India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

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sanjaychoudhry
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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby sanjaychoudhry » 23 Jul 2008 02:44

Herbal weapon for mosquitoes

Soldiers engaged in counter-insurgency operations in the Northeast will soon have a new weapon to fight a deadly adversary — the malaria-spreading anopheles mosquito.

R.L. Srivastava, the director of the Tezpur-based Defence Research Laboratory (DRL), told The Telegraph that they would release a unique herbal vaporiser to protect soldiers from malaria, which has recently assumed alarming proportions.

The exact figures are not available, but defence sources said the disease afflicts scores of soldiers every year. “At least 15 to 20 jawans die in Tripura every year because of malaria,” a senior army officer said.

Srivastava said the laboratory has developed herbal vaporisers using herbs and shrubs found abundantly in the region.

According to him, these products “are more effective than synthetic chemical repellents, will not have any harmful effect on human beings and will keep our soldiers healthy”.

The laboratory has also prepared a “floating tablet” which kills larvae of mosquitoes when dropped in breeding areas.

“The tablet, which is effective for 30 days, will be used in cantonment areas to kill mosquito eggs,” Srivastava said. “It has proved very effective in areas we have used it in on an experimental basis,” he added.


http://www.telegraphindia.com/1080722/j ... 583222.jsp

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby krishnan » 23 Jul 2008 10:16

Hope they release it for general public as well

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby Cybaru » 24 Jul 2008 02:05

krishnan wrote:Hope they release it for general public as well


Yeah, that should stop DDT being sprayed all over illegally.




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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby Paul » 06 Aug 2008 22:53


HAL plans lean heirarchy after cutting flab in manufacturing
6 Aug, 2008, 2210 hrs IST, IANS


CHENNAI: The Bangalore-based Indian public sector aerospace major Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd (HAL) is planning to go lean in its management hierarchy, according to a top company official.

"We currently have around 10-11 officer levels and we intend to reduce this to 5," Ananth Agasthya, HAL's executive director (training), said here Wednesday.

He was addressing a lean management seminar organised by Lean Management Institute of India. The proposal will have to get the green signal from the board of the Rs.8000 crores turnover company, he said. The company, meanwhile has already gone lean in its manufacturing processes, Agasthya said.

"Its Takt time at HAL where a lean manufacturing process has already been implemented under a project called Sampoorna Parivarthan," he said.

Takt is a German word used in association with music to denote a beat or rhythm. At the HAL's plants, the term is used as a synonym for cycle time, he added.

Speaking about the progress of lean production management at HAL's 19 plants, Agasthya said: "Lean leadership is about doing a few things differently. Unlike many other organisations, our lean manufacturing project is not headed by an engineer but by our director (personnel)."

Seeing global aerospace majors embracing the lean process, HAL decided to adopt the process December 2003.
Starting the project at its foundry unit, HAL has gone about implementing it in its other units in a systematic and phased manner, he said.

The first step was to unveil the policy deployment matrix and policy deployment programme review to show the targets and the performance.

"The next step was to map the value stream so that silos are broken and waste process identified," Agasthya remarked.

The company also formed lean resource teams (LRT) whose members - now around 100 - conducted lean awareness training.

This was followed by "5S drive and Kaizen events called Parivarthan Chamatkar in 2006," he added.
In management terminology, the 5S refers to a list of five Japanese words namely Seiri (Sort), Seiton (Set in order), Seiso (Sweeping), Seiketsu (Standardizing) and Shitsuke (Sustaining) that denotes a philosophy of organising the workplace.

"For Kaizen events we formed teams drawn from different departments and gave them a process to identify the value added and non value added processes in it within a week's time," he said.

"With the implementation of the lean manufacturing process, HAL has been able to cut its aircraft engine dismantling time from 72 days to 39 days, engine overhaul to 99 days from 149 days and servicing a full aircraft to 3.78 months from 5.48 months," he said.

Concluding Agasthya said: "The processes which were like custard apple - lots of seed/waste - has now been transformed into an apple - lots of flesh and few seeds. The goal is to further transform the processes into seedless grapes."



WHat are the global benchmarks for these?

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby andy B » 07 Aug 2008 05:15

Thats awesome news "Lean Six Sigma" is the talk of the town for aviation and production companies. Hell nowadays LSS is being used even by financial and other industries as well for process transformation and re-engineering. I am currently working on a LSS project in a Bank and have a mate in Boeing who's a manufacturing engineer and told me that Boeing and other aviation majors have been practising LSS religiously for more than 30 odd years. Go HAL!!!! :twisted:

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby bala » 07 Aug 2008 07:28

CMD, Bharat Electronics, V R V Sastry hands over the symbolic key of 3D Radar, 'Rohini' to Air Chief Marshal FH Major.

Image

BEL hands over Rohini radar to IAF

Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL), a defence public sector undertaking, handed over the first of the three-dimensional radar ‘Rohini’ to the Indian Air Force here on Wednesday.

BEL Chairman and Managing Director, V V R Sastry, handed over a ceremonial key to Chief of Air Staff Air Chief Marshal Fali Homi Major at a function held at the Ghaziabad campus of the company, marking its induction into the IAF.

The state-of-the-art multifunction medium range surveillance radar has been developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation’s (DRDO) Electronics and Radar Development Establishment, Bangalore, and engineered and produced by BEL.

It is equipped to handle multiple targets simultaneously and precisely calculate the height at which the projectiles are flying up to 150 km.

Mounted on ‘Tetra’ mobile platform, a heavy-duty modified truck built by the public sector Bharat Earth Movers Limited (BEML), and supported by an auxiliary mobile power unit, it enables Rohini’s easy transport to the battlefront.

Speaking on the occasion, Air Chief Marshal Major said the radar would provide the IAF better air surveillance capability, particularly at low altitude.

Multiple targets

The radar operates in a range of up to 150 km and at an altitude of 15 km. It can track multiple targets like fighter jets and missiles travelling at supersonic speeds of over 3,000 km per hour.

The radar employs an array of Electronic Counter Counter Measure features, including frequency agility and jammer analysis.

Sastry said BEL expected to build around 100 pieces, with around 20 radars being manufactured every year
He said the army had conducted successful trials of a Rohini variant for detecting and tracking missiles. Another variant, ‘Revathi’, is being developed for the Navy, he added.

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby SSridhar » 08 Aug 2008 18:54

R&D activities in L&T

  1. Development of tracking radar for ISRO
  2. Development of VME64X IO cards for defence applications
  3. Development of Fire Control Systems for missiles
  4. Development of All terrain Rugged Controllers and Low Voltage Motor Drives for land-based Weapon Launchers
  5. Development of mobile masts for surveillance radars
  6. Development of stabilized platform for Naval surveillance radar
  7. Research in simulation of stabilizer dynamics in cavitating and non-cavitating regimes
  8. Designed and developed plate stretcher for manufacturing aerospace grade Aluminium
  9. Newly established deep space network groundstation for Chandrayaan-1 by manufacturing and erection of 32m DSN antenna
  10. Design and development of Variable Mach No. Frequency Nozzle (VMFN) {This is the first of its kind and provides an innovative way of testing , scale down model of aircrafts, with high strategic importance for India}
  11. Development of micro reactor

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby Vick » 09 Aug 2008 06:44

From DN
08/04/08
Private Indian Firms Find Growing Market Niches

By VIVEK RAGHUVANSHI

NEW DELHI While state-owned companies still control the bulk of India ’s defense sales, the future may be brighter for private sector firms that could tap into an esti mated $10 billion in offset obligations during the next five to seven years, while others also pursue integrator roles.

India's defense market was opened to private companies, including foreign players (limited to a 26 percent foreign direct investment) in 2001, but government firms still claim about $3.5 billion annually while private sector sales have been languishing at about $500 million.

One defense industry power in the making is the Tata Group, which has annual sales of more than $32 billion. The 98 companies that comprise the Tata Group participate in the defense sector through Tata Power, Tata Advanced Materials and Tata Motors.

The Tata Group’s strategy is to become a lead systems integrator with major state-owned domestic defense companies while linking with foreign firms to speed the integration of high-tech defense technologies, said a senior executive of the Tata Group.

The organizational structure of the Tata Group's defense operations will be reworked through a pair of umbrella companies: Tata Advanced Systems Ltd. (TASL) and Tata Industrial Services Ltd. (TISL).

TASL will harness the relevant expertise, manufacturing capabilities, software development skills, infrastructure and licenses of various Tata companies, such as Tata Consultancy Services, Tata Power

Strategic Electronics Division, Tata Steel, TAL Manufacturing Solutions, CMC, NELCO, Tata Motors and other companies, the Tata executive said.

For industrial collaboration and offset obligations, the Tata Group's initiative will be led by TISL, the executive added.

In sync with Tata's lead system integrator strategy, Tata Group of India and Israel Aerospace Industries in May signed an agreement to establish a joint venture to produce missiles, UAVs, radars, electronic warfare systems and homeland security systems.

Early this year, the Tata Group linked up with Boeing to manufacture military components for the F/A-18 Super Hornet fighter, the CH-47 Chinook helicopter and the P-8 Maritime Patrol Aircraft, products that are up for sale to the Indian defense forces.

Rahul Chowdhary, CEO of Tata Strategic Electronics, told Defense News , No nation can be stronger unless it has a strong military industrial complex. While the government remains the only buyer of defense products and weapon procurement is managed mainly by the bureaucracy, the only clear road ahead for private firms is the offset market, as the government requires overseas companies to provide offsets for contracts above $70 million.

Request for proposals issued post Defence Procurement Procedures 2006 has compelled Original Equipment Manufacturers to examine the potential partner base in India for discharging their offset commitments, says Rajesh Narayan, founder of the India Rizing Fund, the nation’s first defense sector investment fund.

Besides the Tata Group of industries, the other major upcoming players in the private sector include Larsen & Toubro (L&T), and Mahindra & Mahindra, who also have been awarded industrial licenses to produce defense items.

We have got five licenses, which cover the entire gambit of defense equipment for the three defense forces. One of the important segments for the Indian Navy is shipbuilding, said M.V. Kotwal, board member and senior executive vice president Heavy Engineering, L&T.

L&T is looking for land where it could build a shipyard that could construct ships weighing more than 30,000 tons, including an aircraft carrier. The complex also will cater to the production of frigates, submarines and midget submarines.

L&T has signed memorandums of understanding with EADS, Northrop Grumman and Boeing to tap the defense market and forged a technical tie-up with Samsung of South Korea to establish a joint venture for the design, development and production of a variety of 155mm guns for the Indian Army.

While industrial licenses have been issued and dozens of memorandums have been signed between private sector companies and overseas defense majors, the reform process has not moved at a faster pace.

Until now, the reforms in the defense sector have been extremely slow, and the private sector has not benefited ever since the defense policy was liberalized, Choudhary said.

In a major setback to the reform process, the Indian Defence Ministry in July rejected L&T's request to participate in a $1.2 billion Wheeled Self-Propelled Gun procurement program.

Defence Ministry sources said there is intense pressure from state-owned companies not to allow private companies to participate in large orders.

Unfortunately, the Indian government has not yet given a clear road map for the private companies in the defense sector. Hence, there is enough confusion among private participants, said Deba Mohanty of the Observer Research Foundation, a defense think tank based here.

The government needs to chalk out its core areas of interests in military technology and production to enable private companies, who can then complement their core expertise in required fields, Mohanty said. In the absence of a larger requirement picture, companies might stray into areas other than their core competence, which could prove disastrous for them as well as the end user.

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby pkudva » 09 Aug 2008 11:54

After long time we are getting to hear some good news that Private companies are greatly invovled arealso interested in building the contries strategic assests like ATV, Radars or Aircrafts.

Hope the preliminary work mite have been completed and much larger work will be taking place behind the sceens/behind public watch.

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby Malay » 10 Aug 2008 19:07

Basically there is only TATA and L&T that would become the main players in the entire spectrum of military hardware. And if i had to choose further it would just be TATA. L&T is mainly interested in Naval orders.

I hope that other companies also step up and try to become a general defence company that supplies all kinds of military hardware rather than their niche specialities. Eg: M&M in the land vehicle segment.

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby A Sharma » 10 Aug 2008 19:30

M&M has also established a manufacturing facility for underwater systems at Pune and is now well placed to deliver Sea Mines and Decoy Launchers to the Indian Navy.

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby A Sharma » 12 Aug 2008 04:59

DRDO Newsletter for Aug/Sept

Submarine escape set developed by DEBEL accepted by navy
ToT to BEL of advanced version of HUMSA sonar developed by NPOL

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby Vick » 12 Aug 2008 05:22

From the above link:
Image


Also note that HUMSA-NG is ready to go.

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby chaitanya » 12 Aug 2008 05:47

Another interesting piece from the above article is the development of a Metal Hydride-based Hydrogen Storage Container. Would prove to be very useful for fuel cell applications/cars/etc.

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby sivab » 12 Aug 2008 20:35

http://www.flonnet.com/stories/20080829251704400.htm
Wonderful range

T.S. SUBRAMANIAN

Interview with M. Natarajan, Director General, DRDO, and Scientific Adviser to the Defence Minister

ON the occasion of the golden jubilee celebrations of the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), which began on January 9, Frontline met M. Natarajan, Director General, DRDO, and Scientific Adviser to the Defence Minister.

Natarajan, who joined the DRDO in 1970, has worked on several important projects including the design and development of tracked vehicles. He was associated with the development of the main battle tank Arjun from its inception and became its Programme Director in 1987. Hard work from him and his team led to India having the self-propelled gun system Bhim.

Before becoming the Scientific Adviser to the Defence Minister, Natarajan was Chief Controller, Research and Development (Armaments and Combat Engineering), at DRDO headquarters in New Delhi.

During this period, he ensured the acceptance of Pinaka, the multi-barrel rocket launcher system, by the Army after exhaustive field trials. He also contributed to the mechanical systems of the Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) Tejas. Natarajan was earlier the Director of the Combat Vehicles Research and Development Establishment (CVRDE), which developed Arjun, at Avadi in Chennai.

A mechanical engineer, Natarajan has a B.Tech from Indian Institute of Technology Madras and an M.Tech from IIT Bombay. He also has an M.S. in military vehicle technology from the Royal Military College of Science in the United Kingdom. Excerpts from the interview:

The DRDO is celebrating its golden jubilee this year. What is its road map, say, for the next 25 years?

The DRDO is one arm of the Ministry of Defence devoted to science and technology development. We get a small portion of the defence budget, which is at present around 6.13 per cent. What is not known to many is that 40 per cent of the DRDO’s budget goes towards the development of strategic systems, essential for the country to maintain the requisite balance in defence preparedness. Close to a third of our budget goes towards salaries, infrastructure and training. So what most people know about the DRDO is based either on an appreciation or depreciation of one-third of our budget, spent on the development of the tactical systems for our armed forces.

The DRDO, with its chain of 50 laboratories, is specialising in a wide range of disciplines from life sciences to aerospace. When you list them in terms of sciences, engineering and technology, they may number more than the DRDO laboratories. However, the number of DRDO scientists and technical staff is too meagre to cater for the entire spectrum of products required by the armed forces.

This must be appreciated because this is not understood even by those in authority. We are a small team. Therefore, we have to stay focussed on select areas and this is what we are trying to define to the government that the remaining has to be acquired by industries or through other channels. There are many good defence public sector undertakings and ordnance factories, which have matured over the years, and they could supply certain products to the armed forces either through their own development or in collaboration with others. This will supplement DRDO laboratories as well.

This puts DRDO in a tight spot as to how it should strike a balance between what it wants to develop, its aspirations for carrying technology forward in niche areas, and how to network with the industry.

Take for example, aeronautics. We are into a programme for the LCA. What started off as one project has become three: LCA for the Indian Air Force [IAF] and the Navy and a trainer version of the LCA. This trainer will be far superior to the Hawk, with the kind of advanced features that it will have, especially in avionics….

Naturally, when we draw a road map, we see the fructification of these three taking us to a medium combat aircraft, a multi-role combat aircraft with fifth generation technologies, where there can be commonality of parts with LCA in avionics or radar, and eventually, 15 years from now, building an unmanned aerial combat vehicle [UACV].

Range of vehicles

So, if one looks at just this spectrum of vehicles, five in number, I see a good potential to build all together, about 1,000 aircraft, over a period of time. The LCA could be 400 in number for the IAF, 100 for the Navy; the trainer could be 150; the medium combat aircraft 250; and 100-150 for the UACVs. :?:

Since the design is ours, with a largely open architecture system, we have the comfort of adding values in avionics, radar systems, control and guidance systems as we go along, besides making improvements in the materials for construction, particularly in composites and the manufacturing processes thereof.

With the limited team we have today, including our partners in the industry, even to accomplish this will be an achievement. I, therefore, do not see any conflict between what the HAL [Hindustan Aeronautics Limited] and the private industries will have to do in jointly developing military transport aircraft, helicopters, cargo-lifters and heavy combat aircraft such as Sukhoi because these are the spectrum of aircraft that the IAF will need.

Likewise, we have taken airborne early warning and control [AEW&C] system on a smaller platform such as the Embraer aircraft. [The AEW&C system will be integrated to the EMB-145 aircraft for India by 2011.] It has got limited range, may be 250-300 km. But we will stay focussed in building the AEW&C radar indigenously, including its essential systems such as transmitter-receiver modules, antennae and the entire processing apart from its navigation, communication and intelligence mechanisms, including electronic warfare systems that it may feature.

Is the DRDO attempting to build all this capability?

Yes. At the moment, we are building only two or three AEW&Cs. But we see a good potential for this to be used by the Navy and the Coast Guard, besides the IAF, and may be later by the Army aviation along the coast and the borders. The technology elements that will be learnt through this process will enable us to integrate or network this in the bigger systems obtained from abroad. This is the second type of capability we are generating. [The first type is the spectrum of vehicles.]

The third is Nishant, the unmanned aerial vehicle we have built. It has done very well. But we are struggling to produce it in numbers because the production partner is not yet identified. The [DRDO] laboratory is doing the production. We are looking forward to encouraging greater private participation so that more Nishants can be produced in a shorter span of time.

As we graduate, we are going to take up a project, the medium altitude long-endurance aircraft [version] of the UAV, in which we would like to bring in an Indian company, either private or public or a consortium, in the design phase itself so that it can become the builder of this system and pick up the domain knowledge associated with such equipment. There are good prospects for doing this today.

If this experiment succeeds, and I am sure it will, given the efforts that the DRDO is taking, we can build high-altitude UAVs, which will be required in reasonable numbers by the country. If all these are to succeed, technologies in distinct areas such as control and guidance, flight control systems, avionics systems, electronic warfare systems, airborne radars and so on will have to be concurrently developed. Efforts are on in most of these technologies and they are in different stages of development.

Are efforts under way in these areas in the DRDO?

In DRDO. If you build and test your own systems, you will be on a much stronger wicket in future to seek a meaningful collaboration for joint development. From what I have described, you can see what wonderful opportunities will open up for Indian industry, if only it has the patience and perseverance to get into domain knowledge and demonstrate its initiative and business acumen to carry forward these tasks. For the country to progress, the DRDO and industry have to sing a duet. I am hopeful it will happen.

What do you have to say to the criticism of time and cost overruns in several projects?

Let me be frank. If you look at most of our developmental programmes, I agree that we have taken two or three-fold more time than envisaged. But during the same period, there has been a continual upgrading of technology. The difficulty was that because of the delay, there was a moving goalpost. But while trying to reach the moving goalpost, we tried to upgrade the technology.

The problem was that for these first-off systems, the technology readiness level was inadequate and certain technologies had to be concurrently developed. This is true of any country that ventures to build systems for the first time.

Most people take note of a numerically quoted figure of the project value and the start date, a closing figure and a closing date, and try to decode a multiplication factor thereof, and say that the project cost had gone up by so many times. This is a simplistic way of passing judgement that does not speak the truth.

Financial pundits will say that the time-delay is a cost-escalation even if all other things are perfect. I agree, but the way to judge these projects is not this. When you manufacture a product, you have a production run over a period of time. If you can justify the amortisation of the development [of the product] and it comes to a reasonable figure, consistent with the product of that type, there is every reason to be satisfied with it.

We have reasons to believe that our amortisations are pitifully low compared to many countries in the development arena. For example, if you take the INSAS [Indian National Small Arms System] rifle developed by the DRDO, about a million rifles have been produced until now. We spent less than Rs.20 crore to perfect it.

Rs.20 crore in modifying it?

No. It was the project cost. That is all. But we gave a production worth more than Rs.2,500 crore. What was amortisation [in this]? Just 1 per cent. Even if you take Arjun – I am deliberately quoting two extreme-end projects – we spent less than Rs.400 crore on its development. In a country that ends up building just 300 of these tanks – not a big number – you are talking of a production turnover close to Rs.5,000 crore. For a product [Arjun] of such complexity, its amortisation was ridiculously low.

Likewise, take the LCA, its project cost today is close to Rs.6,000 crore. Even if you spend another Rs.1,000 crore for adding some developmental entities, it will be Rs.7,000 crore. If you build 400 aircraft, – an aircraft today costs Rs.150 crore – it equals Rs.60,000 crore. The amortisation is just about 10 per cent. Worldwide, it is more than 25-30 per cent. Besides, the unit cost of any indigenously developed product is invariably favourable compared with the cost of any individual, imported equipment.

I want to assure you that while the DRDO will take its share of blame – it is not the only entity to be blamed – there are others in the decision-making process. Yet, I would not wish to pass on the blame to them. I take the blame for the delay but we are giving products at a reasonable cost and they can be sourced at economical prices.

Those in the industry and those who have had exposure to the DRDO know this well and there is no surprise that all big industries want to jump on to the defence bandwagon. I am sure Indian industries are now maturing through greater exposure to opportunities opening up for them and are seeing opportunities for capitalising on the DRDO’s knowledge and technology.

What the government spends on the DRDO is nothing but a subsidy to Indian industry, be it private, public or an ordnance factory. So DRDO sincerely looks forward to the day when industry, with its business acumen, knows how to capitalise on the DRDO.

The DRDO has come of age in missile development. How do you assess the success of the underwater missile Sagarika, the interceptor missile, Agni-II, Agni-I and Agni-III, Prithvi, Akash, Nag and BrahMos?

To the outside world, they may look like sudden successes. But there are no instant successes in a scientific activity. It is sustained effort and commitment in different disciplines that go into the integration of a missile, which has culminated in the success of a number of missile systems.

Elemental Technologies

Many elemental technologies that go into missiles, such as propulsion systems, airframe design, navigation, command and control systems, guidance systems, warheads and re-entry where applicable – all have reached a maturity for a given design and for the level of technology that we have planned so far. They have been integrated into successful systems. It is like a perfect meal…. It is difficult to describe whether these missions are entirely scientific or partly art.

The challenge now will be to take forward the technological gains by making improvements in each elemental technology, which will cumulatively give us advantages in terms of longer-range, lesser-weight, more-efficient propulsion, compact and reliable margins and so on. I am sure that all this will happen in the coming decade with newer seekers, fibre optics, ring-laser gyros, light-weight, high-strength materials, and polymeric materials in propulsion systems.

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby JaiS » 13 Aug 2008 03:14

Hawks Built in India Cost Less: Defence Ministry

NEW DELHI - India has built the British Hawk Advanced Jet Trainer (AJT) at facilities of state-owned Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd. (HAL) at rates nearly 20 percent less than those built by BAE Systems, said a senior Indian Defence Ministry official.

The first HAL-built Hawk is ready for delivery to the Indian Air Force on Aug. 14, the official said, adding that the cost of the HAL-built Hawk is about $14.2 million per aircraft while the Hawks built by BAE cost more than $20.2 million.

So far, BAE Systems has flown in 12 Hawks to India. The aircraft are stationed at Air Force Station Bidar, in the southern state of Karnataka. All 24 Hawks were to have been delivered by June, but that schedule has been delayed.

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby A Sharma » 13 Aug 2008 03:50

Enhancing life

THE Life Sciences and Human Resources group of the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) provides the lifeline to soldiers, whether they are posted in the desert sands of Rajasthan, the benumbing cold of Siachen, the micro-environs of bunkers or are flying in their combat aircraft.

The nine laboratories are Defence Agricultural Research Laboratory (DARL), Pithoragarh, Uttarakhand; Field Research Laboratory (FRL), Leh, Jammu and Kashmir; Defence Food Research Laboratory (DFRL), Mysore, and Defence Bio-Engineering & Electro-Medical Laboratory (DEBEL), Bangalore, both in Karnataka; Defence Research Laboratory (DRL), Tezpur, Assam; Defence Research & Development Establishment (DRDE), Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh; Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences (DIPAS), Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (INMAS) and Defence Institute of Psychological Research (DIPR), all in New Delhi.

Sample these two research activities of the DIPAS. In the circular Human Decompression Chamber, a soldier is subjected to a simulated environment of an altitude of 20,000 feet (6,000 metres) and -20° Celsius. When a solider sits in the Human Climatic Chamber, the temperature rises to a burning 42°C and winds gust up. The soldier’s heartbeat, blood pressure and other physiological parameters are monitored. In the selection of soldiers and officers for the armed forces, the DRDO has laid down standards based on rigorous research and arrived at minimum physical standards for different States and ethnic populations.

These laboratories formulate nutritious ration-scales; develop life-support systems for paratroopers dropped from a height of 30,000 feet (9,000 m); design the cockpit of the Light Combat Aircraft Tejas or the driver’s compartment of the main battle tank Arjun; develop self-heating gloves and socks for soldiers in Siachen and bio-digesters to treat human waste at that height; and work on bio-diesel.
Innovative Products

The products of the laboratories include the FRL’s vitamin-rich Leh Berry juice and herbal tea, the DFRL’s bottled Cocojal (tender coconut water), preserved chappatis, processed vegetables, ready-to-eat pulav mix, and instant rice and coconut chutney. The DARL has developed an ointment for leucoderma and a herbal anti-eczema ointment Eczit, while the DIPAS has come up with Alocal, an aloe vera-based cream to treat frostbite. More than three lakh bottles of Alocal have so far been sent to soldiers at high altitudes. Other products include the DRDE’s kit to detect water-poisoning in the event of nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) warfare and NBC filters, the DRL’s kit to remove iron and arsenic from water, the DEBEL’s NBC respiratory mask and the INMAS’ titanium bone plates and screws, titanium dental implants, and light-weight foldable stretchers.

W. Selvamurthy, Chief Controller of R&D (Life Sciences and Human Resources), said: “These laboratories look into the needs of the men behind the weapons. We have 380 scientists. The mission is to enhance the survivability of these men. Our troops operate in high altitudes, deserts, under water, and in aerospace, closed micro-environment and areas of low-intensity conflict. We have to sustain them in these conditions, optimise their efficiency, and give them the kill power.”

If nutrition is a key area that these laboratories work on, they are on another wicket developing clothing such as flying overalls for soldiers in the Indian Air Force, impermeable NBC suits, escape suits for submariners, and anti-G suits for pilots.

The Recruitment and Assessment Centre (RAC) of the DRDO has set up Darpan, a permanent exhibition at its premises in New Delhi to showcase the DRDO’s research and technological strength for researchers, job seekers and visitors from India and abroad. The architect of this exhibition is Sanjay Pal, Additional Director, RAC. A highlight of Darpan is the showcasing of the progress made in explosives and propellants by the High Energy Materials Research Laboratory in Pune.

According to the RAC’s Director Arun Kumar, the centre recruits 600-700 scientists every year in 22 areas. “In 2008, we have so far recruited 40 PhDs in various engineering disciplines, life sciences and psychology. We recruit non-resident Indians through video-conferencing,” Arun Kumar added.
Extreme conditions

R.S. Sawhney, Director, Directorate of Life Sciences pointed out that the operational needs of the Indian armed forces forced them to work not only under the sea, where hyperbaria or high pressure of the water column could limit human performance, but also at altitudes of 9,000-20,000 feet in the eastern and western Himalayas, where low oxygen affects a soldier’s physical and mental performance. The Siachen glacier, where even the day temperature remains below zero almost throughout the year, is manned by the Army. Soldiers face freezing temperatures up to minus 50°C low oxygen level, blizzards, and shelling from the enemy.

On sudden induction to high altitude, the soldier faces problems such as acute mountain sickness, high-altitude pulmonary oedema [HAPO], and high-altitude cerebral oedema, explained Sawhney and Alka Chatterjee, who also belongs to the Directorate of Life Sciences. HAPO and cerebral oedema could be lethal and require immediate evacuation to lower heights. These problems appear less severe when troops are inducted gradually by road to high altitudes instead of sudden induction by air.

A three-stage acclimatisation schedule developed by the DRDO equipped the armed forces to battle these and reduce casualties to a large extent. Nevertheless, a resting period of five days became essential before the troops could be deployed for any active operation, added Sawhney and Alka Chatterjee.

During the 1962 India-China conflict, HAPO and cold injuries such as frostbite and chilblains took a heavy toll on the Indian troops. To circumvent these problems, the life sciences laboratories developed the HAPO bag, a life-support system, which could reduce the hypoxic effects and provide time for evacuating the troops to safer heights. Once inside the bag, the patient will feel as if he or she were at an altitude of 8,000 feet although it may be 18,000 feet. All the patho-physiological changes which led to HAPO will be reversed and the soldier ca n be evacuated to the field hospital.

Selvamurthy said: “The system developed by us to administer nitric oxide and oxygen to HAPO patients has been able to save more than 300 lives till date. We have developed a new treatment for protection against cold injuries, which may lead to amputation of affected parts. A combination of pentoxyphylline, aspirin, and vitamin C with application of Alocal has proved to be the most effective treatment.” Alocal’s allopathic version is Prefros.

The DRDO has not stopped here. When soldiers march from the base camp to the Siachen glacier, they can soon wear gloves and socks heated by battery cells. These gloves and socks are under evaluation.

The laboratories have developed life support systems for paratroopers dropped from aircraft at an altitude of 30,000 feet to escape detection by the enemy’s radars and surveillance systems. Since the temperature at that altitude will be minus 50°C, the paratroopers need warm clothing, light-weight oxygen cylinders and so on. While an imported system will cost Rs.12 lakh, the DRDO-developed system costs only Rs.4.5 lakh.

The DIPAS, headed by G. Ilavazhagan, has done some innovative work for protection against noise-induced hearing loss (NIHO). Its carbogen breathing system has helped to combat NIHO among men and women working at airfields, in the engine rooms of the navy’s ships and so on.

The INMAS, headed by Rajendra Prashad Tripathi, does clinical and fundamental research in non-invasive imaging, development of radio and magneto pharmaceuticals, thyroid research, and development of synthetic and herbal drugs for biological protection and health care.

What is amazing is the variety of processed, ready-to-eat food products developed by the FRL and the DFRL. Selvamurthy said, “Every year we transfer 10 technologies in [the] food sector alone to industry…. We have developed a self-heating pouch for warm food. The food packet is kept inside a pouch in which calcium oxide touches water, generates exo-thermic reaction and the food is warmed up. The soldier can eat warm food at -40°C.”

Tejas’ cockpit design, the pilot’s anti-G suit, helmet, face mask and oxygen mask were developed by the life sciences laboratories.

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby shetty » 13 Aug 2008 16:01

I am posting some of the comments from Shiv's blog regarding some of the Sen Gupta's lies. I thought they were telling comments which needed to be posted.

The Truth about the Rohini radar (from Prasun K Sengupta)

Ravi said...

Hi Shiv,

Prasun has been barking up the wrong tree for a long while and his claims are an absolute farce.

PIT didnt provide any technology "buy out" for LRDE to avail of.

The LRDE actually ran a phased array project called Project Vajra, ask any of us at LRDE for details, and that led to the CAR project.

DRDO was aware of PITs radar work and asked if they were interested in taking project Vajra further. The aim was to now take the phased array project and make a Planar array radar with a brand new array that would be lighter. PIT showed their own work in this regard and agreed, they had been tapped by the Polish Govt to develop a new series of radars as well.

The joint effort of both organizations was the the 3D CAR for DRDO, and the TRS-19 for Poland.

Both radars are different, and use different signal processing units.

The item common to both radars is the basic design of the planar array antenna, which scans (electronically) in elevation, and rotates for azimuth coverage.

PIT has not developed the TRS-19 further, but have concentrated on other derivatives for long range theater coverage.

PIT also ran a tender for its own separate maritime surveillance project, and purchased LRDE's antennas (slotted array) for the same.

In India, DRDO developed the 3D CAR into the Rohini. For this radar, Astra Microwave and DRDO developed new microwave components and L&T was roped in for a new rotational assembly, for the radar to make it sufficiently compact for IAF usage. The signal processing and radar data processing was designed and developed by a team led by the Late Dr Radhakrishnan of LRDE, and Dr Cleetus (ex head, LRDE). The Rohini and Revathi are completely DRDO's babies, they in fact, dont even use the original planar array developed with PIT, but a brand new one able to handle increased power, as well as an all new digital beamformer.

The Revathi in fact, is even more sophisticated. It uses a completely de novo bi axis stabilisation system again developed by the DRDO in specific for the Navy. This is because the Revathi is intended for the Navy, and needs to be stabilised.

Reading some of the responses above, and your uncritical acceptance of the bilge that Prasun writes, is saddening.

For one, give credit where credit is due.

The Rohini is an all Indian radar developed by the DRDO, with extensive time consuming involvement by the Indian Air Force, the user. It is no off the shelf import, knocked together as license assembly under fancy terms of import of technology or technology buyout.

For more details about the DRDO's radar technology, please do look at the DRDO techfocus about the same.

Prasun is habitually unreliable when it comes to talking about the DRDO or for that matter about most matters relating to Indian defence.

Case in point, please ask him for any corroborative proof about the absolute nonsense he wrote about India corroborating with Taiwan for ramjet based missiles, and for all the hoopla about India making all sorts of fancy weapons. In his latest article, he went so far as to call the BEL WLR an active phased array radar. The man does not even know the difference between a PESA and an AESA, the former of which the Rajendra based WLR is!

Each of his articles is actually different in "Facts" from the other, merely inventing stuff on the fly to impress a not too critical audience.

Most defence professionals have long got used to these incredibly jingoistic and nonsensical claims from Tempur. Unfortunately, Force continues to carry them without due investigation.


My dear friend, this is completely honest.

The Rohini has been designed by LRDE, and has been concurrently engineered by BEL. This is a new methodology which BEL has adopted for several of recent projects with DRDO, where successive improvement are included in product line itself. Astra in Hyderabad has developed several LRU including critical receiver assemblies to LRDE design. L&T has actually made the entire stabilised rotational platform in record time for this project. In Hyderabad, ECIL has actually integrated the entire display system. partners in private sector have also worked on improving original 3D CARs hardware to satisfaction of user with LRDE. In fact, brand new processing unit has been done to make use of latest available technology.

I am aware of what Shri Prasun writes. Unfortunately, it is mostly wrong and nonsense. In last article he has called our Rajendra AESA which is a huge joke, and according to him, whole world is busy giving us technology, including Taiwan, which will make any DRDO person or user laugh at how ridiculous his words are.

best regards,
Ravi


Dear Freind,

First technology cannot be purchased and used just like that. This is common misconception which is read only in newsmagazines and defence magazines

It has to be developed with involvement and with user acceptance. Otherwise, you get only LRU which is of limited use and is not of good value for long term project

In DRDO, the plan is to only go for those item which is either too long to develop in India, or too expensive to develop from basic, or which can be leveraged into more development items.

What this means is that extensive involvement is done. You cannot just buy technology and use it because you dont understand it.

So the option is to codevelop and use joint research on some specific item and make rest in India, and then develop the rest more and replace with indian IP as requirements need the same.

User also has say at every level if it is user specific project and not a technology development project.

So this is why "Prasun BS" approach doesnt work. DRDO cannot just buy out technology and call its own. It is useless. You cannot even integrate such technology with own equipment because your own equipment will not at all work with bought out technology designed for other system

this is also why HAL MMR had problems. By time, airborne tests showed ground mapping mode was full of bugs it was not useful to even purchase OTS module for mapping from OEMs since OEM module will not work for MMR

earlier SAAB ERICCSON had offered help which was also refused for same reason because MMR work required too much time to use SAAB Software

So you see you cannot just buy and use unlike what this fellow Prasun believes

I hope this answers your question.

Best regards,
Ravi


Ravi said...

Presently LRDE is also working on many new Radar for user which will make suitable impact when released. I hope you, my friends will be suitably happy with developments. Once this is done within coming 2 years, India will be 80 percent self reliant in radars. These are new generation, frequency agile, 3D Radars with electronic scanning. WLR has also gone through trials successfully and user is very satisfied with the same and will be standard radar in the role for the user.


There is this doubt that it is GreenPine re-branded. Also the range of this radar mentioned on public domain is very confusing..

It is not GreenPine

DRDO worked with Israel to make own radar specific for ABM program.

The range is sufficient for long range gating and acquisition, and yes range specifics is not mentioned publically for LRTR or tom-tomed because it will give a clear idea of system growth capability

Also this radar is considered AESA, while we seem to be struggling with that technology. If I am not wrong, many international firms extending invites for participation on AESA joint ventures means, India is lacking somewhere.

friend, we are not struggling with AESA. Thanks to rajendra program and project AKASH we are now sufficiently aware of and capable with electronic scanning radars.
What we are to sufficiently grow in is airborne radar for fast moving platform like fighter jets. This is entirely qualitatively different field than system for long range surveillance based on stationary platform (AKASH, Program AD) and even air based surveillance system which are not on fast moving jets of speed like fighter aircraft
fighter jet radar are having stabilisation plus long range multi surveillance modes in compact package with anti clutter measures
This is area where some 8 OEMs are having experience in worldwide

This is where foreign OEM are offering cooperation and not just in AESA systems where we have indeed got sufficient growth capability and experience


Actually how good is this radar? how many would we need for a BMD?

LRTR is worldclass system, and one is required for every deployment which can have different battery attached depending on threat

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby sum » 13 Aug 2008 18:55

this is also why HAL MMR had problems. By time, airborne tests showed ground mapping mode was full of bugs it was not useful to even purchase OTS module for mapping from OEMs since OEM module will not work for MMR

What is the current status of the MMR? anyone?

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby A Sharma » 14 Aug 2008 05:55

From L&T annual report

A Strategic Systems Complex has been commissioned at Talegaon to cater to integration needs of Weapon Systems and Sensors. Construction of a Precision Manufacturing Facility at Coimbatore to serve the needs of Aerospace, Aviation, Nuclear Power and sub-systems for Missiles is nearing completion.

A “Warship & Submarine Design Center” was set up to strengthen the design & engineering capabilities for construction of naval vessels. The Division gives special emphasis on continuous adaptation/development of manufacturing technology, modification of existing products and development of new products through its “Technology Development Centers”.

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby SSridhar » 15 Aug 2008 19:04

Interview with M.Natarajan, DG of DRDO

The DRDO is celebrating its golden jubilee this year. What is its road map, say, for the next 25 years?

The DRDO is one arm of the Ministry of Defence devoted to science and technology development. We get a small portion of the defence budget, which is at present around 6.13 per cent. What is not known to many is that 40 per cent of the DRDO’s budget goes towards the development of strategic systems, essential for the country to maintain the requisite balance in defence preparedness. Close to a third of our budget goes towards salaries, infrastructure and training. So what most people know about the DRDO is based either on an appreciation or depreciation of one-third of our budget, spent on the development of the tactical systems for our armed forces.

The DRDO, with its chain of 50 laboratories, is specialising in a wide range of disciplines from life sciences to aerospace. When you list them in terms of sciences, engineering and technology, they may number more than the DRDO laboratories. However, the number of DRDO scientists and technical staff is too meagre to cater for the entire spectrum of products required by the armed forces.

This must be appreciated because this is not understood even by those in authority. We are a small team. Therefore, we have to stay focussed on select areas and this is what we are trying to define to the government that the remaining has to be acquired by industries or through other channels. There are many good defence public sector undertakings and ordnance factories, which have matured over the years, and they could supply certain products to the armed forces either through their own development or in collaboration with others. This will supplement DRDO laboratories as well.

This puts DRDO in a tight spot as to how it should strike a balance between what it wants to develop, its aspirations for carrying technology forward in niche areas, and how to network with the industry.

Take for example, aeronautics. We are into a programme for the LCA. What started off as one project has become three: LCA for the Indian Air Force [IAF] and the Navy and a trainer version of the LCA. This trainer will be far superior to the Hawk, with the kind of advanced features that it will have, especially in avionics….

Naturally, when we draw a road map, we see the fructification of these three taking us to a medium combat aircraft, a multi-role combat aircraft with fifth generation technologies, where there can be commonality of parts with LCA in avionics or radar, and eventually, 15 years from now, building an unmanned aerial combat vehicle [UACV].
Range of vehicles

So, if one looks at just this spectrum of vehicles, five in number, I see a good potential to build all together, about 1,000 aircraft, over a period of time. The LCA could be 400 in number for the IAF, 100 for the Navy; the trainer could be 150; the medium combat aircraft 250; and 100-150 for the UACVs.

Since the design is ours, with a largely open architecture system, we have the comfort of adding values in avionics, radar systems, control and guidance systems as we go along, besides making improvements in the materials for construction, particularly in composites and the manufacturing processes thereof.

With the limited team we have today, including our partners in the industry, even to accomplish this will be an achievement. I, therefore, do not see any conflict between what the HAL [Hindustan Aeronautics Limited] and the private industries will have to do in jointly developing military transport aircraft, helicopters, cargo-lifters and heavy combat aircraft such as Sukhoi because these are the spectrum of aircraft that the IAF will need.

Likewise, we have taken airborne early warning and control [AEW&C] system on a smaller platform such as the Embraer aircraft. [The AEW&C system will be integrated to the EMB-145 aircraft for India by 2011.] It has got limited range, may be 250-300 km. But we will stay focussed in building the AEW&C radar indigenously, including its essential systems such as transmitter-receiver modules, antennae and the entire processing apart from its navigation, communication and intelligence mechanisms, including electronic warfare systems that it may feature.

Is the DRDO attempting to build all this capability?



Yes. At the moment, we are building only two or three AEW&Cs. But we see a good potential for this to be used by the Navy and the Coast Guard, besides the IAF, and may be later by the Army aviation along the coast and the borders. The technology elements that will be learnt through this process will enable us to integrate or network this in the bigger systems obtained from abroad. This is the second type of capability we are generating. [The first type is the spectrum of vehicles.]

The third is Nishant, the unmanned aerial vehicle we have built. It has done very well. But we are struggling to produce it in numbers because the production partner is not yet identified. The [DRDO] laboratory is doing the production. We are looking forward to encouraging greater private participation so that more Nishants can be produced in a shorter span of time.

As we graduate, we are going to take up a project, the medium altitude long-endurance aircraft [version] of the UAV, in which we would like to bring in an Indian company, either private or public or a consortium, in the design phase itself so that it can become the builder of this system and pick up the domain knowledge associated with such equipment. There are good prospects for doing this today.

If this experiment succeeds, and I am sure it will, given the efforts that the DRDO is taking, we can build high-altitude UAVs, which will be required in reasonable numbers by the country. If all these are to succeed, technologies in distinct areas such as control and guidance, flight control systems, avionics systems, electronic warfare systems, airborne radars and so on will have to be concurrently developed. Efforts are on in most of these technologies and they are in different stages of development.

Are efforts under way in these areas in the DRDO?

In DRDO. If you build and test your own systems, you will be on a much stronger wicket in future to seek a meaningful collaboration for joint development. From what I have described, you can see what wonderful opportunities will open up for Indian industry, if only it has the patience and perseverance to get into domain knowledge and demonstrate its initiative and business acumen to carry forward these tasks. For the country to progress, the DRDO and industry have to sing a duet. I am hopeful it will happen.

What do you have to say to the criticism of time and cost overruns in several projects?

Let me be frank. If you look at most of our developmental programmes, I agree that we have taken two or three-fold more time than envisaged. But during the same period, there has been a continual upgrading of technology. The difficulty was that because of the delay, there was a moving goalpost. But while trying to reach the moving goalpost, we tried to upgrade the technology.

The problem was that for these first-off systems, the technology readiness level was inadequate and certain technologies had to be concurrently developed. This is true of any country that ventures to build systems for the first time.

Most people take note of a numerically quoted figure of the project value and the start date, a closing figure and a closing date, and try to decode a multiplication factor thereof, and say that the project cost had gone up by so many times. This is a simplistic way of passing judgement that does not speak the truth.

Financial pundits will say that the time-delay is a cost-escalation even if all other things are perfect. I agree, but the way to judge these projects is not this. When you manufacture a product, you have a production run over a period of time. If you can justify the amortisation of the development [of the product] and it comes to a reasonable figure, consistent with the product of that type, there is every reason to be satisfied with it.

We have reasons to believe that our amortisations are pitifully low compared to many countries in the development arena. For example, if you take the INSAS [Indian National Small Arms System] rifle developed by the DRDO, about a million rifles have been produced until now. We spent less than Rs.20 crore to perfect it.

Rs.20 crore in modifying it?


No. It was the project cost. That is all. But we gave a production worth more than Rs.2,500 crore. What was amortisation [in this]? Just 1 per cent. Even if you take Arjun – I am deliberately quoting two extreme-end projects – we spent less than Rs.400 crore on its development. In a country that ends up building just 300 of these tanks – not a big number – you are talking of a production turnover close to Rs.5,000 crore. For a product [Arjun] of such complexity, its amortisation was ridiculously low.

Likewise, take the LCA, its project cost today is close to Rs.6,000 crore. Even if you spend another Rs.1,000 crore for adding some developmental entities, it will be Rs.7,000 crore. If you build 400 aircraft, – an aircraft today costs Rs.150 crore – it equals Rs.60,000 crore. The amortisation is just about 10 per cent. Worldwide, it is more than 25-30 per cent. Besides, the unit cost of any indigenously developed product is invariably favourable compared with the cost of any individual, imported equipment.

I want to assure you that while the DRDO will take its share of blame – it is not the only entity to be blamed – there are others in the decision-making process. Yet, I would not wish to pass on the blame to them. I take the blame for the delay but we are giving products at a reasonable cost and they can be sourced at economical prices.

Those in the industry and those who have had exposure to the DRDO know this well and there is no surprise that all big industries want to jump on to the defence bandwagon. I am sure Indian industries are now maturing through greater exposure to opportunities opening up for them and are seeing opportunities for capitalising on the DRDO’s knowledge and technology.

What the government spends on the DRDO is nothing but a subsidy to Indian industry, be it private, public or an ordnance factory. So DRDO sincerely looks forward to the day when industry, with its business acumen, knows how to capitalise on the DRDO.

The DRDO has come of age in missile development. How do you assess the success of the underwater missile Sagarika, the interceptor missile, Agni-II, Agni-I and Agni-III, Prithvi, Akash, Nag and BrahMos?

To the outside world, they may look like sudden successes. But there are no instant successes in a scientific activity. It is sustained effort and commitment in different disciplines that go into the integration of a missile, which has culminated in the success of a number of missile systems.

Many elemental technologies that go into missiles, such as propulsion systems, airframe design, navigation, command and control systems, guidance systems, warheads and re-entry where applicable – all have reached a maturity for a given design and for the level of technology that we have planned so far. They have been integrated into successful systems. It is like a perfect meal…. It is difficult to describe whether these missions are entirely scientific or partly art.

The challenge now will be to take forward the technological gains by making improvements in each elemental technology, which will cumulatively give us advantages in terms of longer-range, lesser-weight, more-efficient propulsion, compact and reliable margins and so on. I am sure that all this will happen in the coming decade with newer seekers, fibre optics, ring-laser gyros, light-weight, high-strength materials, and polymeric materials in propulsion systems.


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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby SSridhar » 15 Aug 2008 19:08

Arming India

Chronicles DRDO's achievements

Enhancing Life

Describes the Life Sciences lab of DRDO

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby KSubramanian » 16 Aug 2008 19:31

Some interesting news on making the Armed forces a stakeholder from just a user today:

Armed forces to fund DRDO projects

Army not happy with the decision of it having to fund 10 per cent of the cost.

The Ministry of Defence’s (MoD’s) highest body, the Defence Acquisition Council (DAC), has handed a significant victory to the Defence Research & Development Organisation (DRDO) in its long-running quest to get the defence services to fund research and development (R&D) into high-technology military projects. As a result, the services could soon begin contributing 10 per cent of the cost of developing indigenous military systems.

So far, the DRDO has funded such projects — which include successes like the Dhruv helicopter, the Agni ballistic missile and the Arjun tank — entirely from its budget.

“The DAC has agreed in principle that such projects should be funded in a 70-20-10 per cent ratio: 70 per cent by the DRDO, 20 per cent by the industry partner that will manufacture the developed product; and 10 per cent by whichever of the three services the product is being developed for,” senior MoD officials told Business Standard.

That 10 per cent liability for the military will amount to no more than Rs 300 crore a year, which is a small fraction of the Rs 30,000 crore spent annually on foreign arms. But the DRDO hopes that this relatively small amount will transform what it calls an unduly critical approach of the military towards home-grown military products. A 10 per cent ownership, the DRDO believes, will transform the military from a detached and demanding buyer into a stakeholder, which regards the projects as its own.

The military is unhappy with this decision. Sources in the tri-service Integrated Defence Staff say the army argued forcefully against the proposal, when it was discussed in the MoD.

The DRDO chief, M Natarajan, admitted recently the behind-the-scenes battles that preceded this decision. But he underplayed the benefits to the DRDO, telling a gathering of the defence manufacturers that the private sector and defence PSUs would be equal beneficiaries.

Natarajan said, “The DRDO has certainly demanded this, but it is equally applicable to the private sector and the public sector undertakings.”

The defence minister said that while he appreciates the DRDO’s concerns, he would also like to take on board the views of the services. “So the proposal was considered carefully and finally the DAC has given its approval. I think this is a very significant development,” the minister said.

But the new funding pattern has not been included in the new Defence Procurement Policy (DPP-2008), which will come into effect from September 1. The DPP-2008 gives the DRDO responsibility to develop “strategic, complex and security sensitive systems”, which include ballistic missiles and electronic warfare systems that are not normally up for sale. These will continue to be funded entirely by the DRDO.

The new 70-20-10 per cent funding pattern applies to what the DPP-2008 categorises as “High Technology Complex Systems”, which include advanced systems like tanks, fighters and helicopters, which could be bought internationally, but which the MoD wants the domestic industry to develop. The DPP-2008, however, excludes the DRDO from this category, reserving it for “RuRs/Indian industry/DPSUs/OFB/Consortia”.

A similar provision existed in the DPP-2006 but over the last two years only the DRDO has developed “High Technology Complex Systems”, such as the Dhruv helicopter, Light Combat Aircraft (LCA), and Arjun tank. Not a single project has been taken up by any private company or DPSU. In addition, under the “Strategic, Complex and Security Sensitive Systems” category, the DRDO has developed several variants of the Agni missile and electronic warfare systems like the Samyukta.

Senior army sources say they intend to fight the DAC decision on joint funding. The military has already pointed out that the DPP-2008 does not mention the DRDO as eligible to develop “High Technology Complex Systems”. The DRDO admits that the new decision could face delays in implementation if the military decides to stonewall it, citing the DPP-2008.

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby sum » 16 Aug 2008 21:41

Senior army sources say they intend to fight the DAC decision on joint funding. The military has already pointed out that the DPP-2008 does not mention the DRDO as eligible to develop “High Technology Complex Systems”. The DRDO admits that the new decision could face delays in implementation if the military decides to stonewall it, citing the DPP-2008.

:-?

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby bala » 17 Aug 2008 01:29

HAL to make India’s first passenger aeroplane

Image
The Saras plane -- named after the Indian crane --is still under development, with two prototypes undergoing flight trials.

State-run military plane maker Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd, or HAL, will produce India’s first passenger aircraft, after the Indian Air Force, or IAF, chose HAL over private sector companies such as Mahindra Aerospace and Larsen and Toubro Ltd (L&T).

IAF will be the first customer for the 14-seater, multi-role aircraft called Saras, which will be the first passenger plane to be designed and manufactured in the country. IAF has expressed interest in placing an order for 15 of the 35 Saras aircraft it requires for roles such as transporting VIPs and conducting aerial surveys.

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby Surya » 17 Aug 2008 01:34

Does anyone need further proof of the army's mentality?

The AF questions the price of Akash???

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby Rahul M » 17 Aug 2008 01:49

Surya wrote:Does anyone need further proof of the army's mentality?

The AF questions the price of Akash???

:?: :?:

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby Surya » 17 Aug 2008 03:28

Rahul

Previously reported that the IAF questioned the costs of Akash now that it passed all tests and is ready for production.

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby Paul » 17 Aug 2008 11:02

It is likely a canard floated by Shiv Aroor.

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby A Sharma » 19 Aug 2008 03:49

HAL Newspaper

SLRDC took up the critical task of developing VOR/ILS and TACAN in April 2003 with the target of project completion by March 2006. The VOR/ILS project was completed five months ahead of schedule, and the first production set was despatched against export order for MiG-29K. Flight trials for Su-30 and Jaguar were also completed by mid-2007. The 100th set was cleared by CRI in March 2008. The first TACAN was manufactured in March 2006 for Jaguar, and as on date 100 sets have been cleared by CRI. The design reliability of the systems has been proved by the quick set up of the production line and its stabilization, and almost zero customer complaints.

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby sunilUpa » 20 Aug 2008 01:25

In aircraft engine development, you cannot set a timeline :shock:

Bangalore: Nearly 20 years after it promised an indigenous engine to power India’s light combat aircraft Tejas, the Gas Turbine Research Establishment, or GTRE, the country’s sole aero engine design house, is now seeking outside help.
It has chosen French aircraft engine maker Snecma SA to jointly build an engine to replace Kaveri, a project named after the river in southern India. T. Mohana Rao, director of GTRE, a unit of the Defence Research and Development Organisation, explains why it had to choose a partner and talks about the future of the Kaveri programme. Edited Excerpts:
What is the status of the Kaveri engine development project?
We have a functional engine, but there is a slight shortfall in performance. It has achieved dry thrust of 4,600kg and reheat thrust of 7,000kg in Bangalore, which is around 3,000ft above sea level. So, it would be around 5,000kg dry thrust and 7,500kg reheat thrust at sea level. The engine is short of thrust by 400kg and overweight by around 150kg. Also, we still have to perform long- endurance tests of the engine to run for many hours.
Does this mean the engine for the light combat aircraft would be further delayed?
In aircraft engine development, particularly when you are doing it for the first time, you cannot set a timeline. We could take five or six years. The Indian Air Force (IAF) cannot wait for an engine for that long, and the government said if there is any engine house that we can partner, we could go ahead and do a joint venture on risk-sharing basis.
Only NPO Saturn and Snecma responded of the five. General Electric Co., Rolls-Royce Plc. and Pratt and Whitney declined. Nearly two-and-a-half years after we started the process, we have identified Snecma. The government told us to consult IAF and decide on the air staff requirements before we sign a contract.
Has Snecma given a timeline for the new engine?
Snecma will bring its (engine) core that is named Eco. A core, which comprise a compressor, combustor and high-pressure turbine, is the heart of any jet engine. The engine will have less weight and more reheat thrust along with certain other changes to meet the original design intent. They will have a workshare of 45%, and ours would be 55%. Nearly 85% of the manufacturing would be within the country. The engine would be certified for fitting in the aircraft in around four years. Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd will produce the engine and all future aircraft engines in India would be from the joint venture.
But why so late? Couldn’t you have gone for a global partner much earlier and avoided delays?
It was a decision by the government. When Kaveri was conceived, India did not have a design base for aero engines, except for some work we had done earlier. Globally, they first pick an engine and then build the aircraft. Here, we decided that by the time the light combat aircraft was ready, we should have our own engine. The engine (supplied by General Electric) currently powering the aircraft is inferior to Kaveri’s specifications.
IAF wanted us to build a highly stable engine with a digital computer to control it, and a two-lane manual reversion (a backup for the first time in the world). Rolls-Royce and GE validated our design. Now we have a design base, huge infrastructure and talent pool in engines. We could not have built this if we had not taken up this project.
What will happen to Kaveri and the work you have done?
The core of Kaveri is performing well. Because of the lower thrust, it cannot be used on combat aircraft. It can be used to power unmanned combat aerial vehicles. We have already demonstrated a marine version of Kaveri using diesel as fuel for the Indian navy. It can also be used as a large 12MW industrial genset for power generation.

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby SaiK » 27 Aug 2008 23:56

this news that DRDO asking for firang and other help to knowhow how to retain best talent, is like a husband asking his friends how to maintain best relationship with his extra beautiful better half.

:((

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby ramana » 29 Aug 2008 01:05

So what is the DRDO doing to improve the qty and quality of PGMs (aka smart bombs)for the IAF? In Kargil they showed the effectiveness.

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby ASPuar » 29 Aug 2008 02:39

Surya, I dont understand...

1. The armys mentality and that of the airforce are quite seperate.

2. If the price is more than they expected, why wouldnt they question it. If youre buying something, you want to get it for the best price possible, no?

3. The airforce, like the army has heavily suffered from DRDO delays, and is likely somewhat cheesed off too. The navy went the other route, and packed its projects chock full of Naval experts. Theyre having no problems with their indiginisation progs, for the most part (save dockyard delays).

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby ASPuar » 29 Aug 2008 02:41

KSubramanian wrote:Some interesting news on making the Armed forces a stakeholder from just a user today:


This is a nonstarter with the armed forces... Scuttlebutt has it that its been approved in principle, but several aphsars will eat a whole crow tandoori if it ever gets off the ground.

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby ramana » 29 Aug 2008 02:50

ASPuar wrote:
KSubramanian wrote:Some interesting news on making the Armed forces a stakeholder from just a user today:


This is a nonstarter with the armed forces... Scuttlebutt has it that its been approved in principle, but several aphsars will eat a whole crow tandoori if it ever gets off the ground.



But why? Dont they want to get the stuff they are suppsoed to get or is it case of wanting to sit on other side of fence and throw darts? Why dont they want to take the Navy approach and make things happen?

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby Venkarl » 29 Aug 2008 03:29

ramana wrote:
ASPuar wrote:
KSubramanian wrote:Some interesting news on making the Armed forces a stakeholder from just a user today:


This is a nonstarter with the armed forces... Scuttlebutt has it that its been approved in principle, but several aphsars will eat a whole crow tandoori if it ever gets off the ground.



But why? Dont they want to get the stuff they are suppsoed to get or is it case of wanting to sit on other side of fence and throw darts? Why dont they want to take the Navy approach and make things happen?


I believe Navy and DRDO will come up with a fine FGFA for Navy(like SHs in USN)..that might help....However,there should be a GO to all Defense forces to create a separate design wing which would actively be involved with DRDO team in various projects....allocating money out of forces' budget for development work will only attract opposition like now...

My 2 cents..


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