ABM/Missile Defense Discussion

Postby sum » 06 Mar 2009 23:24

Kailash wrote:
ramana wrote:IMHO a bonus of this test was a naval/ship launched missile that has 1500km range. TSP will now worry everytime there are naval exercises in Arabian Sea.


I believe it was a dhanush which was made to "simulate" the trajectory of a 1500km range ballistic missile (possible the angle and speed of descent). I dont think the missiles actual range is 1500 km.

Even i felt the same....Dont think that the Dhanush ahs 1500 KM range.

However, i would assume it surely has a higher range than the much quoted 290 km. :wink:

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Re: ABM/Missile Defense Discussion

Postby vivek_ahuja » 06 Mar 2009 23:27

sum wrote:However, i would assume it surely has a higher range than the much quoted 290 km. :wink:


And why would you say that?

-Vivek

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Re: ABM/Missile Defense Discussion

Postby sum » 06 Mar 2009 23:33

Given the usual Yindoo rope tricks whenever ranges of any missile are mentioned, i personally take any quoted range of a Indian missile with a sack of salt.

(Have no technical data to back myself, though :oops: )

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Re: ABM/Missile Defense Discussion

Postby Gerard » 07 Mar 2009 01:40

xpost
Interceptor does it again
T.S. Subramanian and Y. Mallikarjun
The interceptor used for the first time a manoeuvrable warhead called gimballed directional warhead (GDW), which can rotate 360 degrees.

As the single-stage Dhanush, 9.4 metres tall and weighing 4.5 tonnes, lifted off at 4.17 p.m. from the ship located 150 km away from the Wheeler Island, radars at Konark and Paradip in Orissa tracked it 50 seconds into its flight. The Mission Control Centre (the MCC) on the island also received information about it.

The MCC declared it a hostile target and that it would impact very close to the island. This data was used by the Launch Control Centre (LCC) to compute the trajectory of the interceptor, called Prithvi Air Defence (PAD II), to engage the target missile at an altitude of 80 km. The LCC also automatically decided when the interceptor should lift off and the launch computer gave the command for it.

About 160 seconds into the flight of Dhanush plus 150 seconds after the lift-off of the interceptor, the interceptor’s homing seeker acquired the target. Using this information, the interceptor’s computer guided it towards the target and brought it very close to it. At this point of time, the radio proximity fuse (RPF) of the GDW computed the time at which it should explode.

Dr. Saraswat, who is also Chief Controller, DRDO, said: “When the target and the interceptor were practically colliding with each other, the warhead was detonated which led to the fragmentation of the target and the interceptor. It was a direct hit and also warhead detonation. The large number of fragments formed due to collision and detonation were tracked by the ground radars and we could see that hundreds of new tracks had been formed, confirming that the target was destroyed in both a direct hit and detonation.”

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Re: ABM/Missile Defense Discussion

Postby sanjaykumar » 07 Mar 2009 01:57

Great job DRDO.

I am just amazed by the level of competence, on relatively low budgets, in India- the PM gets a quintuple beating heart bypass and is back on the job in 5 weeks. DRDO develops leading edge technology and is fairly transparent about their tests.

What humans can accomplish when they don't need to worry about the next flogging.

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Re: ABM/Missile Defense Discussion

Postby SRay » 07 Mar 2009 02:44

I suppose this answers my earlier question:
The interceptor used for the first time a manoeuvrable warhead called gimballed directional warhead (GDW), which can rotate 360 degrees

The warhead can rotate in 360 degrees - it does not fragment in 360 degrees as the wording the The Hindu had me thinking...

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Re: ABM/Missile Defense Discussion

Postby ramana » 07 Mar 2009 03:14

Kailash wrote:
ramana wrote:IMHO a bonus of this test was a naval/ship launched missile that has 1500km range. TSP will now worry everytime there are naval exercises in Arabian Sea.


I believe it was a dhanush which was made to "simulate" the trajectory of a 1500km range ballistic missile (possible the angle and speed of descent). I dont think the missiles actual range is 1500 km.



Sacche? Please tell me how they do that? Isnt the end result the target attainment of the a velocity that a 1500km range missile would require? and if it attains that velocity what prevents that from reaching that range per physics?

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Re: ABM/Missile Defense Discussion

Postby Katare » 07 Mar 2009 04:08

Ramana,
It is a function of altitude, it seems they made Dhanush go as high as a 1500KM range missile would go in its normal trajectory.

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Re: ABM/Missile Defense Discussion

Postby Raman » 07 Mar 2009 04:39

Altitude alone does not cut it. You also need to have the requisite velocity at that altitude to accurately model the trajectory of a 1500km range missile.

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Re: ABM/Missile Defense Discussion

Postby sanjaykumar » 07 Mar 2009 04:52

Rocket-burn on descent.

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Re: ABM/Missile Defense Discussion

Postby Katare » 07 Mar 2009 05:03

ArunS could comment on this with more authority but I think terminal velocity would largly be a function of the final altitude.

I think eventually they would have to qualify BMD with a real Agni series missile but for now modified Prithvi, cheaper and numerous, would do the job.

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Re: ABM/Missile Defense Discussion

Postby sanjaykumar » 07 Mar 2009 05:07

Anisotropically generated/directed shockwaves imply a mastery of several techniques. The problem is simplified somewhat if left/right or perhaps quadrant asymmetry is used. One of the references seems to admit a 6-sided anisotropic warhead has been constructed for modeling (in the US).

What is the Indian level? and what is the benefit in other applications? Presumably the mass of the sensors and actuators negate some of the payload advantage.

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Re: ABM/Missile Defense Discussion

Postby Kailash » 07 Mar 2009 05:15

ramana wrote:Sacche? Please tell me how they do that? Isnt the end result the target attainment of the a velocity that a 1500km range missile would require? and if it attains that velocity what prevents that from reaching that range per physics?


Raman wrote:Altitude alone does not cut it. You also need to have the requisite velocity at that altitude to accurately model the trajectory of a 1500km range missile.


Well, altitude is easier to simulate. Speed is a little difficult. Considering it is only a portion or the required trajectory, by aiming the missile higher angle, and using some fuel for a portion of the descent as well (not entirely ballistic, but increases the speed on the way down) I guess, it should be possible to approximately recreate a 1500km missile.

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Re: ABM/Missile Defense Discussion

Postby vavinash » 07 Mar 2009 10:42

Why are you arguing? Maybe one of the tests will be with a full fledged Agni-2 IRBM. A composite test including both PAD and AAD. LEts wait and see. Pity no news about AD-1/2 yet. What radars will they use?

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Re: ABM/Missile Defense Discussion

Postby Arun_S » 07 Mar 2009 11:37

ramana wrote:Relax. The video is anotional concept to show how the interecpt works. if you look at it the incoming is cruise missile. Its not easy being DDM. They hardly get any support formt he officials either by way of footage or graphics. So they have to use exisitng youtube and edit with their own spin.

BTW, that was Dr. Santy for those who know him.


IMHO a bonus of this test was a naval/ship launched missile that has 1500km range. TSP will now worry everytime there are naval exercises in Arabian Sea.

Santanam-saab looks younger than the affable person I remember when I last met him at his home. I wish I could say the same for Prof Abdul Kalam.

Every one knows that Dhanush is a ship launched Prithvi. But the press reports state that the Dhanush missile was:
    1) 2 stage missile
    2) emulated a hostile missile of 1,500 km range
So this is a classic babu obfuscation for lay reader yet, for those trained in analysis there is enough information there to figure out what is the real missile that was fired. And it was not just a navalized Prithvi.

A 1,500 km range missile to serve as for ABM test target has to have speed corresponding to 1,500 km missile.

As Ramana-saar says the 2 stage aggressor missile is a real missile of 1,500 km range.

One may now slot which naval missile fits that description. A missile that has been test fired at least 7 times ealrier.

Let me dampen my own glitter by pre-releasing here text part of my article that was published in current issue of Indian Defense Review (before putting it on line on BR's missile website) :

Indian Defense Review: Jan-Mar 2009, Vol. 24 (1)
ISBN 81 7062 165 8
ISSN 0970-2512

Page: 51
Shourya/Sagarika Missile
© Arun Vishwakarma
Introduction
Shourya and Sagarika is a new common missile that can be launched from multiple platforms viz. ground, submarine and mobile launcher. Naval version is called Sagarika while the land based version is called Shourya. Indian doctrine of Minimum Credible Nuclear Deterrence envisages "No First Use" (NFU) policy and a triad of nuclear counterstrike capability. The land based Agni-2 missile range is limited to about 3,300 Km, and the longer range Agni-3 will enter service soon. The sea leg of the triad based on blue water naval assets dispersed across the world's oceans is most survivable thus a critical part of the triad. The ability to reach all corners of a potential challenger requires a range of 5,000 to 8,000 km. DRDO is developing sub surface launched long range Agni-3SL with heavy MIRV payload and ABM countermeasures. Indian nuclear powered ATV due for sea trial in 2009 will reportedly carry 12 launch tubes of 2.4m diameter. Launch tubes can be flexibly configured to either carry a 2 meter diameter Agni-3SL or three wooden rounds of 0.74m diameter K15-Sagarika missile. Shourya and Sagarika fills the short to medium range gap that is below Agni-III’s minimum range. At operational level these missiles provide for range of warheads necessary for graduated nuclear escalation as enunciated by Indian staff and military warfare collages .

Figure 1: Shourya and its relative size

This multifunction missile made in large quantities would fulfill India's immediate requirements. The missile optimally matches latest types of strategic weapons tested at Pokhran-II in 1998. The missile will most likely take over the strategic weapons role of Prithvi and Agni-1 missiles, and make them unambiguously dedicated for conventional roles thus stabilizing nuclear deterrence. Shourya and its counterpart Sagarika has been tested 6 times till date. The missile is expected to enter service in 2010. Sagarika will be deployed on submarines and very likely on ‘Sukanya’ class naval vessels too.

Figure 2: Wooden round. Dense smoke from launch gas generator reduces Shourya’s launch signature [Photo courtesy: DRDO via Shiv Aroor]

Description
Shourya is a compact, slender, two-stage, solid fuel missile designed as a wooden round. The missile development was initiated as project K15 and was first flight tested on 27 October 2004 in the guise of solid fueled Prithvi-III . It is stored, deployed and launched in a fiberglass composite canister, which is easy to handle, mobile and can be flexibly deployed on different types of surface and sub-surface platforms. Shourya and Sagarika share a common design. The missile is sealed and can be launched from a moving submarine at 50 meter depth. The 6.2 tonne Shourya is 10 meters long, and has two solid fuel stages of 0.74 meters diameter. The first stage booster is about two meters long and the second about six meters long. The missile supports a range of unitary warhead configurations, weighing 180 to 1,000 kg. High missile accuracy and ability to fly in a highly depressed trajectory well within atmosphere indicates it is a weapon of choice to interdict Command & Control (C&C) and preemptive tactics.

The sixth test flight on November 12th, 2008 was a depressed trajectory flight (at Mach 6 and 50km altitude) with continuous rolling to dissipate heat over a larger surface demonstrated mastery of difficult aspects of rocketry involving sustained hypersonic flight.

The wooden round design sealed in a fiber glass canister with the aero fins folded inside in a clean & controlled environment makes it maintenance free and tamper proof. The missile is launched by a hot gas generator developing 15-200 bar pressure using high burn rate HTBP based composite propellant. The thick dark gas cloud greatly reduces the thermal signature of the missile.

Figure 3: Shourya on Mobile launcher. [Photo: DRDO]

Figure 4: Inside view of the ATV missile launch tube that hosts 3 Sagarika missile canisters. [Photo: DRDO]

Once out of the launch tube the first stage booster motor ignites taking the missile to 5Km altitude when the main second stage motor takes over. The booster debris reaches a maximum altitude of 6 km, well below the horizon of radars beyond 330 km. The clean and small diameter missile presents a tiny RCS (radar cross-section). The second stage air fins provide necessary in-flight trajectory control. The main motor is typically expended at 33 km altitude well within the atmosphere; however the air fins remain effective beyond post boost phase. The air fins also allow the missile to fly in a depressed trajectory as well as cruise and glide in sustained hypersonic regime at 50 km altitude. The payload separation can be done much later after exploiting aerodynamics for trajectory modification during ascent or descent. The missile is resistant to ABM defense .

Re-entry Vehicle
Shourya Re-entry Vehicle (RV) supports wide range of weapons, with total payload mass ranging from 180 to 1,000 Kg. The missile range is a function of payload mass (see graph in Figure 7 below).
The November 2008 test unveiled the new generation RV that is designed and optimized for newer boosted fission and thermonuclear weapon (including those awaiting confirmatory test). The sharp nose high ‘βeta’ (Ballistic coefficient ) RV design employs 16 cm diameter blunt nose and half angle of 12° that is mounted on a payload adapter to interface with the 0.74m diameter mission control module atop the upper stage. The high ‘βeta’ RV in combination with an all carbon composite body enables higher re-entry speed even with a light weight payload .

Figure 5: Re-entry vehicle options.

• Mk-4: For light weight 17Kt Fusion Boosted Fission (FBF) warhead . Mass : ~180 Kg .
• Mk-5: For 50Kt FBF or 200Kt Thermo Nuclear (TN) warhead . Mass: ~340 Kg
• Mk-6: For 150Kt FBF warhead . Mass: ~550 Kg.
Table 1: Comparative destruction area

Code: Select all

Warhead Yield   Destruction w.r.t 17Kt
     50 Kt            2.0
    150 Kt            4.2
    200 Kt            4.9

The all carbon composite re-entry heat shield with multi-directional ablative carbon-carbon re-entry nose tip make it very light and tough . This very light RV mass enables scalable payload and range tradeoff especially for lightweight warhead.

Propulsion
The Shourya has two solid fueled stages of 0.74m diameter. This diameter is compatible with a recently tested Indian sub-surface launch system that has a 2.4 meter diameter launch tube .

First Stage: The first stage solid fuel booster is approximately 2 meter long and weighs about 1,300 kg including 1,000 Kg high density fuel. The booster lifts the missile to an altitude of 5 km so that the second stage can operate more efficiently at low atmospheric pressure. It uses hot gas reaction control for initial control of yaw, pitch and roll before the air fins unfold and missile gains sufficient velocity for aerodynamic control surfaces.

Figure 6: Second stage motor [Photo: DRDO]

Second Stage:
This 6 meter long stage weighs about 3.6 tonne and generates 16 tonne thrust. Case-bonded HTPB-based composite propellant with low burn rate is ignited by a small pyrogen ignition motor. The case is made of 250 grade maraging steel to maximize fuel mass fraction that is critical for scalable payload versus range flexibility. Its nozzle is made of composite material with metallic backup and carbon phenolic liners. The interstage coupling uses a soft-stage separation mechanism and retro rockets for reliable and safe stage separation.

Code: Select all

 
                            Stage-1       Stage-2              RV
Gross Mass                 1,300 kg       3,600 kg       70 kg
Fuel Mass                   1,010 kg       2,950 kg       -
Empty Mass                  290 kg       650kg           -
Stage Fuel-Mass-Ratio      0.78        0.82

Thrust @ Vacuum        26,000 Kgf         21,000 Kgf
Thrust @ Sea Level    23,000 Kgf          -
(Burn Time)           (10 seconds)   (~40 seconds)   Not Applicable

Specific-Impulse
ISP @ Vacuum            265 seconds         275 seconds   Not Applicable
ISP @ Sea Level         230 seconds       250 seconds
   
Length                  2.0 meters      6.0 meters            1.1 meters
Diameter                0.74 meters    0.74 meters          0.74 meters

Propellant                  Solid                 Solid
Chemical                  HTPB/AP/Al         HTPB/AP/Al
Case Material          Maraging            Maraging             Carbon Composite

Note: Some parameters are estimated based on available news reports, trade practice and known Indian capability.
.
Navigation & Accuracy
Shourya largely carries the proven avionics set of Agni-III however for more extensive aerodynamic maneuvering, it is augmented by new sensors and flight control system. Shourya will also benefit form Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) expected to be ready by 2012, to ensure guaranteed national access to precision navigation. These systems enable high accuracy required for precision strike.

Range versus Payload
Missile range & payload mass are inversely related. It is interesting to note that press reports Shourya’s range for 1,000 kg and 500 kg payload. The former corresponding to 1980 vintage 200Kt FBF warhead and the latter corresponding to 150Kt FBF that is yet to be field validated. The official reporting obfuscates missile’s much higher range corresponding to field tested 17Kt FBF warhead that is mainstay of Indian deterrence.

Figure 7: Range versus RV payload

Conclusion
Shourya class of missile is truly a multi-services missile that has desirable attributes of small size, mobility, stealth, rich set of warhead options, robustness and cost that could make it the most mass produced Indian missile. It complements the long range Agni class missiles to provide Indian military commanders global range necessary to secure Indian interests.

Sources & References
1. Nuclear Weapons & Indian Security, A Realist Foundation of Strategy- Bharat Karnad, Mcmillan India, ISBN 0333 938224
2. Indian Long Range Strategic Missiles - Indian Defense Review Oct-Dec 2006 Vol 21(4), by Arun Vishwakarma.
3. Raj Chengappa, Weapons of Peace: The Secret Story of India's Quest to be a Nuclear Power (New Delhi: Harper Collins Publishers India, 2000, ISBN 81-7223-332-0).
4. Defence Research & Development Organization (http://www.drdo.com)
5. DRDO periodicals "Technology Focus" bi-weekly.
6. DRDO "Technology Focus" Oct-2001, ISSN: 0971-4413. http://www.drdo.com/pub/techfocus/oct20 ... ulsion.htm
7. Indian Defence Technology: Missile Systems (DRDO, Ministry of Defence, December 1998).
8. Evaluating India's land-based Missile Deterrent. Indian Defense Review Vol-19(4) Oct-Dec 2004, ISSN 0970-2512, Dr Sanjay Badri Maharaj, Arun Vishwakarma. Lancer Publishers & Distributors.
9. Indian’s Emerging Nuclear Posture, Ashley J Tellis, Oxford ISBN 0195659058.
10. Nuclear Threat Initiative (http://www.nti.org)
11. http://www.nbr.org/publications/analysi ... l13no3.pdf
VOLUME 13, NUMBER 3, JUNE 2002. “Ballistic Missiles and Missile Defense in Asia”
12. Nuclear Weapon Archive, 'India's Nuclear Weapons Program: Present Capabilities' http://nuclearweaponarchive.org/India/IndiaArsenal.html

End Notes
1 Shourya is a Sanskrit word for Valor, and Sagarika is a Sanskrit word for “Oceanic”.
2 ‘The secret undersea weapon’, India Today, 01/17/ 2008, http://indiatoday.digitaltoday.in/index ... mitstart=1
3 A “wooden round” missile is delivered to ships and submarines as an all-up-round (AUR), which includes the missile that flies the mission, the booster that starts its flight, and the container (canister for ships and capsule for submarines) that protects it during transportation, storage and stowage, and acts as a launch tube. Such ammunition has almost 100% reliability, very long shelf life, and requires no special storage, maintenance, or handling.
4 War clouds, nuclear overhang, The Pioneer, December 27, 2008. Op-Ed by Brig.(rtd)Gurmeet Kanwal, Centre for Land Warfare Studies, “The nuclear tipping point in a conventional conflict is a matter of fine military judgment. A rational Pakistani approach would be to opt for a graduated response in case push comes to shove. Lt Gen Sardar F S Lodhi (Retd) has written about a demonstration warning shot followed by a low-yield nuclear explosion over Indian forces advancing inside Pakistani territory. If that fails to stop Indian offensive operations, Pakistan may choose to target a small border town in India. In the end India's conventional superiority would prevail and a future conflict in the plains may be expected to end on terms favorable to India”.
5 ‘Sagarika’ missile test-fired successfully’, The Hindu 27/02/2008 http://www.thehindu.com/2008/02/27/stor ... 120100.htm
6 Prithvi-III test-fired for first time: T.S. Subramanian, The Hindu, 28 October 2004, (http://www.hindu.com/2004/10/28/stories ... 641300.htm).
7 The author was the first to suggest Prithvi-III configuration as a 2 stage missile with 0.75meter diameter and 1000 km range, in the missile article hosted at http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/MISSILES/Prithvi.html
8 “Shourya missile cannot be easily detected” The Hindu, 14/11/2008 http://www.hindu.com/2008/11/14/stories ... 151500.htm
3 The ballistic coefficient  (‘Beta’) is a measurement of an object's ability to move through a fluid. It takes into account the effects of an object's density and its skin friction, and is expressed as: eta = m * CD / A where m: mass, CD: coefficient of drag, A: area.
4 This was an issue with the earlier RV Mk-2 design. The older Mk-2 with its blunt nose is an all range RV, however for lighter payload its Beta is relatively low, thus slowing down the RV at the tail end of its trajectory.
11 The FBF primary stage of the 1998 Shakti-1 test.
12 Total mass including mass of RV.
13 DRDO scientists appreciated for successful launch of Agni-3, Indian Express, Friday April 13 2007 "Union Minister of State for Defence MM Pallam Raju has said “the strategic payload of the missile is between 100
kg to 250 kg, and it is a two-stage solid fuel combustion system type missile."http://www.newindpress.com/news.asp?ID=IEA20070413023541
14 The 1998 Shakti series of nuclear test in 1998 at Pokhran unambiguously demonstrated Indian mastery of Fusion Boosted Fission weapons. The Thermonuclear experiment (Shakti-I) based credible warhead requires confirmatory/proof test or credible Laser Ignition Facilities. While awaiting proof test Indian posture will likely field the TN warhead in compliment with missiles with FBF warheads.
15 Ibid
16 Ibid
17 Launching platforms for Project K-15.
http://www.drdo.com/pub/techfocus/aug04/missile13.htm
18 Trade estimate
19 Ibid
20 Estimated by using Ballistic Rocket Simulator (ROCKSIM)
21 Trade estimate
22 Geometric resolution from photo evidence
23 Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System approved, 9/5/2006 http://www.india-defence.com/reports/1894


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Re: ABM/Missile Defense Discussion

Postby vavinash » 07 Mar 2009 12:28

I tried going through the videos. The missile that is shown being launched does not make it very clear if it is sagarika or P-III. Also haven't seen a video of the ship launching the missile. But if it was Sagarika then we have tested 2 missiles in 1 go. Not bad at all.

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Re: ABM/Missile Defense Discussion

Postby Arun_S » 07 Mar 2009 12:44

vavinash wrote:I tried going through the videos. The missile that is shown being launched does not make it very clear if it is sagarika or P-III. Also haven't seen a video of the ship launching the missile. But if it was Sagarika then we have tested 2 missiles in 1 go. Not bad at all.

My bad, I rechecked; did not yet find the news reference of aggressor missile was 2 stage. All reports that I can find on web is Dhanush that is modified Prithvi.

Interesting to note that the 300 km gliding range Prithvi now flys at a speed that can take ballistic trajectory of 1,500 km range (even if it is flying with zero payload) :wink:

----------------------------------
Correction: Found this Telegraph report that does states the Aggressor/Target missile was 2 stage Dhanush: 8)
Delhi puts missile on a par with US

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Re: ABM/Missile Defense Discussion

Postby Arun_S » 07 Mar 2009 13:08

Katare wrote:ArunS could comment on this with more authority but I think terminal velocity would largly be a function of the final altitude.

Missile's maximum range is a direct function of missile's burnout velocity.
The apogee altitude changes depends on the desired range. Thus apogee altitude is a peripheral outcome of a missile's final velocity, in conjunction with programmed elevation fo missile's velocity vector at burnout to get desired target range.

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Re: ABM/Missile Defense Discussion

Postby Arun_S » 07 Mar 2009 14:28

India tests missile defence system successfully

Balasore (Orissa), Mar 6 (PTI) Ramping up its efforts to operationalise an indigenous Ballistic Missile Defence (BMD) shield, India today successfully tested the 'Prithvi' Air Defence (PAD) missile for the third time in just over two years.
"It is a hat trick," exclaimed DRDO Chief Controller Research and Development (Missile and Strategic Systems) Dr V K Saraswat, seconds after the PAD hit the incoming target missile during the tests in the Bay of Bengal off Orissa coast.

The interceptor PAD missile, which was launched from a mobile launcher placed in the Wheeler Island's Integrated Test Range, destroyed the target missile -- surface-to-surface 'Dhanush' in this case -- at an altitude of 75-km in the sky, Defence Ministry spokesperson Sitanshu Kar, who witnessed the test through a video conferencing facility at the DRDO headquarters in New Delhi, said.

The modified 'Dhanush', posing as "enemy" missile with a simulated range of about 1100 km and guided by an inertial navigation system, was first fired by Navy warship INS Shubadhra, anchored about 70 nautical miles from Dhamra in the Orissa coast, at around 4.20 pm.

Just two minutes later, the BMD system's radars picked up the signal of the "enemy" missile and 40 seconds later the PAD missile was fired to destroy the incoming missile. PTI

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Re: ABM/Missile Defense Discussion

Postby Arun_S » 07 Mar 2009 14:31

Shield will be ready for deployment in 3-4 years: DRDO
New Delhi, March 06: After the "hat-trick" of successful trials in its effort to operationalise an indigenous Ballistic Missile Defence (BMD) shield, the DRDO today said the system would be ready for deployment in the next three to four years.

"It will take us one or two more trials before our system is ready to be offered for deployment," DRDO Chief Controller and Distinguished Scientist W Selvamurthy told agencies here.

"Our last three tests have been quite successful. In the next trials, we will do a combined test of both the endo-atmospheric and exo-atmospheric test," he said.

India today successfully tested the 'Prithvi' Air Defence (PAD) missile for the third time in just over two years. The interceptor PAD missile, launched from a mobile launcher placed in the Wheeler Island's Integrated Test Range off Orissa coast, destroyed the target missile- surface-to-surface 'Dhanush' in this case- at an altitude of 75-km in the sky.

"This combined test will help us assess the joint functioning of the two-tiered BMD shield that is being developed," Selvamurthy said.

DRDO's BMD programme is a two-tier system consisting of two interceptor missiles, namely PAD missile for high altitude interception at altitudes between 50-80 Km, and the Advanced Air Defence (AAD) missile for lower altitude interceptions between 15-30 Kms.

The DRDO had earlier successfully tested the BMD system in November 2006 outside the atmosphere mode at 48-km altitude and in December 2007 inside atmosphere at 15-km altitude.

Along with the interceptor missiles, DRDO has also developed the surveillance systems for the shield. The ground-based surveillance and tracking systems along with the command, control and communication systems, can be operated successfully in highly-dense electronic warfare environment.

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Re: ABM/Missile Defense Discussion

Postby Arun_S » 07 Mar 2009 14:36

Interceptor does it again
Image

T.S. Subramanian and Y. Mallikarjun

CHENNAI: It was a hat-trick for the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO).

In a third successful mission, it proved on Friday that India could shield itself against ballistic missiles from enemy countries by successfully testing an interceptor missile from the Wheeler Island off the Orissa coast. The interceptor shot down a Dhanush missile heading towards the island.

The interception took place at an altitude of 80 km over the Bay of Bengal. The Dhanush missile was destroyed in its path in both a direct-hit and detonation of the warhead of the interceptor, which is an advanced Prithvi missile.

Dhanush was simulating the trajectory of ballistic missiles with a range of 1,500 km, similar to Pakistan’s Ghauri.

The previous successful missions took place on November 27, 2006 and December 6, 2007, when incoming “enemy” ballistic missiles were destroyed in direct-hits at an altitude of 48 km and 15 km respectively.

V.K. Saraswat, Programme Director, Air Defence, called the Friday success “a major milestone in the direction of proving the capability of our ballistic missile defence (BMD) shield.”

He told The Hindu from the Wheeler Island: “The success proves the robustness, reliability and repeatability of the design of our system for engaging incoming ballistic missiles with a range of 300 km to 1,500 km.”

As the plot-boards in the Launch Control Centre on the Wheeler Island showed that the “enemy” missile was pulverised in its track, DRDO’s young missile technologists turned jubilant. They carried Dr. Saraswat on their shoulders and took him around, shouting, “DRDO Jai Ho, DRDO zindabad, DRDO hip hip hooray.’

Dr. Saraswat described it as “total mood of euphoria and excitement.”

M. Natarajan, Scientific Advisor to the Defence Minister, watched the mission from the Wheeler Island.

W. Selvamurthy, Chief Controller, DRDO, called it “a hat-trick and an important milestone for achieving the BMD shield for the country.”

The interceptor used for the first time a manoeuvrable warhead called gimballed directional warhead (GDW), which can rotate 360 degrees.

As the single-stage Dhanush, 9.4 metres tall and weighing 4.5 tonnes, lifted off at 4.17 p.m. from the ship located 150 km away from the Wheeler Island, radars at Konark and Paradip in Orissa tracked it 50 seconds into its flight. The Mission Control Centre (the MCC) on the island also received information about it.

The MCC declared it a hostile target and that it would impact very close to the island. This data was used by the Launch Control Centre (LCC) to compute the trajectory of the interceptor, called Prithvi Air Defence (PAD II), to engage the target missile at an altitude of 80 km. The LCC also automatically decided when the interceptor should lift off and the launch computer gave the command for it.

About 160 seconds into the flight of Dhanush plus 150 seconds after the lift-off of the interceptor, the interceptor’s homing seeker acquired the target. Using this information, the interceptor’s computer guided it towards the target and brought it very close to it. At this point of time, the radio proximity fuse (RPF) of the GDW computed the time at which it should explode.

Dr. Saraswat, who is also Chief Controller, DRDO, said: “When the target and the interceptor were practically colliding with each other, the warhead was detonated which led to the fragmentation of the target and the interceptor. It was a direct hit and also warhead detonation. The large number of fragments formed due to collision and detonation were tracked by the ground radars and we could see that hundreds of new tracks had been formed, confirming that the target was destroyed in both a direct hit and detonation.”

He praised the young scientists of the DRDO’s missile complex at Hyderabad and other DRDO laboratories for the mission’s success.

“It was one of the most complex missions planned, designed and executed by the DRDO with clock-work precision. I feel satisfied that the BMD shield of the DRDO has reached a great level of maturity.”

The interceptor was a two-stage vehicle, with the first stage fuelled by liquid propellants and the second stage by solid propellants. It was 10 metres long and weighed 5.2 tonnes.

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Re: ABM/Missile Defense Discussion

Postby Arun_S » 07 Mar 2009 14:43

This Telegraph report mentions that the Aggressor/Target missile was 2 stage: :wink:

Delhi puts missile on a par with US
SUJAN DUTTA

New Delhi, March 6: India today claimed it had successfully tested a home-grown interceptor designed to destroy incoming missiles and compared its capability to an American ballistic missile defence system that India’s armed forces are evaluating.

A two-stage interceptor missile destroyed an “enemy” missile at an altitude of 74km above the Bay of Bengal at 4.24pm in a two-minute seek-and-destroy mission, Defence Research and Development Organisation scientists said.

Today’s test — the third in a series starting November 2006 — pushes India closer to developing an operational ballistic missile defence (BMD) system. The US, Russia and Israel are the other countries with working BMD versions.

The interceptor, launched from a road-mobile vehicle on Wheeler’s island off Balasore, “neutralised” its target about 100km east of Orissa, William Selvamurthy, the chief controller of research and development at the DRDO, said.

The target was a two-stage Dhanush missile launched from an offshore Indian Navy vessel, the INS Sujata, simulating an enemy missile. It was fired vertically and set on trajectory to attack a target in mainland India from the sea.

A long-range radar on the Orissa coast spotted the “enemy” missile within a minute of its launch, Selvamurthy said. The radar then communicated information about the target missile’s trajectory to the interceptor, which used onboard electronics to destroy it.

The DRDO scientist said it could take one or two more tests for the BMD system to be ready for induction.

“We envisage it as a joint services programme,” Selvamurthy said, when asked which set-up in the security establishment would be custodian of the system. Told that a joint services command was not in place, he said “that is a call the political leadership will have to take”.

This suggests that India’s defence technology establishment is worrying that Indian military programmes are outpacing the institutions needed to harness them.

A proposal for a single-point military adviser has been bouncing off the walls of security-related ministries to political parties and back for over five years.

Today’s test has also pushed DRDO’s missile interception altitude higher than in earlier tests. The first BMD test in November 2006 hit its target at a height of 48km and the second in December 2007 at 15km.

The Pentagon has made presentations on the US-made Patriot Advanced Capability missile system (PAC-III) to the Indian armed forces.

Selvamurthy said the Indian BMD was “comparable in capability” to the US PAC-III. He said today’s test successfully demonstrated capabilities in radio proximity fuse, which ensures that the interceptor senses and explodes to cause maximum damage to the incoming target missile.

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Re: ABM/Missile Defense Discussion

Postby Rahul Shukla » 07 Mar 2009 14:55

"... direct hit and detonation ..."

Very good news. Congratulations!

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Re: ABM/Missile Defense Discussion

Postby ashish raval » 07 Mar 2009 15:06

Congratulations to all our nerds who worked on the project. A time to give them cruise holiday and a week out in alps. :wink:

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Re: ABM/Missile Defense Discussion

Postby p_saggu » 07 Mar 2009 16:04

Arun-ji,
I have a different take on the two staged Dhanush.
Dhanush is the 1m diameter Navalized 350Km ranged Prithvi. (exactly what constituted "Navalized" is not clear - perhaps the system was protected from the high salt sea moisture and made waterproof to a high extent, and along with the L&T launcher was able to correct itself even if launched from a rolling and pitching ship)

We also know that the Agni-TD was essentially a Two staged Prithvi.

Could this two staged Dhanush then not be Dhanush-2 alias a navalized Agni-2 with a 1100 or 1500 Km range?

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Re: ABM/Missile Defense Discussion

Postby p_saggu » 07 Mar 2009 16:13

^^^
Errr,
From the above article,
Selvamurthy said the Indian BMD was “comparable in capability” to the US PAC-III. He said today’s test successfully demonstrated capabilities in radio proximity fuse, which ensures that the interceptor senses and explodes to cause maximum damage to the incoming target missile.

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Re: ABM/Missile Defense Discussion

Postby shyamd » 07 Mar 2009 18:28

Congrats to DRDO! 8) A big well done to all involved!

Bharat Mata ki Jai!

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Re: ABM/Missile Defense Discussion

Postby SaiK » 07 Mar 2009 20:44

but, pac-3 is supposed to be hit-to-kill !?

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Re: ABM/Missile Defense Discussion

Postby aditp » 07 Mar 2009 21:36

SaiK wrote:but, pac-3 is supposed to be hit-to-kill !?


....hence comparable not equal. :wink: Congrats to all involved though. Gr8 achievement.

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Re: ABM/Missile Defense Discussion

Postby Austin » 07 Mar 2009 22:17

SaiK wrote:but, pac-3 is supposed to be hit-to-kill !?


PAC-3 is hit to kill with a warhead , so the idea what they are tying to say is , PAD practically achieved a HTK but the warhead also did its job.

Either one of this would be a kill , but in case of PAD both HTK/Warhead achieved the kill , nice awesome , I am more impressed with the practical HTK , thats the most difficult to achieve.
Last edited by Austin on 07 Mar 2009 23:15, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: ABM/Missile Defense Discussion

Postby ramana » 07 Mar 2009 22:38

If I recall, the Ghauri/Nodong does not have a separating stage. So this Pradyumana can take on quite a few systems with 1500km range.

Arun_S, Whats the least burnout velocity to obtain 1500km range?

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Re: ABM/Missile Defense Discussion

Postby Santosh » 07 Mar 2009 23:49

This is superlative. Hearty congratulations to DRDO folks.

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Re: ABM/Missile Defense Discussion

Postby Arun_S » 07 Mar 2009 23:52

ramana wrote:Arun_S, Whats the least burnout velocity to obtain 1500km range?

~ 3.3km/sec (Mach 12)

Following article has the graph of velocity to maximum range

http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/MISSILES/Images/Indian_Long_Range_StrategicMissiles_-Agni-III_r11.pdf

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Re: ABM/Missile Defense Discussion

Postby vasu_ray » 08 Mar 2009 00:48

The political rationalization is immense, if testing the Agni series as hostile and the ABM "prithvis" as defenders

since they have political cover, they wouldn't need to launch at closer ranges to simulate a longer range missile, just test them for what they are.

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Re: ABM/Missile Defense Discussion

Postby disha » 08 Mar 2009 09:23

Arun_S wrote:
Dr. Saraswat, who is also Chief Controller, DRDO, said: “When the target and the interceptor were practically colliding with each other, the warhead was detonated which led to the fragmentation of the target and the interceptor. It was a direct hit and also warhead detonation. The large number of fragments formed due to collision and detonation were tracked by the ground radars and we could see that hundreds of new tracks had been formed, confirming that the target was destroyed in both a direct hit and detonation”

He praised the young scientists of the DRDO’s missile complex at Hyderabad and other DRDO laboratories for the mission’s success.
“It was one of the most complex missions planned, designed and executed by the DRDO with clock-work precision.
I feel satisfied that the BMD shield of the DRDO has reached a great level of maturity.”

The interceptor was a two-stage vehicle, with the first stage fuelled by liquid propellants and the second stage by solid propellants. It was 10 metres long and weighed 5.2 tonnes.


Excellent! Congrats DRDO. HTK is difficult to achieve on top of it arming the warhead and detonating it as a "shaped charge" in any given direction is remarkable! It is a combination of several fields in engineering. No doubt few nations have able to achieve that.

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Re: ABM/Missile Defense Discussion

Postby disha » 08 Mar 2009 09:30

SaiK wrote:Missile shield


The above link is not working, it has been moved to the following link http://www.hinduonnet.com/fline/fl2603/stories/20090213260309700.htm

I think it was discussed before in the missile tech thread.

From the above link, still wanted to bring this out:

Technology

The first Prithvi test-firing took place in 1988 and the Agni Technology Demonstrator’s flight-test took place the following year. After the launch of Agni in 1989, the U.S. declined to give India the phase shifters for the phased array radars for Akash. Germany refused to give India the magnesium alloy used in Prithvi’s wings. Servo-valves needed for the electro-hydraulic control systems of Agni and Prithvi were embargoed. France, which used to give gyroscopes and accelerators to India, said its exports were taboo. Intel said it would not give India chips for the computers used in Prithvi and Agni. “This is a very short list. The list runs into hundreds of components and materials,” said a top DRDO scientist. After 1989, DRDO evolved strategies to counter the MTCR.


My feeling is that whenever India sends out feelers if US is okay with a missile test like Agni or ABM , it is not that it does not have "b@ll$" or that it is beholden to US or anything like that, it is that the labs are testing out what will be impacted and how. Say if they do not like the test and throw a temper tantrum, it might have implication on project schedules etc. Notice that recently we are not that circumspect when it comes to testing! That means we have achieved a significant level of independence and indigenization.

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Re: ABM/Missile Defense Discussion

Postby harbans » 08 Mar 2009 14:55

Awesome indeed and congratulations to the entire team. However i was under the impression that a HTK also involves some sort of warhead detonation. Maybe wrong though, will try and look it up. Are the Chinese working on any sort of indigenous ABM capability?


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