Surviving Nuclear War

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Arun_S
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Re: Surviving Nuclear War

Postby Arun_S » 27 Dec 2008 07:22

p_saggu: Sorry boss those are heavy questions and I am busy with work.

RayC
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Re: Surviving Nuclear War

Postby RayC » 27 Dec 2008 14:12

DP deleted.

RayC
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Posts: 4333
Joined: 16 Jan 2004 12:31

Re: Surviving Nuclear War

Postby RayC » 27 Dec 2008 14:13

11 Steps to Survival
Canada Emergency Measures Organization
Department of National Defence
Blueprint for Survival No. 4

Make this your handbook for emergencies.

Keep it in a handy place so that you and your family can refer to it quickly should any emergency threaten.

Keep other emergency advice such as first aid and artificial respiration instructions, antidotes for poison, emergency telephone numbers, in the same place.
Introduction

The Canadian Government has joined other peace-minded nations in doing everything possible to reduce world tensions, to assist in the settlement of international disputes by peaceful means and to achieve disarmament with such controls as are necessary to preserve the security of all nations. However, the awesome threat of a major nuclear war involving North America remains a factor in plans for the defence of Canada.

The nature and scale of a possible nuclear attack on North America, and the extent to which Canada would be involved in such an attack, cannot be predicted with accuracy. Our major centres would be at some risk of deliberate attack, random explosions could occur, and there would be the certainty of the danger from widespread, radioactive fallout over most of the Country.

Governments at all levels have made, and are continuing to make, preparations which will reduce the number of casualties, safeguard survivors and contribute to the capacity of this nation to survive and recover from such a tragedy. The purpose of this booklet is to assist individuals and families in making personal survival plans and preparations to guard themselves against the potential dangers of nuclear war.

Many of the precautions which are recommended will serve a double purpose in that they will save lives in peacetime disasters such as flood, tornado, fire, hurricane, blizzard, ice storm or earthquake. Attention has been directed to this important feature throughout the various steps.

All Canadians are urged to read "11 Steps to Survival" with care to act on the advice it contains and to keep it handy for emergencies.

Although protected by Crown Copyright, the contents may be reproduced in whole or in part provided proper acknowledgment of the source is made.

The Queen's Printer
Ottawa, 1969
Cat. No. Id 83-1/4

The Eleven Steps to Survival

Governments and communities at all levels are planning for the survival of our Nation in the event of a nuclear war. But the survival of individuals also will depend upon the preparation that each person makes. Persons ready to take the right action before and following an attack will increase their chances of survival.

This pamphlet describes what YOU can do before and following a nuclear attack. You can greatly increase your family's and your own protection by taking the Eleven Steps to Survival:

* Step 1: Know the effects of nuclear explosions.
* Step 2: Know the facts about radioactive fallout.
* Step 3: Know the warning signal and have a battery-powered radio.
* Step 4: Know how to take shelter.
* Step 5: Have fourteen days emergency supplies.
* Step 6: Know how to prevent and fight fires.
* Step 7: Know first aid and home nursing.
* Step 8: Know emergency cleanliness.
* Step 9: Know how to get rid of radioactive dust.
* Step 10: Know your municipal plans.
* Step 11: Have a plan for your family and yourself.

Step 1: Know the Effects of Nuclear Explosions

A nuclear explosion releases vast amounts of energy in three forms:

1. Light and heat
2. Blast
3. Radiation

The amount of energy released depends upon the size and design of the weapon. A wide range of weapons and delivery systems are available to an aggressor and we have no way of knowing what size of explosions might take place in Canada. For illustration purposes, we describe in this pamphlet the effects of a 5-megaton H-bomb equal to the explosive force of five million tons of TNT. Such a bomb could substantially damage the largest Canadian city.

The effects depend upon whether the weapon is exploded high in the air, or on, or near the ground. An air burst usually produces more fire and blast-damage than a ground burst which results in a big crater and more radioactive fallout. The effects described below are approximate for a 5-megaton explosion and can only be approximate since effects depend upon a number of conditions such as weather, terrain, etc.
Air Burst
Ground Burst
Light and Heat

A blaze of light brighter than the sun is produced by a nuclear explosion. It lasts for about 15 seconds. Temporary blindness and eye injury can result from the glare if eyes are not shielded.

The heat rays from the explosion travel at the speed of light or about 186,000 miles per second. It can start fires up to 20 miles away. Many fires are caused when the heat pulse comes through a window to set fire to curtains, paper, clothing and furniture. The heat flash also can set fire to the outside of wooden buildings.

The following are some examples of the predictable effects on unprotected skin of the heat flash of a 5-megaton weapon exploded on a clear day:

* Skin is badly burned up to 15 miles from the explosion.
* Skin is blistered up to 18 miles from the explosion.
* Sunburn types of burns up to 23 miles from the explosion.

Nuclear explosions in the air rather than on the ground are more likely to produce a greater number of serious burns through the heat flash. Clothing will give some protection. A shield between you and the light will give protection against burns from the heat flash.
Effects on Buildings
Effects on Exposed People
Blast

The blast wave travels more slowly than the heat flash. Several seconds may pass after you have seen the light or felt the heat before the blast wave reaches you, depending on the distance you are from the explosion. It is like the time between seeing the flash of lightning and hearing the sound of thunder. For example, at ten miles from the centre of an explosion, it would take about 35 seconds for the blast wave to reach you. If caught in the open during a nuclear explosion, this time can be used to find some protection from the blast wave.

You might be injured by being thrown about by the blast; therefore, keep low. The greatest danger is from flying glass, bricks and other debris. The blast from a 5-megaton explosion could injure people as far away as 15 miles.
Blast

The kinds of damage that the blast can do to buildings are:

* Complete destruction of all buildings three miles from the centre of the explosion.
* Damage beyond repair to buildings three to five miles distant. They would have to be torn down.
* Major repairs required to buildings five to 10 miles distant before they could be occupied.
* Light to moderate damage to buildings 10 to 15 miles distant. They could be occupied during repairs.

A 20-megaton bomb increases the approximate ranges of damage described above to five, eight, sixteen and twenty-four miles.

These are approximate distances as the strength of buildings is not uniform. For example, reinforced concrete buildings are more blast resistant than wood frame structures. In some areas four miles away from the explosion, concrete buildings might be repairable, while wood frame buildings would be completely destroyed. Windows, of course, are very vulnerable and are apt to be blown in as far away as 25 miles from the explosion.
Radiation

A nuclear explosion causes both immediate radiation and residual radiation.

Immediate radiation is given off at the time of the explosion. It is dangerous only within two or three miles. If you were near the explosion without adequate protection and managed to survive the effects of blast and fire, you could still be seriously affected by immediate radiation.

Residual radiation is given off by the radioactive particles left as "fallout" after the explosion. The danger from fallout would be so great and widespread that it is discussed separately, in >Step 2.
Protection against Heat, Blast and Immediate Radiation

The illustrations below show some of the most probable situations in which you might find yourself at the time of a nuclear attack, and what you should do:
Protection against Heat, Blast and Immediate Radiation
Step 2: Know the Facts About Radioactive Fallout

If a nuclear weapon is exploded on, or near, the ground, danger from radioactive fallout is greatest. The force of the explosion may make a crater up to a mile wide and to a depth of one hundred feet. Millions of tons of pulverized earth, stones, buildings and other materials are drawn up into the fireball and become radioactive. Some of the heavier particles spill out around the point of explosion. The rest are sucked up into the mushroom cloud.

This radioactive material is then carried by winds until it settles to earth. This is called "Fallout". Under some circumstances you may see the fallout; under others you may not.

The radioactivity it gives off cannot be seen. You can't feel it. You can't smell it.

But fallout doesn't come out of the sky like a gas and seep into everything. It can best be described as a fine to coarse sand carried by the winds. Because the wind direction varies at different heights above the ground, it is not possible to judge from the ground where the fallout will settle. It can settle in irregular patterns hundreds of miles from the explosion.

The fallout from a 5-megaton explosion could affect seriously an area of 7,000 square miles. If nothing were done to gain protection during the period of high radioactivity, there would be a grave danger to life in that area.

Because fallout is carried so far and covers such a large area, it could be the greatest danger to the largest number of Canadians in a nuclear war. If Canada was not hit by nuclear bombs, those exploding in the United States close to our border could result in serious fallout in many parts of Canada.

There are four things which determine the amount of radiation reaching your body from fallout:

1. The time that has passed since the explosion.
2. The length of time you are exposed to fallout.
3. The distance you are from the fallout.
4. The shielding between you and the fallout.

Direction of Fallout at Various Altitudes
Fallout Spread
Time

The radioactivity in fallout weakens rapidly in the first hours after an explosion. This weakening is called "decay". After seven hours, fallout has lost about 90% of the strength it had one hour after the explosion. After two days it has lost 99%; in two weeks 99.9% of its strength is gone. Nevertheless, if the radiation at the beginning were high enough, the remaining 0.1% could be dangerous.

Radiation must be measured by special instruments handled by people trained to use them. But, if you stay in a shelter during the first days following an explosion, you escape the strongest radiation. You should stay in the shelter until radiation has been measured and you have been told aver the radio that it is safe to come out.
Radiation Decay Time
Distance

The strength of radiation reaching your body is reduced the farther you are from the fallout. Here are some illustrations of the safest place to be when you are in various kinds of buildings.
Distance
Shielding

The most effective protection is to place some heavy material between yourself and the fallout. The heavier the material the better the protection. Many common materials give excellent protection. The materials and design of the fallout shelter recommended in Blueprint for Survival No. 1 will stop penetration of 99% of outside radiation.

These thicknesses of material will stop 99% of radiation:

* 16 inches of solid brick
* 16 inches of hollow concrete blocks filled with mortar or sand
* 2 feet of packed earth Ä 3 feet if loose
* 5 inches of steel
* 3 inches of lead
* 3 feet of water

A fallout shelter is the best way to protect your family and yourself against radiation because:

* It keeps the radiation at a distance.
* It shields you from radiation.
* The time spent there is the period when radiation is most intense.

By providing your family and yourself with a fallout shelter, you are unlikely to suffer serious effects from radioactive fallout.
Shielding
Personal Danger from Fallout

Radioactive particles in contact with your skin for a few hours may produce burns. Follow Step 9 to prevent this danger.

Radioactive particles swallowed in food or water might be harmful. Follow Step 9 to prevent this danger.

Radioactivity from an area of fallout may produce illness in the unprotected individual after a few days. Follow Step 4 to prevent this danger.

Radiation illness develops slowly. It cannot be spread to other people. Except for temporary nausea shortly after exposure, evidence of serious effects from radiation may only appear after an interval of from a few days to three weeks. A combination of loss of hair, loss of appetite, increasing paleness, weakness, diarrhoea, sore throat, bleeding gums and easy bruising indicate that the individual requires medical attention. Nausea and vomiting may be caused by fright, worry, food poisoning, pregnancy and other common conditions.
Step 3: Know the Warning Signal and have a Battery-Powered Radio

All Canadian communities where there is a likely need are provided, or will be provided, with sirens. Other areas should have warning arrangements based on local systems such as telephones, horns, bells or factory whistles.

Warning devices are only attention-getters. Dependent on the size of your municipality, the sirens, bells, telephones, etc., will sound the Attack Warning.

There is one type of siren warning signal in Canada:
The ATTACK WARNING Signal

The ATTACK WARNING Signal: A wailing (undulating) tone on the sirens of three to five minutes duration or short blasts on horns or other devices repeated as necessary means:

* An attack on North America has been detected;
* Warning of fallout.

WHEN YOU HEAR THE WARNING SIGNAL, YOU SHOULD TAKE PROTECTIVE ACTION AND LISTEN TO THE RADIO FOR INSTRUCTIONS.
A Radio is Essential

When the Attack Warning sounds, you must take protective action. Take a battery-powered radio with you. Broadcast advice and instruction may help to save your life. If you don't have a portable radio, turn up the volume of your house radio so that it can be heard in your shelter. If away from home you are forced to take emergency shelter and are near a radio-equipped vehicle, turn up the volume and open all the vehicle's doors or windows.

The Canadian Emergency Broadcasting System, a network of all Canadian radio and television stations which will be formed when a nuclear attack on Canada has been detected, will tell you when and how to take emergency protective action against possible attack and shelter against fallout if an attack occurs.
broadcast_warning
Before Attack

If sirens or warning systems signal impending attack, regardless of where you are or what you are doing, you must take the best available cover against the blast, heat and light effects of nuclear explosions.

Emergency broadcast instructions will include the following advice:

* If you are at home go to the basement or strongest part of your house or building which offers the best protection. If material is handy, improvise blast protection. See Step 4.
* Take your battery radio with you, or turn up the house radio so that you can hear it while under cover.
* Stay away from windows.
* Lie down and protect yourself from flying glass and falling debris.
* Shield your eyes from the flash of an explosion.
* If you are away from home take protective cover immediately.
* If you are travelling, stop and take protective cover immediately, or if you are only a few minutes from a safe destination, proceed and take protective cover immediately.
* Listen to your radio for further instructions.

After Attack

If sirens or warning systems sound following nuclear attacks, the warning may mean another attack or that radioactive fallout is approaching your area. You will be advised over the radio. If the advice concerns fallout, you must take cover against the fallout effects. (See Step 4).

Radio broadcasts will identify areas which will be affected by the fallout and give instructions and advice. These might include:

* Location of nuclear explosions causing local fallout.
* Information about the parts of the country to be affected by fallout.
* Length of time before fallout is likely to reach specific communities or areas.
* Ways to increase fallout protection.
* Supplies to take to your fallout shelter.
* Whether it is safer to stay in your community or area, or to go to other areas.
* Advice as to which areas are free of danger.
* Advice on when to leave shelters and for how long as danger from radioactive contamination diminishes.
* Requests for help in rescue operations, such as rescue, firefighting and medical assistance.
* Advice on conservation of food, water and fuel.
* How to keep warm when power is off and the weather is cold.

Don't Use The Telephone

When the sirens sound don't use the telephone. Listen to a radio or television for information. In the event of an Attack Warning telephone lines will be required for official use.
Step 4: Know How to Take Shelter

It is important to provide your family and yourself with a shelter. But what kind of shelter? This is a decision you must make yourself after studying the problem.

Study your shelter requirements in the same way that you would study accident or fire insurance. Decide upon the degree of protection you want for your family and yourself. Shelter is your insurance against something you hope will not happen, but if it does, will give you protection.

Shelters of the type commonly used in Europe during the Second World War would not provide protection against the blast of a nuclear explosion. They were designed to withstand short shock pressures lasting something like 1/100th of a second. Shelters designed to withstand the pressures created by a nuclear explosion must be able to stand up to pressures lasting as long as 6 seconds. In addition, they must be capable of giving the occupants protection against fires outside the shelter as well as against radiation.

The fallout shelter is designed to give protection against radioactive fallout only. Because most people in Canada probably would not be affected by the blast and heat effects of nuclear explosions, protection against fallout is all that is required by them.

The type of shelter for good protection depends upon the distance it will be from the explosion. Unfortunately, it is not possible to know this in advance. That is why each individual must make his own decision when selecting the type of shelter he wishes to have.

Blueprint for Survival No. 1 gives details of a fallout shelter for the home in which you now live. If you rent the home, the decision to construct a shelter must be taken jointly with your landlord.

Blueprint for Survival No. 2 gives details of a fallout shelter for the new home you may be planning to build.

Blueprint for Survival No. 6 gives details of blast shelters which may be built outside the home.

These pamphlets are available from your local Emergency Measures or Civil Defence Organization.
In your shelter
Improvised Protection Against Blast

One of the simplest ways to improvise some anti-blast protection is to build a lean-to (bed springs or boards) against a work bench or heavy table, preferably in the basement, and pile mattresses on it and at the ends. If the material is readily available it could be built in a matter of minutes after the ATTACK WARNING is sounded and could protect you from loose bricks, flying glass, etc.

If you are in the open and there is a ditch or culvert within easy, quick reach, lie face down in it and cover your face with your arms. Make sure this shelter is not too close to buildings which could collapse into it.
Improvised Protection Against Blast

"After" the blast and heat of the explosion, you would have to find other protection against fallout which will come down later. (Don't forget your battery-powered radio).

None of these improvisations is as good as a properly equipped blast shelter, but any single one of them could mean the difference between life and death.
Improvised Protection Against Fallout

You may not have a fallout shelter when warning of approaching fallout is broadcast. Here are some tips on how to increase your protection in a basement. The amount of protection you can build will depend on how much time you have available until fallout arrives.

* You can improvise a small emergency shelter by using furniture, doors, dressers, work-bench and other materials.
* Select a corner of your basement, if possible away from windows, in which to build your shelter. Remove inside house doors from hinges to use as a shelter roof over supports. Supports for the improvised roof can be cabinets, chests of drawers, work-bench, or anything which will bear a heavy load. Use the house doors as a roof surface to provide a base for the heavy material you will have to place on it. Bricks, concrete blocks, sand-filled drawers or boxes, books or other dense items on the roof will help reduce radiation penetration. Around the sides and front of your shelter build walls of dense materials to provide vertical shielding. A small cabinet or dirt-filled box as may be used as a crawl-in entrance which can be closed behind you.
* Remember, the heavier or more dense the material around you, the greater the protection.
* Block basement windows with earth, bricks, concrete blocks, books or even bundles of newspaper. In winter, use packed snow.
* On the floor above the corner of the you select as your shelter area, pile any heavy objects you may have available, such as furniture, trunks filled with clothes, dirt-filled boxes, books, newspapers, or earth from outside.
* Outside, against above ground walls of the basement around your shelter area heap earth, sand, bricks, concrete blocks or packed snow.

Improvised Protection Against Radiation - Basement
Improvised Protection Against Radiation - Basement

If your home has no basement or crawl space, build your emergency shelter in that part of the house (centre hall or clothes closet) farthest away from outside walls and the roof. Build it as described for houses with basements. On the floor immediately above your shelter area, and against surrounding walls, pile up furniture, trunks, dressers, dirtfilled boxes or other heavy material which will reduce radio-active penetration into your emergency shelter.
Improvised Protection Against Radiation - House
Step 5: Have 14 Days Emergency Supplies

Nuclear attacks on centres of production, and fallout conditions, may curtail the distribution of available food stocks for several days or even weeks following these attacks. Persons who had taken shelter against fallout might be advised to stay in their shelters for as long as 14 days. Those who had chosen to evacuate larger cities would be dependent largely on the resources available in reception towns. Because of these possibilities, it is recommended that every person should have emergency supplies. These supplies should include food, water, battery-powered radio, first aid kit, and where necessary, medical supplies as recommended in Step 7. Heavy clothing would be necessary in winter. Extra changes of clothing should be considered particularly stockings and underclothing.

For those who may choose to evacuate major centres, supplies must be selected carefully because of space limitation in the family car. Supplies should be packaged beforehand so that they can quickly be put into the car. See the pamphlet "Your Emergency Pack" available from your local Emergency Measures or Civil Defence Organization.

Many of the recommended items are already in your home.

Whether you choose to evacuate or take shelter locally, you should have a road map with you. You could then relate the information about areas under fallout, which you would hear about on the radio, to your actual location. Toys, games, books for your children would help to occupy their time if they had to remain in shelter from fallout. Your battery-powered radio will keep you in contact with the outside world.

The following is a suggested list of items from which your two weeks' supplies should be developed to be in your shelter or handy to it.
Equipment

* Beds (bunks or folding)
* Bedding
* Toilet
* Polyethylene bags for toilet
* Table (folding or other)
* Stools (folding)
* Cups and plates (disposable)
* Knives, forks, spoons
* Can opener
* Cooking utensils
* Kerosene cooker (Do not use a pressurized stove in the confines of your shelter.)
* Kerosene lamp
* Kerosene (sufficient for 14 days)
* Candles
* Safety matches
* Hand basin
* Calendar
* Paper towels
* Garbage can (two if no waste water runoff is possible)
* Garbage bags
* Shovel
* Broom
* Battery radio and spare batteries
* Electric lamp and spare bulbs
* Clock
* Flashlight and spare batteries
* Fire extinguisher
* Hand tools
* Pocket knife
* Axe
* String
* Light rope

Recreational

* Books
* Paper
* Pencils
* Playing cards
* Chess, checkers, other games
* Crosswords, other puzzles
* Knitting, sewing, etc.
* Hobby materials
* Plasticine

Toiletries

* Soap
* Toothpaste
* Toothbrushes
* Detergent
* Nail brush
* Razor, blades and soap
* Women's basic cosmetics
* Tissues (face and toilet)
* Face cloth
* Towels
* Brush and comb

Clothing and Personal Items

Coveralls, rubber boots, rubber gloves for adults. To be used in venturing outside even after instructions have been given that this is safe for short periods.

* Bedding (blankets preferable)
* Warm sweaters and socks
* Change of underclothing and socks
* Personal hygiene items for women
* Baby clothes
* Baby feeding equipment
* Disposable diapers (two-week supply)
* Legal papers
* Plastic sheeting

Medical

(See Step 7)
Food

These are suggested items and amounts for each adult for 14 days in shelter. Check off the items as you stock them in the shelter and mark the purchase date on them. Food stored for emergency use should be used and replaced at least once a year.

* Milk: 14 cans (6-oz) or 6 cans (15-oz) evaporated milk or 1-lb dried skim milk
* Vegetables: 6 cans (15 or 20-oz) - beans, peas, tomatoes, corn
* Fruits: 6 cans (15 or 20-oz) Ä peaches, pears, apple sauce
* Juices: 6 cans (20-oz) Ä apple, grapefruit, lemon, orange and tomato
* Cereals: 14 individual packages (sealed in wax bags inside or outside)
* Biscuits:
o 2 packages of crackers (1-lb. each)
o 2 packages of cookies or graham wafers
* Main Dish Items:
o 2 cans meat (12-oz) - corned beef, luncheon meats
o 2 cans beef and gravy
o 2 cans baked beans (15 or 20-oz)
o 2 jars cheese
o 2 cans fish (8-oz)
* Canned and Dehydrated Soups: 2 cans (10-oz) - bean, pea, tomato, vegetable

Other Foods:

* 1 large jar or can honey, syrup, jam or marmalade
* 2 lbs. hard candy
* 1 jar or can peanut butter
* 1 package tea bags or instant tea
* 1 jar sugar
* 1 jar instant coffee
* Salt and pepper
* Instant chocolate powder
* Chewing gum

Special Requirements for Children

* For each infant include 14 cans evaporated milk (15 oz) and infant food for 14 days.
* For each child up to 3 years, include 8 extra cans of milk.
* Decrease amounts of other foods according to appetite.
* Food for older children can be the same as for adults; adjust amounts according to appetite.

Water

* Requirements: 7-14 gallons for each adult member of family; more for younger children (some water may be replaced by canned beverages).
* Containers: Store in well-cleaned, covered containers such as large thermos jugs, new fuel cans, large bottles, or plastic containers.
* Change: Change stored water at least once a month.

Other Emergency Water Supplies
Step 6: Know How To Prevent And Fight Fires

Misinformation about the fire danger from nuclear explosions is widespread and common. For example, some persons believe that the fire-ball would completely incinerate a city. This is not true.

The heat from the fire-ball lasts about 15 seconds and would create fires which are no different from the fires you see in peacetime. They can be put out with water and extinguishers, and if each survivor were able to put out a small fire quickly, mass fires would not take place.

The heat flash from the fire-ball entering through windows and doors could set fire to curtains, clothes, furniture and paper. Other fires could break out in attics, in backyard trash, on wooden shingles and on the outside of houses built of wood particularly if they are unpainted or weathered.

Knowing how to prevent and fight fires at home and at work reduces the number of peacetime fires. The same knowledge will also reduce the number of fires caused by a nuclear explosion.

But how can you fight fires in the presence of fallout? From 5 to 15 miles from the centre of the explosion, there will be many survivors. Fallout will not start coming down for about 30 minutes. During this half hour, survivors should inspect their houses and put out all the small fires they can. They must not rely on the fire department to extinguish these fires.

You should have in your home and place of work, fire extinguishers, or in an emergency, create a water supply for fire fighting in pails, bathtubs, washtubs, etc. Don't rely on being able to use the established water supply system.

Even those who live in areas not attacked may find their fire departments will have to fight major fires elsewhere. Every householder should learn how to carry out fire prevention and know how to fight small fires. It may prove of value in peacetime!

Your local fire authorities are always anxious to advise you on how to fight fires. Attend any emergency fire fighting classes held in your area.

Here are some tips for an emergency:

* Prepare for emergency by preventing accumulations of trash and rubbish in and around the home. This would include dry leaves and grass, lumber, boxes, cardboard cartons, old unused furniture, bales of newspapers, etc. Keep waste and garbage in covered containers.
* The shaking and twisting of buildings and homes due to blast waves in wartime or earthquakes and explosions in peacetime, may break utility inlets at the point they enter the structure. This may allow gas or fuel oil to flow into basements creating a severe hazard. Do not smoke, strike a match, or a lighter, to light your way into a darkened basement. Gas or oil vapours may be present and a violent explosion and fire may result.
* To lessen the danger of fires and explosions follow local instructions about shutting off utility services when the ATTACK WARNING sounds.
* If you have a coal-burning furnace, or a wood-stove, extinguish it or at least be sure to close all fuel and draft doors.
* Close curtains shutters or venetian blinds on all windows and remove furniture from window areas.

Fighting a Fire
TO FIGHT AN ORDINARY FIRE:

* Take away its fuel. Get the burning material out of your home.
* Take away its air. Smother it with a blanket, wet if possible, or a rug.
* Cool it with water, earth, sand or fire extinguisher.

GAS, OIL, ELECTRICAL FIRES REQUIRE SPECIAL METHODS:

* Gas fire: Make sure the gas is shut off and then try to extinguish anything still burning.
* Oil fires: Make sure the supply is shut off then smother the fire with earth, sand, rugs or other heavy materialsÄDon't use water.
* Electrical fires: Make sure the electricity is shut off then put out the fire. Don't use water if the power is still on.

PROMPT ACTION TO PUT OUT SMALL FIRES IMMEDIATELY FOLLOWING A NUCLEAR ATTACK WILL SAVE LIVES.
Step 7: Know First Aid And Home Nursing

The acquisition of First Aid and Home Nursing skills prepares individuals to serve effectively in a national emergency. If such an emergency occurs, the care of many thousands of injured or seriously ill persons becomes a tremendous task for the organized health services. Doctors and nurses may not be readily available to assist you. Thus the importance of First Aid and Home Nursing skills takes on a new dimension. The survival of the injured or sick members of your family may become your responsibility.

The main objectives of training individuals in first aid and home nursing are:

1. To preserve life
2. To minimize the effects of injury or illness
3. To relieve suffering or distress
4. To provide continuing care and assist in rehabilitation.

Therefore you must:

* Know and practice life-saving first aid.
* Know and practice simple home nursing measures.

First Aid Supplies

A simple first aid box kept in your shelter or in your evacuation kit should contain:

* 1 bottle mild antiseptic solution (use to clean cuts)
* 5 yards 2-inch gauze bandage
* 2 triangular bandages (use for slings)
* 12 4" x 4" sterile pads (use to cover cuts, wounds and burns)
* 12 assorted individual adhesive dressins (use for minor cuts)
* 2 large dressing pads (shell dressing type) 8" x 8" (Available at minimal cost from St. John Ambulance Association)
* 5 yards 1/2 inch adhesive tape
* 9 assorted safety pins
* 1 small bottle toothache drops (for temporary treatment of toothache)
* 1 tube of petroleum jelly
* 1 small bottle aspirin tablets
* 1 thermometer
* 1 small scissors (blunt ended)
* 1 medicine glass
* 1 pair tweezers
* 4 oz baking soda and 8 oz table salt (make a drinking solution by adding 1 tsp salt and 1/2 tsp baking soda to 1 qt. of water)
* 1 First Aid Manual (St. John Ambulance Association)
* 1 Home Nursing Textbook (St. John Ambulance Association and/or Canadian Red Cross Society)
* 1 packet paper tissues

NOTE: individuals requiring special medication such as insulin should maintain at least 100-days supplies.
First Aid Hints

General Rules:

* Keep calm.
* Keep the injured person Iying down in a comfortable position, his head level with his body until you determine whether his injuries are serious.
* Examine for stoppage of breathing, serious bleeding or broken bones. These must be treated immediately before any attempt is made to move the injured person. Do not be hurried into this unless you are in a situation of extreme danger.
* Keep him comfortably warm with blankets or other coverings, under and above the patient.
* Never attempt to give a semi-conscious or unconscious person anything to drink.

Unconsciousness:

An unconscious patient lying on his back may be strangled by his own tongue which will tend to fall back and obstruct the airway. All unconscious persons should be placed lying half over on their faces, (three-quarter-prone position).

If the patient is breathing quietly and easily and his lips are pink and have no froth on them, breathing is not obstructed.

If the patient is breathing noisily and with difficulty, if his lips are blue and frothing, or if his chest is sucked inwards when he breathes in, his airway is obstructed and needs immediate attention.

Keep the airway clear by:
Placing the casualty on his back; supporting his shoulders on a pad of any suitable material available; tilting the head back with one hand on the forehead, the other lifting the neck.

Breathing for a patient

If his breathing stops you can breathe for the patient by blowing air into his lungs. Take a deep breath. Pinch the casualty's nostrils. Place mouth to mouth tightly. Blow into the casualty's lungs strongly enough to cause his chest to rise. The cycle should be repeated every 3 to 5 seconds for an adult and a little more frequently for a child. Blow more gently for a child or a baby, but strongly enough to make the chest rise.

Wounds:

You Must:

* Stop bleeding (haemorrhage)
* Keep out germs (infection)

Cover the wound with a clean dressing to keep out dirt and germs. Bandage it on firmly to stop the bleeding. If a wound is bleeding profusely, hold it firmly with your hand until you can secure an emergency dressing. Any thick pad of clean, soft, compressible material large enough to cover the wound will make a good dressing. Clean handkerchiefs, towels, sanitary pads, tissue handkerchiefs or sheets make good emergency dressings.
Controlling bleeding

Burns:

Cover the burned area with large, thick, dry dressing and bandage it on firmly.

Encourage the casualty to drink plenty of fluids. A solution of salt and soda is useful to give to casualties with burns and to those who have suffered from serious bleeding.

Broken bones (fractures):

If a limb is very painful and cannot be used, appears to be bent in the wrong place or the casualty says he heard or felt the bone snap, it is likely that a bone is broken.

Sharp ends of a broken bone may damage important structures such as blood vessels and nerves. A broken limb should be steadied and supported to prevent movement of the broken ends before attempting to move the patient.

If a person's back or neck is so severely injured that he is afraid to move because of pain, or cannot move or feel his limbs, you should assume that he has a broken back. He should be moved on a hard, firm stretcher taking great care not to "jack-knife" him by picking up his feet and shoulders. Improvised stretchers can be made from a door, wide board, window shutter, etc. Fill in the natural hollows of the track and neck with padding and support the head on both sides to prevent movement.
An improvised stretcher
DO NOT:

* Put strong antiseptics into a wound.
* Use a tourniquet.
* Remove clothing which is stuck to a burn.
* Break any blisters or apply creams or grease to a large burn.
* Give anything by mouth to a semi-conscious patient, or to a patient with internal abdominal wounds.

HOME NURSING HINTS

Before medical or nursing help becomes available you may also encounter infant care problems. emotional problems and persons suffering from radiation sickness. What to observe, and what to do for these latter cases, is outlined below.
Infant Care

Breast feeding is preferable but, if not possible, then a formula using powdered or evaporated milk should be prepared under clean conditions.

If vomiting or diarrhoea occurs infants and children become dehydrated very quickly. To avoid this happening give frequent sips of boiled water.

If a rash or fever develops, keep others away from the sick child.
Emotional Problems

Persons who become emotionally disturbed following a disaster should be treated calmly but firmly. They should be kept in small groups, preferably with persons whom they know and encouraged to "talk out" their problem. If they are not otherwise injured they should be given something to do. It may be necessary to enlist the aid of one other calm person to help subdue the overexcited patient. If a stunned or dazed reaction persists over 6 to 8 hours this should be reported to a doctor or nurse immediately one becomes available.
Radiation Sickness

The signs and symptoms of this illness are described in Step 2.

Treatment includes rest, the provision of whatever nutritional food and drink is available and personal encouragement to get well. Swab the mouth gently with mild, warm salt and water if it becomes sore. As these patients are susceptible to infection, keep wounds clean and covered with a sterile dressing. Separate these patients from persons with colds, rash or fever.
Improvised Equipment

The following suggestions may help you care for your patient when proper equipment is not available.

* Bed: A couch, mattress or any well padded, firm surface; if too low raise on bricks, boxes or wooden blocks.
* Bedding Protection: Old crib pads cut into a convenient size and placed over a waterproof sheeting; or several layers of newspaper and heavy brown paper covered with old soft cotton. (Never use thin plastic if patient is a child.)
* Backrest: A straight-backed chair turned upside down at head of bed and securely tied to bed; a triangular bolster or cushions from a chair or chesterfield.
* Bed Cradle: A light wooden box or firm cardboard carton approximately 10 x 12 x 24 inches, with two sides removed; or a hoop sawn in half and the two pieces joined together in the centre.
* Pressure Pads: Soft cushion or foam or sponge rubber pads will protect heels, elbows, back of head or any other body pressure point.
* Bedpan or Urinal: For bedpan use a padded dish or pan; for urinal any wide-necked bottle or jar.
* Hot Water Bottle: A heated brick wrapped in several layers of newspaper.

START TRAINING NOW!
ONE PERSON IN EVERY FAMILY SHOULD BE TRAINED IN FIRST AID AND/OR HOME NURSING.

Courses in these skills are available in most municipalities from your local St. John Ambulance Association or Canadian Red Cross Society.
REGISTER NOW!
Step 8: Know Emergency Cleanliness

Your limited supply of water will have to be rationed and used only for essential purposes. If you have enough warning time before the arrival of fallout, fill your bathtub, all available buckets and pans with water. And remember that there is an emergency supply in your hot water tank. (Don't forget this if in peacetime your water supply has been temporarily disrupted).

The problems of garbage and human waste disposal can be solved even if fallout keeps you in the shelter. Put all your garbage in tightly covered garbage pails. After using your emergency toilet, you should tie human waste in waterproof plastic (polyethylene) bags and place them in the garbage pail. Store a 14-day supply of the plastic bags. After the second day in the shelter, you may risk leaving it for a few minutes for essential tasks. Therefore, when your garbage container is filled, move it out of the shelter.
Emergency cleanliness

Keep a soft broom in the shelter for tidying it up.

Remember, personal cleanliness in crowded shelter conditions is important to you and your family.

If your area is free of fallout but is without sewage services, bury human waste and garbage in the ground. Dig the pit deep enough so that the waste will be covered by at least two feet of earth.
Step 9: Know How To Get Rid Of Radioactive Dust

In Step 2, fallout was described as "sand". To remove the danger, remove the sand. If you suspect that your clothes have fallout on them, remove your outer clothing before you come inside your home and leave it outside. Don't shake these clothes inside the house or shelter. You would only scatter the fallout grit and create unnecessary danger to others. If you have water, wash thoroughly, particularly exposed skin and hair. But do not scrub your skin as this might rub in the radioactive particles.

Exposure to fallout does not make you radioactive.

Even if you are stricken with radiation sickness, this sickness cannot be passed on to others.

Fallout on your clothing or body would expose you and those close to you to radiation. If you suspect you have been exposed to fallout, you will not be a danger to others if you carefully get rid of your outer clothing outside the shelter and wash.
Take outer clothing off
Food and Water
Food and Water

Since most of your food will be in tightly covered containers (cans, bottles, plastic, boxes), it will all be safe to eat or drink if you dust the containers. Food, if it is unspoiled and free of grit or dust, may be eaten during the emergency period.

Be sure to wash fruit and vegetables and peel carefully.

Water will be safe if it is in covered containers, or if it has come from covered wells, or from undamaged water systems.
Step 10: Know Your Municipal Plan

It is important that your local municipality have a plan for a war emergency. And it is just as important that you know that plan.

Over the past several years, provincial and municipal governments, with the assistance of federal authorities, have been steadily developing plans for the protection of the population and the continuity of essential government services in wartime. Most municipalities in Canada have emergency plans to deal with both peacetime disasters and a nuclear attack situation. These include the details of how welfare, health, police, public utilities, fire and other emergency services will operate.

Some larger communities have developed plans to assist in the evacuation of those who would choose to leave before an attack or who might have to be evacuated as survivors or casualties following an attack. These plans include traffic arrangements to reception centres and medical facilities in nearby communities.

It would be unwise to try and prepare your own family survival plan without first checking to see how it fits in with municipal plans. This would be true whether you plan to go to a safer area before attack or remain at home. It is particularly important that you know and understand the arrangements to instruct the public about staying in shelter and coming out of shelter when it is safe. Fallout is a health hazard which will require countermeasures for personal and family protection including assessment of radiation and advice and instructions to those in shelter.

There must be close understanding and cooperation between the public and municipal authorities responsible for their protection.

Find out about your municipal emergency plans now and keep well informed about them as they are further developed.
Step 11: Have A Plan For Your Family And Yourself

If you know what is contained in the first nine steps, and you know your municipal plan for a war emergency, you should now make your personal and family survival plan. The success of your plan will depend on how many of the suggested recommendations you carry out. Your chances of survival increase as you carry out each recommendation.

Thinking about the problems with which you would be faced should nuclear attack be launched against North America is the first important step. Blast, light, heat and radioactive fallout are the problems. A workable survival plan will include all of the preparations you can make in advance to meet those problems.
Preparing

In making that plan, there are certain things you must know:
When to take protective action

When the sirens or other warning devices sound and your local broadcast station confirms that an attack on North America has been detected it means that you must take protective action immediately. Would you and your family

* Recognize the Attack Warning signal ?
* Turn on the radio or television and listen for instructions?

Where to take shelter

Deciding where you will take initial protective action and where you and your family will seek shelter from fallout are two basic points which you must consider in making your survival plan. Can you answer the following questions about seeking immediate protection and shelter:

* Have you decided where you will take shelter if you're not at home when the Attack Warning sounds?
* Will you try to get home?
* Will your family know what to do if you are not at home?
* Is there a shelter plan for your children at school?
* Do you want them to try to get home?
* Does everybody in your family know your survival plan?

In thinking about what you will do or where you would go, you might consider leaving your home to find shelter elsewhere. Before you decide to plan on evacuation, consider the following questions:

* Will protection there be better than in your home?
* Are there sufficient supplies there?
* Can you carry emergency supplies for 14 days?
* Do you know how to get there quickly?

How to take shelter

If you don't have a fallout shelter built in your home, study the guide given in Step 4. It shows how you can improvise emergency home protection. Bearing in mind that density and distance between you and the fallout is necessary, try to estimate if there is enough material and furniture to build an emergency shelter in your basement or the central part of your house.

* Can you move it to where it will be needed quickly?
* Will you have the help you require?

Based on the lists of emergency supplies suggested in Steps 5, 6, 7 and 8, try to answer the following questions:

* Do you have them at home?
* Can you collect and move them to the shelter area quickly?
* Does your emergency cooker, lamp, flashlight, radio work?
* Have you containers for water, garbage, hygiene?
* DO YOU HAVE A BATTERY RADIO AND SPARE BATTERIES?

Radio

There are many other points which you and your family must resolve for a workable survival plan. This booklet provides most of the essential information on which to base your plans. Read the Steps again, and, as you review each Step, try to answer the questions which apply to your surroundings, your home, your family. Here are a few more which may help:

* Do I know the recommended fire precautions?
* Does anyone in my family know how to fight small fires?
* Can an emergency supply of water be obtained quickly - for fire fighting? for personal use?
* Are first aid supplies and special medicines readily available?
* Does anyone in my family know how to render fist aid?
* Can materials for personal hygiene and cleanliness be gathered near the shelter area quickly?
* Do I know what I must do about radioactive dust?
* Do I know the emergency plans of my municipality - for public shelters? for planned evacuation routes? for schools, hospitals, welfare centres? other special instructions?

REMEMBER! YOU MUST PLAN FOR:

* PROTECTIVE ACTION WHEN WARNED OF ATTACK and
* PROVISION OF SHELTER AGAINST THE EFFECTS OF FALLOUT

On the basis of what you've read and the questions and answers you've thought about, you should now make your survival plan and start making whatever arrangements you can. BUT MAKE SURE THAT ALL MEMBERS OF YOUR FAMILY KNOW YOUR PLAN AND WHAT TO DO WHEN THE TIME COMES.

The best way to arrive at a workable plan which will be remembered by your family is to practice it. If you plan on building an emergency shelter, try it now to find out if you have enough material, how much help you'll need, if your proposed area is large enough, and how long it will take to build. Locate and practice moving essential supplies, water, clothing, bedding, etc. Practice the essential things you would have to do.

If you plan to move to what you consider a safer location, make a practice run to make sure you know the quickest and safest route, that protection is available when you get there, and that you can carry all the supplies you think you'll need.

A GOOD SURVIVAL PLAN IS A PLAN WHICH YOU KNOW YOU CAN CARRY OUT.
WRITE DOWN THE IMPORTANT PARTS OF YOUR PLAN.

List for quick reference the important things to be done in the event of warning. As examples, note when and where all members of your family will take shelter at all times; where essential items of food, shelter and other supplies will be obtained; how shelter will be improvised; what windows must be blocked; if you plan on going to what you consider a safer area, details of the route and supplies you will need at your destination.

Be Sure To Also Read the Recently Updated...
Trans-Pacific Fallout Here From India/Pakistan Nukes!

Nuclear Blast & Fallout Shelters FAQ
One-Stop Straight FAQ's with free plans, books & ready made shelter sources!

Civil Defense Radiation Detection Survey Meters, Geiger Counters and Dosimeters FAQ!
Straight FAQ's on FEMA Surplus Civil Defense Meters with Retail and Wholesale Sources Listed!

Comprehensive Potassium Iodide Anti-Radiation Pill FAQ with up-to-date iodine sources listed & prices
for Potassium Iodide (KI) tablets, Potasium Iodate (KIO3) pills, and all forms of radiation protection iodine!

http://www.ki4u.com/survive/index.htm

Philip
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Re: Surviving Nuclear War

Postby Philip » 27 Dec 2008 18:14

Many thanks RC.

ticky
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Re: Surviving Nuclear War

Postby ticky » 27 Dec 2008 18:39

Thats a gem of a post. Thank you RC. If now, somebody knowledgeable could spell out the effects of a blast of size of warheads in use around the neighbourhood, that would be superb. Especially that effect on skin w.r.t distance from blast etc. etc.
TIA

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Re: Surviving Nuclear War

Postby rsingh » 27 Dec 2008 19:59

I remember watching BW documentary on Nuclear testing in Russia. Scientists used simple patakha and fire it in a big tray of paper flags. All the flage fell along the lines radiating from the center of blast. This means*
- Streets that radiate from city center to the out skirts are the one least damaged. Shock and heat waves travel through the street and houses are left undamaged. Houses on ring streets get blasted away easily.
- Nuclear shelter should have entrance facing away fro city-center.

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Re: Surviving Nuclear War

Postby RayC » 28 Dec 2008 13:24

ticky wrote:Thats a gem of a post. Thank you RC. If now, somebody knowledgeable could spell out the effects of a blast of size of warheads in use around the neighbourhood, that would be superb. Especially that effect on skin w.r.t distance from blast etc. etc.
TIA


I believe it is 20 KT.

I don't have the template to check the effects.

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Re: Surviving Nuclear War

Postby Lalmohan » 30 Dec 2008 16:44

a smaller warhead means same effects just over a smaller radius. in a densely populated place like India, even a 20kt warhead city centre hit is going to leave behind lakhs of dead and injured and crores of incapacitated by one means or another

whilst we must be sober about the impact of nuclear war, we cannot allow ourselves to be blackmailed by the pakistanis.

i am still laughing about Bharat Verma's comment on the Pak TV channel 'aap ke bum chal payengo tau?'

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Re: Surviving Nuclear War

Postby govardhanks » 09 Jun 2009 16:58

My thanks are due for Mr.singh, to making such a discussion topic..

Here is a vague scientific apporach which can be used to protect ourselves from nuclear bombs.
The key for any nuclear bomb is that its chain reaction should continue and continue. Each neutron emitted impart its energy to other atom to undergo fission.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_reactor
This technique is simply a modification of technology used in nuclear reactors.. If we are able absorb the neutrons much faster than the fissle materials. The reaction stops or perhaps slows down to extent where it is not that harmful. But, it does emit radiations!!.
The materials which can be used are- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neutron_poison
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neutron_moderators

I don't think this technology has't been developed in other parts of world. It is not revealed to every country. If our buildings in delhi, mumbai, chennai,calcutta, bangalore, hyderabad are coated with paintings that absorbs neutrons or a spray kind of thing that absorbs neutrons we can reduce the damage. Guys Please forward this to scientists of India and make this work if we want save India. :evil:

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Re: Surviving Nuclear War

Postby Sanjay » 09 Jun 2009 18:37

The Indian Civil Defence Directorate also has a handbook for civil defence in case of nuclear attack and the national civil defence college does conduct very detailed courses in NBC measures including identifying shelters and decontamination.

Furthermore, the Civil Defence handbook No.1 is supposed to detail quite a lot about basic civil defence measures to be used in any emergency.

India's biggest problem is the lack of participation. The sanctioned strength of civil defence volunteers is over 1.2 million. Only 600,000 have been raised.

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Re: Surviving Nuclear War

Postby govardhanks » 09 Jun 2009 19:46

An estimate of energy in a nuclear bomb:

The measured pure heat output of a gram of TNT is only 651 thermochemical calories ≈ 2724 J which raises 1mL water temp by more than 400 degree Celsius.For 1000mL water it is 0.4 degree Celsius.
100gram of TNT can do this!! --- will increase one liter water temp by 40 degree Celsius.
1000gram or 1 kg TNT---- one liter water temp to 400 degree Celsius( 100 degrees is its boiling point ).
1ton or 1000kg --- one ton water(1X10 power of 6,mL) temp to 400 degree Celsius.

The Little Boy atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945, exploded with an energy of about 15 kilotons of TNT (≈ 6.3 × 10power of 13 joules).

Which equals 15X 1000 tons of TNT(= 15X10 power of6 kg TNT).
15000 tons of water temp rise to 400 degree celsius. This water content is equivalent to water of average size dam in any part of india. This energy says it can evapourate the whole water in dam!!!

Pakistan has bombs in range of 25-36 kiloTons of TNT .http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pakistan_and_weapons_of_mass_destruction
Imagine a nuclear detonate on vidhanasoudha in Bangalore(chinese hotspot i guess) one of economic hubs with a energy of 30 kilo tons. Here is the diagram in a web -http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Little_Boy

"The blast from a nuclear bomb is the result of X-ray-heated air (the fireball) sending a shock/pressure wave in all directions at a velocity greater than the speed of sound, analogous to thunder generated by lightning. At Hiroshima, severe structural damage to buildings extended about 1 mile (1.6 km) from ground zero, making a circle of destruction 2 miles (3.2 km) in diameter."
Imagine the condition of 30kiloton nuclear bomb which is 2 time more than this. Such a single bomb is enough to destroy the whole bangalore city!!!

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Re: Surviving Nuclear War

Postby RameshVarma » 09 Jun 2009 19:50

Prepare for the worst and hope for the best.....

Looking at the current scenario......( mismatch in terms of conventional strength of Evil Yindoos and Pakis....even after considering the lahori logic of 1 paki = 100 Evil Yindoos)...there is high probability that any war between land of pureeee and land of Infidels, quickly escalating into nuclear war.Even assuming that ABM and other star war stuff are fully operational, there is still a non zero probability of getting hit with nuclear warhead. So it really required for us to prepare for nuclear war.

I think it is responsibility of the GOI to construct underground bunkers as it may economical feasible for everyone to construct a Bunker.Just like China in 1970's constructed a series of underground tunnels in Beijing expecting a nuclear war with Russia. Now the question is does government have the will and resources(economical) to pull out a stunt like this.....I am not sure about the WILL part...but I think an economical solution does exist....Instead of just constructing a series just underground tunnels,which will only be used during war time...tunnels can used for transportation purpose(Metro's)....we can use some space for restaurants,Multiplex's....thus can used as revenue generators.

China has now opened some portion of the tunnels for tourism.

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Re: Surviving Nuclear War

Postby Arun_S » 09 Jun 2009 20:44

Some observations FWIW:
1. The destructive effect of nuke on Indian city is very largely not radiation or shock induced damage. From what I hear from Bhishma Pitamah it is from secondary fire. So civil defense 101 will give higher bang for the buck. Recall Indian citiies have mixed residential and indutrial plant (with flammable chemicals) in close proximity (IIRC >90% death and casualty due to this)

2. The radiation / blast damage is small and not much different from loving aerial bombing of Desden and many other city centers durign WW2 (by piece loving (sic) allied bombers)

3.
15000 tons of water temp rise to 400 degree celsius. This water content is equivalent to water of average size dam in any part of india. This energy says it can evapourate the whole water in dam!!!

15,000 tons of water !! Funny that is not even the size of a micro-dam in ordinary daccan village. Is it supposed to be a scare-monger?

IMHO nuclear exchange involving few dozens of 40 kt weapons landing on matra bhoomi will be bloody but not crippling or be end of our nation, but retaliation with 400 weapons on any adversary will undoubtly be.

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Re: Surviving Nuclear War

Postby Sanjay » 09 Jun 2009 20:57

Arun, you are correct. However, if Indians are not volunteering for civil defence training, how do you achieve adequate coverage ?

Additionally, what of the fire-fighting services ? 66,000 for all of India ? Japan has 155,000 regulars and with civilian volunteers can add another 920,000 in theory.

We have about 438,000 home guards and 600,000 civil defence volunteers with grotesquely inadequate equipment. It is a problem of both awareness and committment.
Last edited by Sanjay on 09 Jun 2009 21:28, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Surviving Nuclear War

Postby H.B.Krishna » 09 Jun 2009 21:13

govardhanks wrote:Here is a vague scientific apporach which can be used to protect ourselves from nuclear bombs......If we are able absorb the neutrons much faster than the fissle materials. The reaction stops or perhaps slows down to extent where it is not that harmful. But, it does emit radiations!!.
:evil:

Oh dear Govardhan,
You are fascinating us in BR for past couple of days? While we can understand your enthu, it is better for yourself to be relevant anywhere you contribute.
Friend, read about the runaway nuclear reactions in a atomic bomb context. It happens well within the bomb itself on fissile material attaining critical mass. You may prefer coating your building with nutron absorbing material :mrgreen:

Welcome to BR :)

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Re: Surviving Nuclear War

Postby govardhanks » 09 Jun 2009 22:19

ok i just... i thought Imagination+logic=Physics.. well i wil keep my ideas with myself until relevant time comes..

Forum is for discussion, everyone contributes i did some....

Sorry this is second one (fascinating) 1. can we penetrate the bomb and inject something before it explodes? by missiles? :lol:

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Re: Surviving Nuclear War

Postby karthik » 10 Jun 2009 20:10

I have heard iodine helps to keep the back ground radiation away. Should we take Iodine after the blast immediately as a liquid form? does iodine help in cureing a patient from radiation sickness?

What are the uses of iodine in a post nuclear land?

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Re: Surviving Nuclear War

Postby Arun_S » 10 Jun 2009 22:16

karthik wrote:I have heard iodine helps to keep the back ground radiation away. Should we take Iodine after the blast immediately as a liquid form? does iodine help in cureing a patient from radiation sickness?

What are the uses of iodine in a post nuclear land?

Nuclear fission fallout has radioactive Iodine isotopes that is readily absorbed by human body into the Thyroid gland (themaster gland) thus can cause havoc. The solution is simply to ensure that human body conciously intakes non-radioactive Iodine, in teh form of Iodized salt.

Thus after a nuclear exchange for a few days one should conciously intake iodized salt so that traces of salt contaminated with fallout Iodine is excreated by teh body (that already has glut of non-contaminated Iodine from Iodized salt intake)

Eating Iodized salt after the Thyroid glad has already absorbed radioactive Iodine is of no use.

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Re: Surviving Nuclear War

Postby govardhanks » 11 Jun 2009 20:02

Every organism has its own inbuilt mechansim to fight agianst radiation induced damage. One of the first noticeable thing if we are exposed to radiation are loss of Bone marrow cells( Blood stem cells), loss of immunity, increase of incidence of cancer.

All of us in one or the other way are exposed to these kind off radiations, X-rays, cosmic rays. our body produces anti-oxidant vitamins that aid to recover from such damage sometimes we need to suppliment them.

Lead blocks do not allow radiation to pass, but high energy radiation like X-rays and gamma rays can easily pass 5 feet thick soil or any matter even lead. These radiations are the ones produced in an atomic bomb so thats why they are very dangerous to living beings.

I met an guy who works in X-ray department of a hospital, he said daily exposure to these rays will one day make him to get any cancer even if he has covered his body with suit made with lead. So going far from such places will help.. this X-ray guy can be our person to study ill effect of radiations.

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Re: Surviving Nuclear War

Postby RayC » 11 Jun 2009 20:47

Sure we can survive?

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Re: Surviving Nuclear War

Postby govardhanks » 11 Jun 2009 21:19

it depends an the way you get exposed to such radiation. i mean dose of it.

If we find a way protect our body cells from DNA damage( major cause of radiation exposure) - our future generation will be happy, from ionization and free radicals-- we our selves will be happy.
BARC, has some the products as safety measures
Plz visit this site- http://www.barc.ernet.in/webpages/technologies/home.html

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Re: Surviving Nuclear War

Postby RayC » 11 Jun 2009 21:50

Easier said than done!

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Re: Surviving Nuclear War

Postby atma » 11 Jun 2009 23:19

Nuclear Radiation and its Biological Effects
http://www.ratical.org/radiation/NRBE/NRadBioEffects.html

One has to understand effects of Nuclear Radiation, before taking precautions, as one must concentrate on what aplies to you. There is no cookie- cutter formula. What may work for densely populated, urbanised concrete and steel jungles, may not apply to more rustic areas.

Radiation effects cannot be precisely quantified. Rems/Rads intensity and duration all have to factored in. Biological effects are dose related, but not precisely predictable.

Here in the frozen Tundra... (actually it is pretty nice out here this time of the year!), I have to deal with radiation situations frequently, (mostly wrt patients involved in nuclear medicine, and radiation oncology, but also on a personal level)

We stictly monitor and protect inadvertent exposure in the medical field.

I believe surviving Nuclear war in the subcontinentel context will largely have to do with populations shielded, or unreacheable vs. exposed, hence the Puki longing of strategic depth.

Pukis know they are screwed. Almost entire of its population is east of or near the Indus, a couple of hundred kilometers from the border. A couple of dozen of nuclear tipped Prithvis is all to make them a curious piece of history. This is the reason for a lot of their anxeity.

In a nuclear exchange, their population will be vaporised, or irreparabely radiated much sooner than their pot shots with No dongs/Ding dongs do us much harm.

Perhaps Arunji can shed more light.

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Re: Surviving Nuclear War

Postby Aditya_M » 12 Jun 2009 05:47

Please read the following three essays:

Nuclear Warfare 101

Nuclear Warfare 102

Nuclear Warfare 103

The author knows what he is talking about. He was a nuclear weapons 'targeteer' for the Royal Military who then moved to the US and is now retired.

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Re: Surviving Nuclear War

Postby Aditya_M » 12 Jun 2009 05:50

An excerpt from the same:

A Chinese Officer here once on exchange (billed as a "look what we can do" session it was really a "look what we can do to you" exercise) produced the standard line about how the Chinese could lose 500 million people in a nuclear war and keep going with the survivors. So his hosts got out a demographic map (one that shows population densities rather than topographical data) and got to work with pie-cutters using a few classified tricks - and got virtually the entire population of China using only a small proportion of the US arsenal. The guest stared at the map for a couple of minutes then went and tossed his cookies into the toilet bowl.

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Re: Surviving Nuclear War

Postby svinayak » 12 Jun 2009 06:00

One implication of this by the way is that in spite of all the fuss over the Chinese stealing the W88 warhead design, the net beneficiary of that is the United States; it allows the Chinese to build a much more secure deterrent and thus a more stable one. Also, looking at things purely ruthlessly, its better for one's enemy to make small clean bombs than big dirty ones.


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Re: Surviving Nuclear War

Postby atma » 12 Jun 2009 06:19

Please read the following three essays:

Nuclear Warfare 101

Nuclear Warfare 102

Nuclear Warfare 103

The author knows what he is talking about. He was a nuclear weapons 'targeteer' for the Royal Military who then moved to the US and is now retired.


Excellent analysis, thanks! Although I doubt that A country and B country applies to us, with our airfields, strike corps and industry located in population dense areas for the most part.

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Re: Surviving Nuclear War

Postby wig » 16 Jun 2009 21:08

the nuclear warfare makes for very interesting reading. in our case the problems might become much more dangerous.
1. there will be a breakdown of law and order - will this lead to flaring up of old antagonisms presently held in check.
2. our health infrastructure is creaky and non existent in many areas - whatever little is there might be history
3. wealth as we understand it in the 21st century will evaporate and i am unsure of the consequences - barter is too simplistic.
4. there might never be a central / federal govt again. two centuries is a considerably long period.
5. there will be a severe depletion of population.
6. inabilty to maintain infrastructure like dams, canals due to loss of skilled population could lead to further disasters assuming that they and the adjacent areas have not been nuked already.
7. i am not sure but genetic mutations will occur - this is more like fiction - but is it ruled out?
8. maybe some of our gurus could do a scenario

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Re: Surviving Nuclear War

Postby Nihat » 16 Jun 2009 22:15

A more realistic scenario maybe a nuke strike on one of two population centers - a full blown all out nuke exchange is highly unlikely in any scenario.

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Re: Surviving Nuclear War

Postby Sandipan » 05 Aug 2009 20:46

Who wants to survive a nuclear War. I would rather die then live to see the mess all around and then die slowly out of radiation poisoning.

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Re: Surviving Nuclear War

Postby Chandragupta » 05 Aug 2009 21:18

wig wrote:the nuclear warfare makes for very interesting reading. in our case the problems might become much more dangerous.
1. there will be a breakdown of law and order - will this lead to flaring up of old antagonisms presently held in check.
2. our health infrastructure is creaky and non existent in many areas - whatever little is there might be history
3. wealth as we understand it in the 21st century will evaporate and i am unsure of the consequences - barter is too simplistic.
4. there might never be a central / federal govt again. two centuries is a considerably long period.
5. there will be a severe depletion of population.
6. inabilty to maintain infrastructure like dams, canals due to loss of skilled population could lead to further disasters assuming that they and the adjacent areas have not been nuked already.
7. i am not sure but genetic mutations will occur - this is more like fiction - but is it ruled out?
8. maybe some of our gurus could do a scenario


Too exaggerated. Unless we are talking about some 500 Nuclear warheads raining on the country, there will never be such huge repercussions of a nuclear exchange. Imo, we can take a few dozen Paki warheads, dust ourselves off & then proceed to wipe the land of the pure off from the world map. There will definitely be a loss of population & infrastructure, but to think that India will fall apart, that sounds like a Paki wet dream. :lol:

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Re: Surviving Nuclear War

Postby govardhanks » 18 Aug 2009 14:32

Nihat wrote:A more realistic scenario maybe a nuke strike on one of two population centers - a full blown all out nuke exchange is highly unlikely in any scenario.


I guess they may be cities with more than 2 crore population? then it might be for either delhi or mumbai.

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Re: Surviving Nuclear War

Postby krishnan » 18 Aug 2009 14:34

More than population its the strategic point that will decide which city. Mumbai or delhi or even bangalore will be more important in that aspect

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Re: Surviving Nuclear War

Postby abhiti » 18 Aug 2009 17:55

A reinforced basement is a best place to survive nuclear blast. Basements though are expensive and I don't think India has too many. Other option is to be in place with low population density and minimum strategic value. I suspect Indian villages will do just fine surviving nuclear war as no one has enough to target villages.

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Re: Surviving Nuclear War

Postby govardhanks » 20 Aug 2009 12:24

apart from destruction people lives, they destroy the infrastructure so that the country wil go to stone age. How fast can we recover from such a threat is important.

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Re: Surviving Nuclear War

Postby VikB » 24 Aug 2009 12:06

Please read the following three essays:

Nuclear Warfare 101

Nuclear Warfare 102

Nuclear Warfare 103
=====
These three essays are awesome. It is generally thought that just having 'atom bombs' is good enough and a mere throw of one of them to a city means that all is over.

I wonder if our guys in Govt/outside have done an analysis of effects of a nuclear attack of various levels on Delhi/Mumbai and other places? One thing in India, there are not many independant 'think-tanks' to educate the masses about such things. I also dread the Pukis not having done any such analysis which would mean lower threshold for them. I am sure their akas in US must have educated them by now about it not being game of gilli danda. On their own, I trust them not to have ever have thought so much.

The essays also show how India's AAD etc must be making our dear two neighbours sh*t in their pants. all that is now required a good range Agni XX in suitable numbers and atleast we would know that the Panda wont dare an attack on us.

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Re: Surviving Nuclear War

Postby kit » 24 Aug 2009 13:37

Talking about conspiracy theories ., what if the panda had made a deal with the khans to keep India s nuclear capability in check.One shouldnt go by what posturing they do in public.America and China are welded together by the weakness, strength and interdependence of their economies, and some quid pro quo will happen as regards other nations since it doesn't bother the other directly.The only one way India can militarily and strategically hold china back is by its nuclear weapon capability , that too not the 'piddly fission types' but hundreds of H bombs.Nothing else will deter China at the 'window of oppurtunity' .Nuclear Wars are won not by fighting but by not going to a war.

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Re: Surviving Nuclear War

Postby Drevin » 24 Aug 2009 14:48

Philip wrote:Close all doors and windows,draw the curtains,hide under the strongest table,put your head between your legs and kiss your ass goodbye!


:twisted: nice.

If however you had the time ....... build a reinforced concrete shelter under your garden about 10 feet below ..... with no openings to the atmosphere. Should be able to generate oxygen inside. Also have enough rations to survive for many weeks. Also keep a APC(if more than 4 people in ur family) or Arjun MBT inside the shelter with full nbc capability. After a few weeks put your family into the APC and drive away without looking back.

The Great Escape. 8)

Added Later: Look, if you don't survive in a reinforced concrete shelter more than 10 feet underground ...... then ur luck was anyway too bad to have any hopes. :mrgreen:


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Re: Surviving Nuclear War

Postby Klaus » 17 Dec 2009 14:33

Good day to all BRFites!

I think NE states are the most immune to a nuke strike by either panda or porkis! a porki strike on NE is possible considering they have jehadi sympathisers in BD, however it is too much of a long shot because there is less pop density in NE than in the rest of the matrubhoomi!

Hence the survivors could actually escape into MYR or BTN?

BTW, how good is a disused offshore oil rig as a long term protection platform in case of a nuke strike?


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