Aditya_V wrote:The question is why were they dependent on a single leader and why was the defeat not avenged , shows there was lack of institutional planning which continues to this day.
You may have confused Peshwa Madhavrao with someone else (probably his older brother Vishwasrao who died at Panipat) if you were talking about the defeat at Panipat. Madhavrao was only 16 at the time of Panipat and did not fight there. He became the Peshwa a few months after the battle of Panipat when his father, Peshwa Nanasaheb (aka Balaji Bajirao) died. His uncle Raghunathrao was made regent.
As for avenging the defeat, as Adrija has pointed out 10 years later the Marathas had got back their territory in the north and even occupied Delhi again. The Rohillas who had sided with Abdali were defeated by Mahadji Shinde in 1772-73 as well. Najib Khan Rohilla was already dead by then however, so the Marathas dug his bones out and destroyed his grave after defeating his son in battle.
Madhavrao's problems during his reign were mainly because of infighting with his uncle Raghunathrao. He would have achieved a lot more even in the short time he had had it not been for Raghunathrao scheming and going against him at every juncture, especially during their campaigns in the south against the Nizam and Hyder Ali.