India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

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kit
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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby kit » 23 Mar 2020 17:44

This is probably a good time to go shopping for foreign technology companies, what about aircraft engine manufacturers ?

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby arvin » 23 Mar 2020 17:58

Ask EUROJET to set up manufacturing in India for EJ200. Will eliminate the dependency on F414.

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby VKumar » 23 Mar 2020 21:34

Yes, indeed lets buy some key defence technologies starting with a jet engine.

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby Vips » 24 Mar 2020 01:39

The Kalyanis and Adanis are in a look out to buy mode but no matter how much we are ready to invest for buying, the respective governments abroad will never allow anybody to lay their hands on critical technology.

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby Varoon Shekhar » 24 Mar 2020 06:13

India today newsmen were given exclusive exposure to the LCH.

https://www.indiatoday.in/programme/bat ... 2020-03-22

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby Indranil » 26 Mar 2020 04:38

Agupta ji,

I am going to bite this time.

1. Last time you insinuated that LCH must have some deficiencies and that is why no orders are being placed. I asked you to name one and got no reply. Could you find a problem? Because I talked to Rudra pilots and forget having problems, they love it! LCH is SIGNIFICANTLY better attack heli than Rudra.

2. Now you have moved to a new suggestion: just take the loans and manufacture those LCHs for God knows when the GoI will place orders! Right now, ordered ALHs are waiting on tarmac for payment and delivery. Add LCHs to that lot? Any precedent that you can show where companies you know are doing that. For example, did Dassault start building Rafales for IAF as soon as it won the MMRCA competition? Has Tata started building Kestrels?

3. Per unit costs of 128 Rafales to be assembled from SKDs and CKDs from Reliance was much more expensive than per unit cost of 36 Rafales built at Dassault. Why? Reliance is the paragon of private industry in India!

Yes, HAL has problems of a DPSU. But, please don't assign fault where there is none. HAL's rotary division is really doing well, both in developing new products and keeping up production schedules of received orders.

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby Indranil » 26 Mar 2020 05:37

HAL cannot do anything if the country does not have the will to buy desi products on priority. Money has to be made available for Apaches first. Not in parallel, but first for Apache. After that if money remains, then may be more Apaches, otherwise may be some LCH. If you leave the lip service aside this is truth! The cost of 15 LCH's is less than 5 Apaches. We have signed for 30+ Apaches already.

LCH's full flight envelop has been tested and certified. The only thing that is untested is ATGMs. And that is not HAL's problem. It will integrate ANY ATGM that GoI, Army asks it to. Right now, the ask is to get Helina onboard. LCH as a platform is ready whenever the weapon is ready. Rudras have already fired it. Helina and Nag kept struggling with the sensors. I cannot tell you about the step motherly treatment that Nag has faced in this open forum. I can tell you this much what Nag will clear this year in summer, is yet to be matched by any imported maal which is IIR-based. By the way Nag is developed by RCI which is the same agency which can develop a Shakti ASAT missile in 3 years from conception to test firing whose end game is IIR-based. So, you be the judge. Enough said on a public forum.

I mean think about it. It has all the tried and tested rotables and LRUs. It has better vibration qualities than the Dhruv. This latest Dhruv crash was a testament to its crash worthy design. What am I missing?

Hari Nair is here. And there is nobody else closer to the machine. You can ask anybody around you for a problem with LCH. Post it here. Deejay is here. Raghuk is here. Aaap pucho toh sahi!!! You have assumed something must be wrong!

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby ramana » 26 Mar 2020 06:03

agupta orders have to come from GOI.
As IR said the priority is to get the Apaches.
Could be LCH will be ordered to set up the factory production at a low rate.
But COVID related expenditures are a damper.
What I hear is there is a queue amongst helicopter pilots to get to Apache flights.

Hope similar zeal is shown for LCH.

One question for hari saar:
What is the vibration level in the LCH for the pilot?

One of my college mates told me about pilot attrition due to vibration in helicopter stream.

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby Karan M » 26 Mar 2020 13:43

agupta wrote:We accept quietly that a Su-30 produced "fully indigenously from raw materials" is STILL much more expensive than a Russian one with a 3X cost advantage AFTER a production run that should've been sufficient to amortize any initial CAPEX investments...would love to see someone dig thru' that one !


The part in bold is mistaken. We made only some 60 odd Su-30s in Phase 4. All the rest were CKD/SKD or Phase 3 (SKD w/some indigenization). The investment in localization will eventually pay off in spares and long term sustainment.


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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby Picklu » 30 Mar 2020 01:38

It is not just Apaches. Be it Rafales or S400, it appears that the P5 have the first right on our defense capex.

Not sure what's the critical short coming for which we are held by our curlies. Because, it is hard to believe that all politicians from all sides of the spectrum are equally traitor and corrupt.

So, it must be some kind of strategic compulsion to pay "hafta" in the guise of defense capex. No other sane explanation.

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby Vips » 15 Apr 2020 06:38

Make in India: Armed forces to get indigenous next gen communications solution, says CEO, Saankhya Labs.

In their effort to provide indigenous, reliable and secure wireless communication solutions to the armed forces, Saankhya Labs, is working with various defence OEMs to build battlefield ready radios with SDR technology platform.

A Wireless Communication and Semiconductor solutions company, it is developing next-gen communication solutions for defence purposes including 5G NR and 6G RAN.

Saankhya Labs is the only company in the country today that builds and delivers end to end solutions to customers based on its indigenous, patented, SDR chipsets. The chipsets are conceived, architected, designed & developed by Saankhya Labs and are patent protected. All the IP ownership is created and rests within India.

Parag Naik, Co-founder & CEO Saankya Labs tells Financial Express Online, “The government’s “Make in India” initiative has given a boost to private players in the defence space. And as a company, we committed to deliver Indigenously Designed Developed and Manufactured highly secure, reliable communication systems to the armed forces.”

“Another aspect of the govt policy is to make India a leading defence export country and we will be happy to export our communication systems to friendly countries,” he says.

What is SDR Chipsets?

Historically, communication products used a platform approach wherein a combination of different chipsets, FPGAs and DSPs were used for baseband processing. “With the launch of Saankhya’s Pruthvi 3 chipset, baseband processing is implemented in firmware to serve diverse applications like broadcast, broadband, satellite communication and defence communication,” says Naik.

Adding, “Software-Defined Radio (SDR) Chipsets are chipsets which can be programmed to support multiple frequencies and broadcast standards. They are advanced computational capabilities, coupled with ultra-low power consumption and small footprint make them an ideal choice for multiple applications.”

S-Band Sat phones

According to the company’s co-founder, “We are a Strategic MSS Technology partner of ISRO and have developed cutting edge Satellite communication systems based on its SDR Chipsets. One such next-gen communication systems is SAMRAT”.

“SAMRAT is a two-way S-Band Satellite Mobile Radio Terminal (Satphone), supporting voice,data, short messaging and geolocation services. It is a Satsleeve that is designed to fit as an add-on to any 5.5″ Android phone, converting it to a Satphone. It operates via a user-friendly app, leveraging the phone’s display, keypad, mic/speaker and GPS. Compact and lightweight, SAMRAT is a low power consumption device. It provides a highly secure mode of communication and offers excellent redundancy in no mobile network coverage areas,” he explains.

UHF IP Radios for perimeter security and long-range communications

Our UHF based communication systems include MEGHDOOT Base Station and DHAVAL CPE Modems. These are used to provide long-range non-lineofsight communication. The range of these systems is up to 12 KM. MEGHDOOT base stations are installed in a central command location while DHAVAL CPE Modems are in remote locations. The communication is over UHF band frequency”.

DHAVAL CPE modems can also be connected to infrared sensors and cameras for perimeter security. IP radios can be used to transmit data from a remote location to the central command location. They can also be used to control cameras and sensors from the central location.

Satellite Based Vessel tracking systems

NAVDOOT is a two-way Mobile Satellite Service terminal designed to operate as a satellite-based vessel tracking system for augmenting coastal security. The IP67 compliant terminal provides excellent water and dust protection in harsh marine environments.It comprises of an S-Band Modem, GPS/GLONASS Receiver (upgradable to IRNSS-NAVIC), Bluetooth Module, Antenna and Battery. An Android APK is used for control, configuration and interaction with the device.

To allow coast guard to communicate with fishermen when they are at deep sea, NAVDOOT will be installed in all fishing vessels. “This allows the coast guard to track and monitor fishing vessels in Indian coastal waters. It will also monitor boats near the international maritime boundary. It has 2-way communication capabilities”, he adds.

Next-gen communication solutions of 5G NR and 6G RAN

Development work is going on the Next-Gen communication systems including 5G NR based on ORAN and a 6G AI-based Cognitive Radio Access Network which automatically and dynamically adjusts the radio environment.

“These technologies can fulfil the future communication needs of the defence forces,” Naik concludes.

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby suryag » 15 Apr 2020 08:01

I know Parag, if someone has a chance to truly indigenize 5G-NR user side of the Silicon(cell phones) these are the guys, but of course there are many problems in that establishment

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby jpremnath » 15 Apr 2020 16:08

That's a bummer..From the way this company broke into news in the last few days, many were projecting them to be the best candidate to replace Huawei in India. Are there any corporate management issues?

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby suryag » 15 Apr 2020 20:24

Essentially, the issues are the last mile issues seen in any product, having not done this before, the last 15%(which is almost always where every company falters) needs certain kinds of competency which the teams lack add to that attrition

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby jpremnath » 15 Apr 2020 23:59

suryag wrote:Essentially, the issues are the last mile issues seen in any product, having not done this before, the last 15%(which is almost always where every company falters) needs certain kinds of competency which the teams lack add to that attrition


Hopefully they will get their act together soon...we badly need a domestic champion in the hitech/telecom sector..

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby Karan M » 02 May 2020 00:30

Great video from Saankhya and L&T

GOI doesn't seem to be able to support, understand companies like this to the extent necessary

Saankhya - very positive attitude


L&T

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby Karan M » 02 May 2020 00:33

https://telanganatoday.com/tatas-new-de ... -hyderabad

12th March 2020

Tata’s new defence subsidiary opened in Hyderabad

NISL will be bringing five new defence projects to Hyderabad which include mobile command and controls for Indian Army, mobile VSAT communication shelter, radar and microwave component manufacturing, electro optics and electronics manufacturing and R&D

Hyderabad: Tata Sons’ subsidiary Tata Advanced System Limited (TASL) has opened it’s defence subsidiary NOVA Integrated Systems Limited in Hyderabad on Thursday.

NISL will be bringing five new defence projects to Hyderabad which include mobile command and controls for Indian Army, mobile VSAT communication shelter, radar and microwave component manufacturing, electro optics and electronics manufacturing and R&D and prototyping facilities. This will create direct employment to 600 people and help the local defence supply chain to grow.


Speaking at the ground breaking ceremony of NISL, IT and Industries Minister KT Rama Rao said, “I am glad to be here for the ground-breaking ceremony of NOVA Integrated Systems Limited (NISL), the Defence subsidiary of TASL. The growth of TATA group companies in Hyderabad during the past decade and in particular the past six years has been phenomenal. We are glad that you chose Hyderabad to host over 90 per cent of TASL Aerospace manufacturing and continue to further invest in our ecosystem.”

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby Karan M » 02 May 2020 00:36

https://www.financialexpress.com/defenc ... y/1891392/
Several projects being developed successfully for the services: DRDO Chief G Satheesh Reddy

In the second part of the interview, DRDO Chief Dr G Satheesh Reddy talks about the progress made in various projects including the Main Battle Tank for the Indian Army, Light Combat Aircraft and other platforms. Following are the excerpts.

What are the plans for the Main Battle Tank (MBT) ‘Arjun’? Have the technical issues been resolved?

‘Arjun’ is one of the best in the class of Main Battle Tanks. Improvements suggested by the user during the exploitation of the first two regiments of Arjun and a number of upgrades like Track Width Mine Plough (TWMP), Remote Control Weapon System, Explosive Reaction Armour, Automatic Target Tracking, Commander’s Panoramic Sight with Night Vision, etc., have been incorporated in Mk1A version which has undergone user trials.

124 MBTs have already been manufactured at Ordnance Factory Board (OFB) and delivered to the Indian Army. Production capacity exists to meet the Army demand. Placement of indent for additional regiments of Arjun MBT Mk 1A is likely to happen soon.

By when do you think the AIP will be ready to be integrated on the Indian Navy’s submarines?

The AIP has passed the development trials demonstrating the endurance test at limited power levels. Full power trials are scheduled this year. Parallelly, work is also going on in chalking out an integration plan on the submarines by 2024.

Do you have a supply chain like some of the foreign companies have here?

The Indian private sector is involved in the development of various subsystems for DRDO and becomes part of the supply chain during the production phase after successful evaluation of the system. The supply chain of vendors for all products developed by DRDO gets established by the time the evaluation of the system is completed.

Transfer of Technology (TOT) is provided to the concerned industries. The industries working with DRDO have developed good capability and have become established as a proven vendor base for DRDO developed systems.

For example, in Akash missile production there are more than 200 industries involved, supplying various components and subsystems. In fact, the lead production agencies mostly integrate the systems from the components and sub-assemblies sourced from the specified vendors developed by DRDO. Our strength is the industry base developed by us for specific products with quality standards.

What are the projects for the Indian Army that DRDO is focusing on?

DRDO is undertaking a number of projects for the Indian Army – these include Development trials of Advanced Towed Artillery Gun System (ATAGS) which are completed; Development trials of Pinaka guided rocket including salvo firing and demonstration of range with pin-point accuracy has been conducted. Development of Quick Reaction Surface-to-Air Missile (QRSAM) Air Defence on move systems having the capability to search, track and engage targets on short halts have been proven. Indian Air Force (IAF) order for additional squadrons of surface-to-air missile system (SRSAM) Akash has been placed. The Indian Army is also in the process of procuring two more Akash regiments fitted with the indigenous seeker. Medium-Range Surface-to-Air Missile (MRSAM) is in an advanced stage of realization. NAG has completed the development and user trials and is ready for induction. Man-Portable Anti-Tank Guided Missile (MPATGM) & Helina is in advanced stages of development.

A number of variants of radars for different applications have been developed by DRDO for the Army like, ADFCR and ADTCR. Weapon Locating Radar SWATHI has already been deployed after inducted and is being exported now.

What is the status of Advanced Multi-role combat aircraft (AMCA)?

AMCA is a 5+ generation aircraft with twin engines and stealth capability. The design phase is underway seriously. Development plans are made.

DRDO has been involved in the Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) Project. Are you satisfied with its journey?

LCA ‘Tejas’ has come a long way and matured in terms of the first indigenous fighter aircraft. Final Operational Clearance (FOC) for LCA Tejas has been issued and the production order for Tejas Mk1 has been placed. Successful trials of LCA Navy version from INS Vikramaditya, both landing and take-off have placed India in an exclusive club of nations with this capability. A lot of technologies have been developed, eco-system has emerged and the experience gained in configuration, design and development of fighter class aircraft will help us in taking up much more technologically advanced programs. There are only a few nations in the world that have achieved this feat of making a fighter aircraft of their own and India is one of them.

India has not succeeded in making its own engines. What are the challenges being faced?

We have got a lot of knowledge base during the development of Kaveri engine. Insights were gained in the field of material developments, various subsystem development, manufacturing, and assembly and testing of an engine of this class. Kaveri Engine developed may not meet present LCA requirement, but variants will be used in other applications. Now, the teams are equipped to take up the development of next-generation aircraft engine.

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby ramana » 03 May 2020 05:54

KaranM,

Do you have a link for the Parliment Report March 2020 ?


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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby ramana » 05 May 2020 05:05

Thanks

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby jaysimha » 11 May 2020 16:09

drdo news letter
may 2020 | volume 40 | issue 05

Raksha mantri Commissions Mobile Virology Research and Diagnostics Lab for COVID-19 Detection

https://drdo.gov.in/sites/default/files/whats_new_document/DRDO%20NL%20May%202020_0.pdf

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby ashishvikas » 16 May 2020 19:14

Separate budget for Indian made defence items, negative import list: FM Nirmala Sitharaman

By Manu Pubby, ET Bureau

India would also expand the list of weapons that can not be imported, the finance minister said.

The government will make separate budgetary provisions for procuring only Indian made defence items and will generate a negative list of weapons that can be imported as part of larger reforms to boost the economy in the post Covid 19 world.

The minister said that the long pending corporatisation of the Ordnance Factory Board (OFB) has been approved that will enable them to cut costs and overheads for more efficient operations. She also said that the OFB factories could be listed in the markets in the near future to bring in transparency in their operations.

https://m.economictimes.com/news/defenc ... ssion=true

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby MeshaVishwas » 16 May 2020 19:17


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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby Vips » 16 May 2020 20:49

FM announces hike in FDI in defence production; ban on certain imports of weapons.

To boost Make in India in defence production, finance minister Nirmala Sitharaman on Saturday said FDI limit in defence manufacturing will be hiked to 74 per cent from 49 per cent while some weapons and platforms will be banned for imports.

Items banned for imports can only be purchased from within the country, she said presenting the fourth tranche of the economic stimulus package. Also, there will be indigenisation of some imported spares, she said adding separate budget provisioning for domestic capital procurement will be done.This, she said, will reduce the huge defence import bill.

Ordnance Factory Boards will be corporatised for better management and eventually get listed on the stock market, she said adding corporatisation is not privatisation.

For the time-bound defence procurement process and faster decision-making, project management unit (PMU) to support contract management will be set up.

The FDI limit in the defence manufacturing under automatic route will be raised from 49 per cent to 74 per cent, she said.

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby ashishvikas » 16 May 2020 22:20

#Brazil's ambassador to India says #HAL is welcome to explore the possibility of buying a stake in Brazilian aircraft manufacturer #Embraer. 'Doors are open,' he tells @DDNewslive in an interview.


https://t.co/3xOBimdnY5

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby nam » 16 May 2020 23:08

An indirect way to work around the sanction on Emberaer?

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby kit » 17 May 2020 01:10

nam wrote:An indirect way to work around the sanction on Emberaer?


it doesnt matter as long as it is done .. why kick out the cow for spoilt milk ?

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby ramana » 17 May 2020 02:52

Its high time the OFB was corporatized. OFB as a board has mismanaged the whole gamut of Ordnance manufactures over the decades. It has become another tenured civil service not answerable to anyone. all those ammo blow-ups in gun barrels were an affront to quality manufacture of ordnance. And who knows what else is going on?
Does anyone recall the fuzes for HSLD bombs had to be withdrawn?

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby Karan M » 17 May 2020 10:12

Literally everything the OFB has touched, it has poisoned. I am hoping the Dhanush and Sarang turn out to be rare exceptions.
Right now - their:
Fuzes dont work
Rockets explode
125mm tank ammo (HE/HEAT) is subpar, so bad that IA curtailed training
L70 gun ammo is literally pathetic
Their grenades flopped

Successive GOIs including this one have treated it as a political hot potato and ignored significant measures. This corporatization didn't save AI or BSNL, very unlikely it will do anything to OFB bar deep surgery. A majority of its workforce need to be retrained, or let go, and unions need to be brought in
check.

Only good things - pvt suppliers and PSU supplier alternatives to OFB exist. If they get significant ie orders which allow IA to supplant OFB which should get only token orders until it fixes its QA/QC issue, then yeah, we have had progress.

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby abhik » 17 May 2020 11:27

1. The Ordinance Factory Board news is almost a year old (if not older), don't know why it is being recycled as a new step. Have they give na time line or updates on what progress has been upto now?
https://www.financialexpress.com/defenc ... d/1683119/

2. What is the point of raising the FDI? They have been raising the FDI raising the limit gradually over the years without almost no new investments being made. Why push the same policy again?

3. This "negative list" with so few categories is another useless policy, as per DPP the MoD is not supposed to be able to import 155mm artillery because local alternatives exists - so what is the point of this?

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby Karan M » 17 May 2020 12:55

The FDI policy is being changed as foreign firms dont want to transfer tech to companies outside their control. The case by case 100% policy didn't work either.

OFB plan is old, its public implementation indicates seriousness.

The negative list is a huge positive step as it ensures that some categories will perforce be local where we have competence.

DPP does not say what you say it does. The forces get to decide which category a project is in, imported, license made, indian designed and made in india and the project goes accordingly.

The indigenous budget is also a significant positive step.

I suggest a bit less of cynicism and deeper effort in determining the huge step the GOI has taken.

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby nachiket » 18 May 2020 22:09

The state of OFB is like that of Premier and Hindustan motors during the time when automobile imports were banned and foreign automakers were barred from selling their cars in India. They have a captive market with no real domestic competition (and they will oppose the emergence of one tooth and nail) and have no desire or reason to improve the quality of what they make simply because the quality of their work has no bearing on whether OFB continues to exist and everyone working there has their job secure.

I'm not sure what this corporatization means. Nothing short of privatization will make a difference there. That or allow genuine competition to emerge by actually giving orders to private companies to manufacture DRDO developed weapons and equipment which would have hitherto been given to the OFB by default.

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby Karan M » 19 May 2020 09:18

Agree completely Nachiket.

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby ramana » 21 May 2020 23:43

jaysimha wrote:drdo news letter
may 2020 | volume 40 | issue 05

Raksha mantri Commissions Mobile Virology Research and Diagnostics Lab for COVID-19 Detection

https://drdo.gov.in/sites/default/files/whats_new_document/DRDO%20NL%20May%202020_0.pdf



awesome.

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby skumar » 22 May 2020 07:31

Noob question / comment.

The GE414 is going to be a strategic pain point for India.

Can India hand over the development of the Kaveri Engine to an enterprise like L&T? Would be worth spending X,000 crores to get an indigenous fully owned engine.

India must approach this like the US approached the moon mission in the 60s, a true strategic national mission, going all in.

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby ramana » 22 May 2020 09:18

skumar, From what little I know of jet engine design Kaveri won't deliver anymore without a new core. DRDO chief said we are developing a larger engine.

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Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby jaysimha » 22 May 2020 13:02

DRDO develops UV Disinfection Tower
Posted On: 04 MAY 2020 5:13PM by PIB Delhi
https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1620919

jaysimha
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Joined: 20 Dec 2017 14:30

Re: India's R&D in Defence DRDO, PSUs and Private Sector

Postby jaysimha » 22 May 2020 13:22



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