Indian Space Program: News & Discussion - Sept 2016

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Re: Indian Space Program: News & Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby ranneel » 29 Dec 2019 02:36


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Re: Indian Space Program: News & Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby Ashokk » 01 Jan 2020 19:28

Chinese smartphone company may be the first to add Desi GPS
Bengaluru: The Indian Space Research Organisation (Isro) is in advanced level negotiations with Xiaomi, a Chinese mobile phone maker to include NaVIC chipsets — which will provide India’s own version of GPS services to users in the sub-continent — in its phone.

The chipset will be made by US chipmaker Qualcomm Technologies in collaboration with Isro, as announced in October this year. TOI first reported that Isro was in talks with Qualcomm in July 2019.

A senior official from Isro said on Wednesday that if all goes well, Xiaomi may launch handsets integrated with NavIC in about seven months. “We are looking at the mid-segment mobile phones,” he said.

While revealing that Isro is confident of getting Xiaomi onboard, the official, however, said that “nothing has been finalised.” On the collaboration with Qualcomm, the official said: “We are expecting them to release the chipsets later this month.”

NavIC is India’s regional satellite navigation system (IRNSS) that provides accurate real-time positioning and timing services. The constellation of satellites under the IRNSS programme covers a region of about 1,500 km around its boundary, with plans for expansion.

The inability to integrate NaVIC with mobile phones has been a barrier preventing taking the IRNSS services to the masses, although Isro and the Indian Air Force (IAF) are also working on equipping fighter planes with it and commercial vehicles registered after April 1 2019 are mandated to also have trackers with NavIC.

More than 30 companies are manufacturing Automotive Research Association of India (ARAI) or International Centre for Automotive Technology (ICAT) approved NavIC-enabled vehicle trackers in India already.

Besides this, Isro said that a Multi Chip Module (MCM) based on 55nm technology developed through Taiwan-based SkyTraQ has been procured by its commercial arm to enable Indian industry in productionisation of NavIC Messaging Receiver and Vehicle Tracker Units.

Sivan had earlier told TOI: “In the future, we are also looking at NavIC on auto rickshaws carrying advertisements. At present the advertiser does not know if the ad is reaching the target audience and how many places the rickshaw actually goes to. With NavIC, they will be able to know the exact details.”

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Re: Indian Space Program: News & Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby disha » 02 Jan 2020 03:21

Prem Kumar wrote: Ratan Sehgal must be given the Litvinenko treatment, wherever he might be in the world. It'll send a message that you cannot hide.


We are not like ex-Soviets. Crude and heartless to give Litvinenko treatment to traitors. We just wish that the karma visits the progeny of Ratan Sehgal in terms of vishkanyas or vishkumars and leave it there. If that requires some gentle and benign encouragement from the powers that be.

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Re: Indian Space Program: News & Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby Haridas » 02 Jan 2020 03:41

https://m.timesofindia.com/india/chandr ... 055941.cms

Chandrayaan-3 to cost over Rs 600-cr; launch may spillover to 2021
Chethan Kumar | TNN | Updated: Jan 1, 2020, 13:56 IST

BENGALURU: The Indian Space Research Organisation (Isro), which failed to land a probe on Moon in its first attempt in September 2019 (Chandrayaan-2) has its eyes still set on Earth’s natural satellite.
The space agency has already begun work on Chandrayaan-3, and Isro chairman K Sivan said it will cost Rs 250 cr (for lander, rover and propulsion module) and Rs 365 crore for launch. The total cost: Rs 615 crore. The TOI was first to report that Isro has begun work on Chandrayaan-3, in its November 14 edition.

"Chandrayaan-3 will have a lander, rover and a propulsion module. The government has approved the project and we have formed the project team. Work is going on smoothly," Sivan said.
"...We are targeting the launch for this year, but it may spillover to the next year," Sivan said, while sources reiterated that the internal target set for launch is November 2020.

As reported by TOI earlier, since the Chandrayaan-2 orbiter is working fine, the new mission will have a different composition. It will have the lander and the rover. And, as per initial plans and instructions given by the Chairman, Isro is looking at having a detachable module that will carry the fuel.

“...It will basically carry fuel and help in taking the landing module — which will have the rover sitting inside the lander — to the lunar orbit.”
In Chandrayaan-2, fuel carried on the orbiter was used for all the manoeuvres performed post launch and until the separation of the landing module. Here, the propulsion module will aid this process.
Further, Isro is also looking at reducing the number of manoeuvres around Earth and also during the transit from here to the lunar orbit. “Instead of six manoeuvres around Earth we may have just three or four, those details are being worked out,” a source said.

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Re: Indian Space Program: News & Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby Haridas » 02 Jan 2020 04:01

https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/scien ... ssion=true

My view:
https://twitter.com/HaridasKukkur/statu ... 68961?s=19

The orbit raising will be much faster now, bcoz lander has more thrust than orbiter.

I do hope that scope creep is encouraged to fully use about 300kg more dryweight that lander can take (bcoz there is no need to lug an orbiter this time).
Candidates would be:
1. Carrying nuclear energy peltier power pack to enable mission life > 1 lunar day
2. Radio transceiver with greater bandwidth / link budget to orbiter and earth.

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Re: Indian Space Program: News & Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby disha » 02 Jan 2020 14:15



Thanks for the link. One must go through the audio interview. Summary from the above URL reproducing:

Some of the topics we covered are listed below

1. India, along with Singapore, Azerbaijan and Brazil were candidate countries to host 2022 IAC. India hosted the IAC 1988 and 2007. This interview was recorded a day before the announcement was made. Baku, the capital of Azerbaijan was selected as the host for 2022.

2. Potential ISRO participation with NASA’s Artemis programme return to the Moon. Italy and Japan will join NASA. (ISRO remains uncommitted at this stage).

3. PS4 Orbital Platform – ISRO is making use of the 4th stage of the PSLV to host payload in LEO for several months after it has completed the delivery of the primary payload(s). It will be augmented with RCS and propulsion system to maintain attitude and orbit – potentially indefinitely! Solar panel on the outside will deliver up to 100W. End of mission, the platform will comply with agreed guidelines – to a minimum perigee of 500km if not deorbit.

4. Gaganyaan – Coming up parachute tests by end of this year, launch abort t(in-flight) test. Uncrewed test flight next year and 2021. Crewed flight to LEO by 2022 is still on target.

5. Crew selection process is still progressing. Selection criteria require test pilot experience so females will not be part of the first crew. The first flight will consist of a crew of 3. Initially, a team of 4 will go to Russia for astronaut training – a single backup. (Surprising – I would have expected at least 6 for two teams – primary and back up).

6. Human Spaceflight and Exploration conference in Bangalore, India in January 2020. This mission is to generate public awareness of India’s Gaganyaan programme. Rakesh Sharma and astronauts from other countries will also be present.

7. Small Satellite Launch vehicle (SSLV) to address the newly developing market for small satellites. Currently, small satellites use rideshare that does not offer customised timing or orbit. Both are determined by the primary payload. The SSLV to only from Sriharikota.

8. The reference in the Indian (Google translation from original Telegu) press for a proposed new launch site in Kulasekharapattan is not really taken seriously by ISRO. Initially to be launched from Sriharikota but may develop a mobile launcher in the future. Sea launch is not under consideration at the present.


9. Alternative launch sites may come in the future but currently, Sriharikota’s launch capacity is not being used fully.

10. ISRO’s first mission to Venus (Shukriyaan) to be launched in 20203. Mass and mission architecture already defined. Aditya-L1 – launch in the second half of 2022. Mars Orbiter Mission 2, architecture not yet finalised – may include lander and rover. No date yet.

11. Chandrayan-3 – not announced yet but there will be a Chandrayaan-3 and more.

12. Failure Analysis Committee investigating. ISRO has a fairly good idea from the data on what went wrong. So far – hard landing resulting in spacecraft damage. Why did it happen? The problem is a minor due to “dispersion”? i.e. something was off-nominal but would not say if hardware or software issue? The FAC report will be publically published.

13. Space station – announced by the ISRO chairman. It will happen but no timeline.

14. Reusable Launch Vehicle second mission will involve an airdrop and land on a strip at Chitradurga in Karnataka. Target date – December 2019.

15. Semi cryogenic engine. Engine development in progress with a target date of 2022. Testing and significant progress will take place AFTER the Gaganyaan mission is over.

16. Next GSLV-Mk3 scheduled for mid-2020 for comsat launches.

17. Will India use the name “astronaut”? ISRO will conduct something in the way of a public poll and make a formal decision.
Gaganyaan will not be one-off. May go to the Moon, ISS or participate in Artemis. ISRO not ruling out anything.

18. ISRO continuing to cooperate with Russia, France, ESA, the USA, Collaboration with China is also possible. Two experiments from the Indian Institute of Science will be conducted on the Chinese Space Station. Collaboration with China in science is straight forward but at the agency level – that may come in the future


I am glad by point# 8 above. I was also surprised that ISRO considered Kulasekharapattan in TN as the second space center. Of course, taking over the Manapad beach area for Indic causes is a good thing, however for polar launches and to distribute launch sites, it is better to put it in northwest. At the same time point# 9 buttresses that the current space center has a spare capacity that is not being used.

It appears that the article on Kulasekharapattan seems to be mischievous.

For point #17, it is 'GaganaViharin'. A close second is 'GaganaYatri'. We do not have to twist it to any 'Naut'.

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Re: Indian Space Program: News & Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby chetonzz » 02 Jan 2020 16:14

disha wrote:


Thanks for the link. One must go through the audio interview. Summary from the above URL reproducing:

Some of the topics we covered are listed below

1. India, along with Singapore, Azerbaijan and Brazil were candidate countries to host 2022 IAC. India hosted the IAC 1988 and 2007. This interview was recorded a day before the announcement was made. Baku, the capital of Azerbaijan was selected as the host for 2022.

2. Potential ISRO participation with NASA’s Artemis programme return to the Moon. Italy and Japan will join NASA. (ISRO remains uncommitted at this stage).

3. PS4 Orbital Platform – ISRO is making use of the 4th stage of the PSLV to host payload in LEO for several months after it has completed the delivery of the primary payload(s). It will be augmented with RCS and propulsion system to maintain attitude and orbit – potentially indefinitely! Solar panel on the outside will deliver up to 100W. End of mission, the platform will comply with agreed guidelines – to a minimum perigee of 500km if not deorbit.

4. Gaganyaan – Coming up parachute tests by end of this year, launch abort t(in-flight) test. Uncrewed test flight next year and 2021. Crewed flight to LEO by 2022 is still on target.

5. Crew selection process is still progressing. Selection criteria require test pilot experience so females will not be part of the first crew. The first flight will consist of a crew of 3. Initially, a team of 4 will go to Russia for astronaut training – a single backup. (Surprising – I would have expected at least 6 for two teams – primary and back up).

6. Human Spaceflight and Exploration conference in Bangalore, India in January 2020. This mission is to generate public awareness of India’s Gaganyaan programme. Rakesh Sharma and astronauts from other countries will also be present.

7. Small Satellite Launch vehicle (SSLV) to address the newly developing market for small satellites. Currently, small satellites use rideshare that does not offer customised timing or orbit. Both are determined by the primary payload. The SSLV to only from Sriharikota.

8. The reference in the Indian (Google translation from original Telegu) press for a proposed new launch site in Kulasekharapattan is not really taken seriously by ISRO. Initially to be launched from Sriharikota but may develop a mobile launcher in the future. Sea launch is not under consideration at the present.


9. Alternative launch sites may come in the future but currently, Sriharikota’s launch capacity is not being used fully.

10. ISRO’s first mission to Venus (Shukriyaan) to be launched in 20203. Mass and mission architecture already defined. Aditya-L1 – launch in the second half of 2022. Mars Orbiter Mission 2, architecture not yet finalised – may include lander and rover. No date yet.

11. Chandrayan-3 – not announced yet but there will be a Chandrayaan-3 and more.

12. Failure Analysis Committee investigating. ISRO has a fairly good idea from the data on what went wrong. So far – hard landing resulting in spacecraft damage. Why did it happen? The problem is a minor due to “dispersion”? i.e. something was off-nominal but would not say if hardware or software issue? The FAC report will be publically published.

13. Space station – announced by the ISRO chairman. It will happen but no timeline.

14. Reusable Launch Vehicle second mission will involve an airdrop and land on a strip at Chitradurga in Karnataka. Target date – December 2019.

15. Semi cryogenic engine. Engine development in progress with a target date of 2022. Testing and significant progress will take place AFTER the Gaganyaan mission is over.

16. Next GSLV-Mk3 scheduled for mid-2020 for comsat launches.

17. Will India use the name “astronaut”? ISRO will conduct something in the way of a public poll and make a formal decision.
Gaganyaan will not be one-off. May go to the Moon, ISS or participate in Artemis. ISRO not ruling out anything.

18. ISRO continuing to cooperate with Russia, France, ESA, the USA, Collaboration with China is also possible. Two experiments from the Indian Institute of Science will be conducted on the Chinese Space Station. Collaboration with China in science is straight forward but at the agency level – that may come in the future


I am glad by point# 8 above. I was also surprised that ISRO considered Kulasekharapattan in TN as the second space center. Of course, taking over the Manapad beach area for Indic causes is a good thing, however for polar launches and to distribute launch sites, it is better to put it in northwest. At the same time point# 9 buttresses that the current space center has a spare capacity that is not being used.

It appears that the article on Kulasekharapattan seems to be mischievous.

For point #17, it is 'GaganaViharin'. A close second is 'GaganaYatri'. We do not have to twist it to any 'Naut'.


there appears to be tie between "Gaganaut" and "Vyomanaut" in media reports from many years...

i personally prefer "Gaganaut" which is catchy given that first human in space was Gagarin.

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Re: Indian Space Program: News & Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby Kakarat » 02 Jan 2020 19:05

disha wrote:


Thanks for the link. One must go through the audio interview. Summary from the above URL reproducing:

8. The reference in the Indian (Google translation from original Telegu) press for a proposed new launch site in Kulasekharapattan is not really taken seriously by ISRO. Initially to be launched from Sriharikota but may develop a mobile launcher in the future. Sea launch is not under consideration at the present.



I am glad by point# 8 above. I was also surprised that ISRO considered Kulasekharapattan in TN as the second space center. Of course, taking over the Manapad beach area for Indic causes is a good thing, however for polar launches and to distribute launch sites, it is better to put it in northwest. At the same time point# 9 buttresses that the current space center has a spare capacity that is not being used.

It appears that the article on Kulasekharapattan seems to be mischievous.

For point #17, it is 'GaganaViharin'. A close second is 'GaganaYatri'. We do not have to twist it to any 'Naut'.


This is a old interview, Proposal for new launch center was confirmed by Gov in parliament and the chairman has also confirmed the start of land acquisition in the January 01, 2020 press conference

Press Meet - Briefing by Dr. K Sivan, Chairman, ISRO

On the capacity building front, a second launch port, exclusively for the Small Satellite Launch Vehicle (SSLV), is planned to be established in Thoothukudi district, Tamil Nadu. “Land acquisition activities are presently in progress”, said Dr. Sivan.

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Re: Indian Space Program: News & Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby lakshmanM » 03 Jan 2020 17:44

I'm just gonna leave it here - Gaganyaan.

Image

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Re: Indian Space Program: News & Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby Vips » 08 Jan 2020 01:28

India’s first manned mission Gaganyaan may take 1 astronaut only.

Indian Space Research Organisation (Isro) chief K Sivan detailed the country’s first manned mission to space on Tuesday, saying the four men shortlisted for the programme will receive physical fitness training in Russia for 11 months, but the first spaceflight in December 2021 may carry just one person.

Under the mission, named Gaganyaan and expected to cost ₹10,000 crore, India is expected to send astronauts, all Indian Air Force pilots, to the low earth orbit, an earth-centred orbit with an altitude of 2,000km where most of the manmade objects in outer space are placed.

Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced the space mission from the ramparts of the Red Fort on August 15, 2018, saying that “an Indian son or daughter” will carry the national flag on the trip when the country celebrates its 75th year of Independence in 2022.

Sivan, however, confirmed on Tuesday that all astronauts shortlisted for the trip were men. “I cannot reveal the identities of the four individuals shortlisted for the Gaganyaan mission, but all of them are men,” the Isro chief told HT.

The astronauts will likely begin their training in Russia from the third week of January, the Indian space agency has said.

In Russia, the astronauts will receive physical fitness training in different types of environments to help them acclimatise to travelling in space. “The astronauts will undergo the physical fitness training in Russia for 11 months, after which they will receive module specific training in India. In that, they will train in the crew and service module designed by us, learn to operate it, work around it, do simulations,” Sivan said.

The Isro chief said Mysuru-based Defence Food Research Laboratory (DFRL) was preparing a food menu for the mission. “The food for the astronauts is being developed by DFRL. Apart from that, a number of DRDO labs are helping with various aspects of the mission. The space suit is also being designed; Russian help is being taken for that,” Sivan said.

News agency ANI tweeted that DFRL prepared food items including egg rolls, vegetarian rolls, idlis, moong dal halwa and pulao, along with a food heater. HT could not independently verify the list of food items being developed.

Sivan said that even though all four people will receive the complete training, it was likely that only one person would go to space during the first mission, which is scheduled for December 2021.

“We are designing the mission for three people to go to low earth orbit for seven days. However, whether we send two people or one person and whether they spend seven days in the orbit or one will be decided later on in the mission after the two unmanned flights. Usually, the first flight is very crucial and even countries such as the USA, Russia, and China sent only one person for the first time and for a very short time – one orbit, or one day, or even like the USA did only part of the orbit,” said Sivan.

The design of the crew and the service module, which will together form the Gaganyaan spacecraft, has been also been completed, the Isro chairperson said.

“The design for the launch vehicle that will be human-rated has also been completed. This is all on paper; the realisation hasn’t started yet. Once the realisation starts, the first model will come and it will go for qualification then the flight model will be made most likely by December this year. When you are planning a mission with humans, all systems have to be more robust; failure rate has to be low,” said Sivan.

India’s heaviest launch vehicle, the GSLV Mark III, referred to as “Bahubali”, will carry the module with astronauts to space. It has been redesigned to have a four-metre payload faring (the top of a launch vehicle where the spacecraft is housed).

The mission will take off from the second launch pad at the Satish Dhawan Space Centre at Sriharikota. The launch pad is also being remodelled to allow for human presence. Currently, no one is allowed beyond a distance of around 6km from the launch vehicle once the fuelling has taken place.

A committee of external experts has been set up to review the systems and check for robustness. “Usually, for other missions, the review is done by Isro people, but since humans are involved in the mission, a committee of external experts will review the work,” said Sivan.

A humanoid robot that will be sent on the unmanned flight is also taking shape. “This humanoid will basically mimic human functions, will record parameters such as blood pressure, heart rate, etc. This is getting ready. The two unmanned flights will let us ensure whether everything is working well, whether the environment in the modules are controlled, whether it is safe for humans. Like any programme, after two successful test flights, we will undertake the operational flight,” said Sivan.

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Re: Indian Space Program: News & Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby ManuJ » 08 Jan 2020 01:59

lakshmanM wrote:I'm just gonna leave it here - Gaganyaan.

Image

That's a beautiful rendering, but I would love to see the Indian tiranga imprinted prominently on the façade.

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Re: Indian Space Program: News & Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby Varoon Shekhar » 08 Jan 2020 02:29

I wonder why nothing was said about the 2 unmanned tests of the crew module, that are going to take place, before the actual manned one. The first unmanned flight is scheduled for the end of 2020.

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Re: Indian Space Program: News & Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby Ashokk » 09 Jan 2020 02:04

New data relay satellites to keep Gaganyaan crew in touch with Earth
Astronauts can be fully and continuously in touch with mission control throughout their travel
India plans to ring in its own era of space-to-space tracking and communication of its space assets this year by putting up a new satellite series called the Indian Data Relay Satellite System.

The IDRSS is planned to track and be constantly in touch with Indian satellites, in particular those in low-earth orbits which have limited coverage of earth.

In the coming years, it will be vital to Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), whose roadmap is dotted with advanced LEO missions such as space docking, space station, as well as distant expeditions to moon, Mars and Venus. It will also be useful in monitoring launches, according to K. Sivan, ISRO Chairman and Secretary, Department of Space.

The first beneficiary would be the prospective crew members of the Gaganyaan mission of 2022 who can be fully and continuously in touch with mission control throughout their travel.

“When we have the Gaganyaan mission we want it to be covered and be visible 100% so that action can be taken in any exigency,” he said.

Work initiated
Work on the two IDRSS satellites planned initially has begun. The first of them will be sent towards the end of 2020. It will precede the pre-Gaganyaan experimental unmanned space flight which will have a humanoid dummy. A second one will follow in 2021. The two will offer near total tracking, sending and receiving of information from the crew 24/7.

Older space majors such as the U.S. and Russia started their relay satellite systems in the late 1970s-80s and a few already have around 10 satellites each. They have used them to monitor their respective space stations Mir and the International Space Station, and trips that dock with them, as well as the Hubble Space Telescope.
New data relay satellites to keep Gaganyaan crew in touch with Earth

Dr. Sivan said IDRSS satellites of the 2,000 kg class would be launched on the GSLV launcher to geostationary orbits around 36,000 km away. In such apparently fixed orbits, they would be covering the same area on earth. A satellite in GEO covers a third of the earth below and three of them can provide total coverage.

‘IDRSS is imperative’
During the launch of the human mission and also when the crew craft orbits earth from a distance of 400 km, at least one ground station must see and track it. But with available ground stations, that would not be the case. Without data relay satellites, ISRO would have to create a large number ground stations everywhere or hire them globally and yet the crewed spacecraft would not be visible all the time.

“We require the IDRSS system when our astronauts are in space. But I would prefer the relay spacecraft to be in place even before we launch the unmanned mission,” Dr. Sivan said.

While the U.S. is putting up its third-generation advanced fleet of TDRS (Tracking & Data Relay Satellites), Russia has its Satellite Data Relay Network and Europe is building its own European Data Relay System. China is into its second generation Tianlian II series

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Re: Indian Space Program: News & Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby krishGo » 10 Jan 2020 05:15

disha wrote:I am glad by point# 8 above. I was also surprised that ISRO considered Kulasekharapattan in TN as the second space center. Of course, taking over the Manapad beach area for Indic causes is a good thing, however for polar launches and to distribute launch sites, it is better to put it in northwest. At the same time point# 9 buttresses that the current space center has a spare capacity that is not being used.

It appears that the article on Kulasekharapattan seems to be mischievous.

For point #17, it is 'GaganaViharin'. A close second is 'GaganaYatri'. We do not have to twist it to any 'Naut'.


I too remember reading somewhere about land owners in KP being notified about imminent acquisition for the new launch complex and that causing some concern among the villagers.

Also adding to your point, KP while not the best suited for geo synchronous launches, it would still allow for such a mission profile. A launch site on the north west (Gujarat) would only support polar launches.

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Re: Indian Space Program: News & Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby Vamsee » 10 Jan 2020 22:25

ISRO posted this image taken by CARTOSAT-3 on their twitter account :wink: :wink:

Image

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Re: Indian Space Program: News & Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby Vips » 10 Jan 2020 22:37

India's lack of electronics manufacturing ecosystem is hurting Isro's space plans.

India’s space agency planned to build as well as launch 17 homegrown satellites in 2019. It, however, managed to deliver only about half due to a shortage of electronics parts. The absence of a robust homegrown electronics ecosystem is hurting the ambitious targets set by the Indian Space Research Organisation (Isro), which has lined up more than 60 missions over the next five years.

These include building new generation communication and earth observation satellites, heavier rockets, return missions to the moon and Mars, and its first human space flight endeavour. Each of these spacecraft and rockets needs electronic components and systems, mostly imported.

Over half of the electronics components on a large satellite and nearly a tenth for a rocket are imported as they need to meet stringent standards. These components should be reliable, radiation hardened and work through the mission life of a satellite, which could be as many as 15 years.

The need, therefore, for such components is only going to increase as the space agency becomes more aggressive in pursuing cuttingedge missions.
Congress Party leader and Rajya Sabha member Jairam Ramesh has, in fact, raised concerns over the country’s high import of electronics, arguing it represents a crucial gap in Isro’s capabilities.

“Over 80% of electronics components are imported. Carbon composites are sourced from only one Japanese company. Microprocessor design capability is impressive, but the country still awaits a state-of the-art fabrication and manufacturing facility. All these gaps need to be filled urgently,” Ramesh, who is the chairman of the House panel on science, technology, environment, forests and climate change, is believed to have written in a letter to Rajya Sabha Chairman Venkaiah Naidu, according to a report by The Hindustan Times.

Ramesh did not respond to calls or text messages seeking comment.

“It is a direct correlation to what is happening in the smartphone industry,” says Parv Sharma, research analyst at Counterpoint Research. “We don’t manufacture them, only assemble (them) here. India imports smartphones (with) semiconductor chips and electronics in semi-knockdown or completely knockdown kits, and we assemble the phones here,” he explains.

India is a big importer of electronics primarily because the homegrown industry is virtually absent. In fiscal year 2019, India’s electronics a stable policy. “The key thing for electronics manufacturing is semiconductor fabs,” says Sharma.

FAB EFFORT
To be sure, Isro owns a fabrication facility that is capable of producing chips with 45 nanometre technology. Since it took over Semi-Conductor Laboratory, a public sector undertaking a decade ago, it has upgraded the fab and developed a micro-electrical mechanical system (MeMs).
The biggest shift has been in building the Vikram processor, crucial for navigation and guidance control of Isro’s rockets.

“There are some critical components, such as the Vikram processor, that we have already built,” says Dr K Radhakrishnan, former chairman of Isro. The space agency has been collaborating with industry locally to produce electronics as well as systems for its satellites, he adds. “We have to get the sub-systems from the industry or from our own (Isro) system. There are very few (global) vendors who can supply these systems,” he says.

Isro has stepped up efforts to build capabilities with local manufacturers to meet its requirements for electronics as well as tap the global opportunity for satellites. According to estimates by Stratview Research, the global space electronics market is projected to touch $1.62 billion by 2024.

The growth is expected to come from increased production of satellites, especially small ones; the market entry of commercial space companies and as more countries look to build satellites on their own. In September, Bengaluru-based Centum Electronics set up a new facility to design, develop
and make electronic components for both Isro’s satellites and rockets. “Keeping in mind the growing number of missions of Isro, we have made significant investments to ensure (that) we can deliver products with the right quality, technology and in required quantities to be a trusted partner for Isro,” says Apparao Mallavarapu, CMD of Centum Group.

The number of companies that are taking up the opportunity is, however, still small, says an Isro official who did not wish to be named.“Earlier, we had the issue of volumes. Now, we are giving them our roadmap of satellites and spacecraft and assuring them orders. It is becoming difficult to get companies even to build rectifiers and Integrated Circuits,” says the official.

NEW POLICY PUSH
Texas Instruments chose Bengaluru to set up its first design base outside of the United States in the late Eighties, and since then India has emerged as a design hub for most global companies — Intel, Qualcomm, ZTE, ARM and AMD — to build their next-generation chips. This has also helped spawn a startup ecosystem where entrepreneurs have set up fabless chip design companies — designing chips, but getting them assembled, tested and manufactured in independent foundries such as TSMC in Taiwan.

While India has emerged as a global hub for chip design, making them at foundries abroad could be an interim step before local fabs emerge, say experts. India should tap the homegrown expertise in chip and electronic systems design, says Naga Bharath Daka, cofounder and chief operating officer of Skyroot, the first private sector company designing a rocket that will likely launch by 2021.

“The semiconductor fabrication industry...did not take off in India, mainly because it is highly investment intensive. Even globally, pureplay semiconductor manufacturing is becoming highly consolidated,” says Daka. “What we can only hope for is the emergence of a good number of fabless semiconductor companies based out of India, which we are seeing in the start-up ecosystem.”

The Hyderabad-based company, founded by four former Isro scientists, designs rockets that can carry small satellites into low earth orbits. “Isro should primarily target to replace all critical chipsets if any (where we are dependent on a single maker or vendor) that are currently being imported, with indigenous chip designs that can be manufactured in the required quantities from pure-play foundries externally,” Daka adds.

Sanjay Nekkanti, the founder of Dhruva Space, says “Isro builds large satellites weighing over 500 kg with over 10 years’ mission life. Mission delays of 1-2 years is inevitable with space agencies given the complexities involved.” The company, which builds satellites weighing up to 100 kg, is using commercial electronics qualified for space using proprietary screening methods, he says.

A new electronics policy, unveiled by the government in February last year, could make the country a hub for electronics manufacturing, though.
The policy aims to promote manufacturing and export along the entire electronics value chain, with an emphasis on providing a special package of incentives for mega high-tech projects, including semiconductor facilities. It also entails creating a Sovereign Patent Fund to promote the development and acquisition of intellectual property in the sector.

The thrust is on fabless chip design, and intended to boost the medical, automotive, power electronics and strategic electronics industry. The plan is to make the local electronics industry generate over $400 billion in five years. If the policy push works as intended, India could move one step ahead in reducing electronics imports significantly by 2025.

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Re: Indian Space Program: News & Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby Prasad » 10 Jan 2020 23:51

Harping on fabless design capabilities is a convenient copout by the govt. They shy away from the $10bn needed to setup a world class fab. Everything else is just wishy washy stuff to sugar coat this fact.

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Re: Indian Space Program: News & Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby Vayutuvan » 11 Jan 2020 04:10

Prasad garu, I thought a state of the art fab cost would be about $3 billion.

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Re: Indian Space Program: News & Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby Prasad » 11 Jan 2020 07:17

Well $10bn might sound like an exaggeration but look at these costs involved https://www.pcgamesn.com/samsung/hwaseo ... oubled-euv that's for the Samsung euv fab. State of the art max. They've ploughed nearly 2.5bn until their Austin fab.

I remember the new Intel Chandler plant costing $7bn in 2010ish. And the 7nm upgrades in Oregon cost billions too.

Remember they're investing in developing new tech to produce. We will have to buy theirs equipment be it from Samsung or Intel or tsmc. Guess how much that'll cost.

But again question of what will not investing cost. Foundry market is a constantly increasing thing as more and devices areas demanded. This will give you a constant revenue streams if it's based on an existing tech so that many companies can seamlessly move over to ours. You must also set aside money to invest in next gen production tech. But that'll take a few years. So you must also be ready to buy more new tech as and when it comes up from the equipment maker you got your existing tech from. Knowing this they'll ask for more. Aerospace defence numbers are miniscule in comparison to commercial devices. And this is just Silicon. We also need GaN fabs. Just look at replacing all our S, C, L, X band radar TRMMs and that's a big enough number.

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Re: Indian Space Program: News & Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby Prasad » 11 Jan 2020 07:26

No wonder babus balk, and hem n haw the second somebody asks if there govt is serious about setting up a fab. I saw one for sure when questioned by an iit Prof.

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Re: Indian Space Program: News & Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby Rahulsidhu » 11 Jan 2020 08:22

Prasad wrote:Harping on fabless design capabilities is a convenient copout by the govt. They shy away from the $10bn needed to setup a world class fab. Everything else is just wishy washy stuff to sugar coat this fact.


If you don't mind me asking, what can/should the govt. do, specifically?

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Re: Indian Space Program: News & Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby sivab » 11 Jan 2020 08:38

DoS, GoI has a 180nm fab faclity to make most critical electronics including isro designed processors, analog circuits, imaging and MEMs for rockets and satellites, see link below. They are self sufficient and there is no need to make every commodity component in India.

http://www.scl.gov.in/cmos_fab_facility.html

One cannot use latest and greatest process geometry for space due to radiation and soft error rate. Space radiation hardened chips are always several process geometries behind commercial process geometries. So don't confuse lack of commercial scale fab facility with space/defence requirements.

They have had this capability for couple of decades, they moved from 0.8um to 0.18um 5 years ago. See this link

https://www.isro.gov.in/processor-launc ... n-facility

Semi-Conductor Laboratory (SCL) at Chandigarh, an Autonomous Body under the Department of Space, is engaged in Research & Development in the area of Microelectronics. Activities at SCL are focused on design, development, manufacturing, testing & assembly, packaging of Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) devices, Imaging and Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) devices, including the development of process technology for various applications. SCL is also involved in High Reliability (Hi-Rel) board fabrication and component screening for ISRO, indigenisation of electronic boards for Air Force and production of Dr. Pisharoty Radio Sonde Systems for atmospheric studies.

SCL is continuing its efforts to create a strong microelectronics base in the country and enhance capabilities in Very Large Scale Integrated Circuits (VLSIs) domain. While the design, assembly, testing, quality / reliability assurance facilities are already in place, the manufacturing facility has been upgraded from 0.8 μm CMOS 6” Wafer Fabrication to 0.18 μm CMOS 8” Wafer Fabrication.

Production Lots (Wafer Lots) are being processed with Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) / Test Chips designed in-house. Second Lot, out of four Production Lots under processing, has been fabed-out in August 2015. Vikram Processor, one of the key components for Launch Vehicle application, has been successfully realised as part of this Lot. Main application of Vikram Processor is in the realisation of on-board computers for navigation, guidance and control processing in flight applications as well as for general purpose processing applications.

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Re: Indian Space Program: News & Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby Prasad » 11 Jan 2020 23:42

Processors aren't the only things one uses. Our SATs have a high percentage of foreign components. If SCL were able to make all those why is it so high? One lab cannot do everything. Besides SCL has to rely on a lot of imported sources for its production. Despite running SCL isro goes around asking private sector to take up production of a ton of electronic components. There is a lot of work to be done.

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Re: Indian Space Program: News & Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby Prasad » 11 Jan 2020 23:43

Rahulsidhu wrote:
Prasad wrote:Harping on fabless design capabilities is a convenient copout by the govt. They shy away from the $10bn needed to setup a world class fab. Everything else is just wishy washy stuff to sugar coat this fact.


If you don't mind me asking, what can/should the govt. do, specifically?

Pony up the money. But that seems to be in short supply. So we need some of our finest brains to find a way to solve this.

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Re: Indian Space Program: News & Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby sivab » 12 Jan 2020 01:02

Did you even read? They make analog circuits, imaging sensors and MEMs, in addition to digital ASIC's. ISRO is self sufficient in all critical components. They buy non-critical commodity components, they are asking private industry to pick that up. And here you are asking govt. to do that also.

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Re: Indian Space Program: News & Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby Vips » 14 Jan 2020 04:24

ISRO’s first mission of the decade on this date! Ariane rocket to launch GSAT-30 satellite.

India would launch a communication satellite GSAT-30 onboard Ariane-5 launch vehicle (VA 251) from French Guiana on January 17, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) said here on Monday. The 3,357-kg satellite is slated to blast off from the Ariane Launch Complex at Kourou, a French territory located along the northeastern coast of South America, at 02:35 hrs IST.

“GSAT-30 is to serve as a replacement to INSAT-4A spacecraft services with enhanced coverage”, ISRO said. The satellite provides Indian mainland and islands coverage in Ku-band and extended coverage in C-band covering Gulf countries, a large number of Asian countries and Australia, it added. With a mission life of 15 years, GSAT-30 is an operational communication satellite for DTH, television uplink and VSAT services.

The satellite is configured on ISRO’s enhanced I-3K bus structure to provide communication services from geostationary orbit in C and Ku bands. The satellite derives its heritage from ISRO’s earlier INSAT/GSAT satellite series. Bengaluru-headquartered ISRO said the communication payload of GSAT-30 is specifically designed and optimised to maximise the number of transponders on the spacecraft bus. According to the space agency, the spacecraft would be extensively used for supporting VSAT network, television uplinking and teleport services, digital satellite news gathering (DSNG), DTH television services, cellular backhaul connectivity and many such applications.

One Ku-band beacon downlink signal is transmitted for ground-tracking purpose, it added. For its initial flight of 2020, Arianespace on its website said it would orbit EUTELSAT KONNECT, a telecommunication satellite for the operator Eutelsat, along with GSAT-30, using an Ariane 5 launch vehicle from the Guiana Space Centre. Since the launch of India’s APPLE experimental satellite on Ariane Flight L03 in 1981, Arianespace has orbited 23 satellites and signed 24 launch contracts with the Indian space agency, it said.

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Re: Indian Space Program: News & Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby Vivek K » 14 Jan 2020 06:33

If I'm not mistaken this class of satellite can be launched by GSLV MKIII, correct? ISRO has done well.

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Re: Indian Space Program: News & Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby krishGo » 15 Jan 2020 04:24

Vivek K wrote:If I'm not mistaken this class of satellite can be launched by GSLV MKIII, correct? ISRO has done well.


It can be launched on Mk III. But the launch agreements for these satellites were probably made 8-10 years ago. Also, more importantly the rate of launch for GSLV and the Mk III are limited by the small production rate of their cryogenic components ( currently there is no capacity). We might see GSAT launches on Ariane for a few more years until the we can produce and launch MKIIIs at a faster rate.

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Re: Indian Space Program: News & Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby krishGo » 15 Jan 2020 04:53

.
"Chandrayaan-3 will have a lander, rover and a propulsion module. The government has approved the project and we have formed the project team. Work is going on smoothly," Sivan said.
"...We are targeting the launch for this year, but it may spillover to the next year," Sivan said, while sources reiterated that the internal target set for launch is November 2020.

As reported by TOI earlier, since the Chandrayaan-2 orbiter is working fine, the new mission will have a different composition. It will have the lander and the rover. And, as per initial plans and instructions given by the Chairman, Isro is looking at having a detachable module that will carry the fuel.

“...It will basically carry fuel and help in taking the landing module — which will have the rover sitting inside the lander — to the lunar orbit.”
In Chandrayaan-2, fuel carried on the orbiter was used for all the manoeuvres performed post launch and until the separation of the landing module. Here, the propulsion module will aid this process.
Further, Isro is also looking at reducing the number of manoeuvres around Earth and also during the transit from here to the lunar orbit. “Instead of six manoeuvres around Earth we may have just three or four, those details are being worked out,” a source said.


ISRO is trying to stick to more or less the mission profile of CY-2. So, they will depend of this propulsion module for for orbit raising and LOI. The propulsion module will basically be a space tug, with LAM, propellant tanks. For those who still remember the planned PAM (Payload Assist Module) for Mk2, this will be something very similar (and very straightforward to realize). I suspect the stack can only be launched on a Mk III.

There was also the possibility of an alternate profile where the lander (with rover) could have been launched on a direct trajectory to the moon by a Mk III (no need for orbit raising). In this case the engines on the lander would be responsible for making the LOI burn. But would have required a redesign of the lander to carry more propellant .

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Re: Indian Space Program: News & Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby Varoon Shekhar » 17 Jan 2020 09:09

Wonder if there are any new components or technologies on this satellite, which sounds like a beauty.

https://www.isro.gov.in/update/17-jan-2 ... ccessfully

India’s latest communication satellite GSAT-30 was successfully launched from the Spaceport in French Guiana during the early hours today.

The launch vehicle Ariane 5 VA-251 lifted off from Kourou Launch Base, French Guiana at 2:35 am IST carrying India’s GSAT-30 and EUTELSAT KONNECT for Eutelsat, as scheduled.

After a flight lasting 38 minutes 25 seconds, GSAT-30 separated from the Ariane 5 upper stage in an elliptical Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit.

With a lift-off mass of 3357 kg, GSAT-30 will provide continuity to operational services on some of the in-orbit satellites. GSAT-30 derives its heritage from ISRO’s earlier INSAT/GSAT satellite series and will replace INSAT-4A in orbit.

“GSAT-30 has a unique configuration of providing flexible frequency segments and flexible coverage. The satellite will provide communication services to Indian mainland and islands through Ku-band and wide coverage covering Gulf countries, a large number of Asian countries and Australia through C-band” ISRO Chairman Dr K Sivan said.

Dr. Sivan also said that “GSAT-30 will provide DTH Television Services, connectivity to VSATs for ATM, Stock-exchange, Television uplinking and Teleport Services, Digital Satellite News Gathering (DSNG) and e-governance applications. The satellite will also be used for bulk data transfer for a host of emerging telecommunication applications.”

ISRO’s Master Control Facility (MCF) at Hassan in Karnataka took over the command and control of GSAT-30 immediately after its separation from the launch vehicle. Preliminary health checks of the satellite revealed its normal health.

In the days ahead, orbit-raising manoeuvres will be performed to place the satellite in Geostationary Orbit (36,000 km above the equator) by using its on-board propulsion system.

During the final stages of its orbit raising operations, the two solar arrays and the antenna reflectors of GSAT-30 will be deployed. Following this, the satellite will be put in its final orbital co

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Re: Indian Space Program: News & Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby Vips » 21 Jan 2020 03:41

ISRO successfully completes three orbit raising manoeuvres of GSAT-30.

The ISRO said it has successfully completed the three orbit raising manoeuvres of communication satellite GSAT-30 on Monday, which was launched on January 17 onboard Ariane 5 rocket from French Guiana.

The space agency said the cumulative duration of operation of the propulsion system for these manoeuvres was two hours and 29 minutes. Due to these manoeuvres,the ISRO succeeded in placing the satellite in an orbit close to its operational orbit.

"The satellite solar panels and antennas have been deployed and the satellite is placed in an orbit with a perigee (nearest point from Earth) of 35,826 km and an apogee (farthest point from Earth) of 35,913 km with an inclination of 0.11 degree, which is very close to its operational orbit," ISRO said in a statement.

With a mission life of 15 years, GSAT-30 is an operational communication satellite for DTH, television uplink and VSAT services.

The ISRO has said the communication payload of GSAT-30 is specifically designed and optimised to maximise the number of transponders on the spacecraft bus.

GSAT-30 will provide DTH television services, connectivity to VSATs for ATM, stock-exchange, television uplinking and teleport services, Digital Satellite News Gathering (DSNG) and e-governance applications. The satellite will also be used for bulk data transfer for a host of emerging telecommunication applications, ISRO chairman K Sivan had said on the day of its launch.

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Re: Indian Space Program: News & Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby Amber G. » 21 Jan 2020 04:34

Interesting visuals of galaxy mergers from ISRO's Astrosat. Images are results from a TIFR-IIA study..

"We have carried out a pilot study of a sample of ~10
dual nuclei galaxies with AstroSat's Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UVIT).

Link: https://arxiv.org/pdf/2001.02502.pdf

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Re: Indian Space Program: News & Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby Ashokk » 21 Jan 2020 13:12

Qualcomm launches three chipsets with Isro's Navic GPS for Android smartphones
NEW DELHI: In a major push to Made-in-India GPS alternative, chip major Qualcomm has launched three new chipsets -- Snapdragon 720G, 662 and 460 -- with support for Navigation with Indian Constellation (NavIC). NavIC has been developed by Indian Space Research Organisation (Isro) as the Indian version of GPS. Chinese smartphone brands Xiaomi and Realme have confirmed that they will be launching smartphones with NavIC support based on the new Snapdragon chipsets soon.

While GPS is very popular among smartphone users, what most people do not know is that GPS is not the only satellite navigation system. Russia uses its own GLONASS while the European Union and China have Galileo and BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS).

Prime Minister Narendra Modi in 2016 launched NavIC satellite navigation system made by Isro and finally in 2020, we have NavIC making its way to smartphones. Isro has deployed eight satellites for NavIC out of which seven will provide positioning, location, navigation and timing (PNT) services while another one will offer messaging services (IRNSS-1A).

“Isro is satisfied with the efforts of Qualcomm Technologies, towards incorporating NavIC and we urge OEMs to leverage it for future handset launches in India. The availability of NavIC across multiple mobile platforms will help enhance the geolocation capabilities of smartphones in the region and bring the benefits of this indigenous solution to Indian consumers for their day-to-day use,” said Dr K Sivan, chairman, Isro.

NavIC only focuses on India and Isro considers it to be more accurate than GPS with position accuracy of 5 metre. NavIC is powered by dual frequency (S and L bands) while GPS is dependent only on L band making it more accurate than GPS.

Apart from smartphones, the Indian Air Force will use NavIC in fighter jets for navigation requirements. Other use cases of NavIC include disaster management, geodetic data capture, aerial and marine navigation and more. Also, commercial vehicles registered after April 1, 2019 are required to have NavIC trackers. Over 30 Indian companies are making NavIC trackers for vehicles after Isro procured multichip module (MCM) developed by Taiwanese SkyTraQ

Talking about the chipsets, all the three new Snapdragon chipsets -- Snapdragon 720G, 662 and 460 -- support 4G connectivity along with Wi-Fi 6, integrated Bluetooth 5.1 and Qualcomm FastConnect 6-series subsystems, support Dual-Frequency (L1 and L5) GNSS.

Meanwhile, Snapdragon 720G aims to offer superior gaming performance in affordable smartphones with Qualcomm Snapdragon Elite Gaming features and HDR game. The chipset comes with the Qualcomm Spectra 350L ISP, along with support for 4K video and up to 192-megapixel photos. Snapdragon 720G also features the latest 5th generation Qualcomm AI Engine with the improved Hexagon Tensor Accelerator. The integrated Snapdragon X15 LTE modem supports 3-carrier aggregation, 4x4 MIMO on two carriers and 256-QAM modulation for fast download speeds up to 800 Mbps.

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Re: Indian Space Program: News & Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby Vips » 22 Jan 2020 20:12

Meet Vyomamitra, the robot ISRO is sending to space.

A ‘half-humanoid’ developed by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) will be the first to be sent to space in Gaganyaan, India’s maiden human spaceflight mission, before the selected astronauts.

Named Vyomamitra, the robot was unveiled at the inaugural session of a symposium organised by the ISRO, International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) and Astronautical Society of India (ASI) on the human spaceflight programme in Bengaluru Wednesday.

https://twitter.com/IndianExpress/status/1219945278024761346

Introducing herself, Vyomamitra addressed media persons at the venue, saying, “Hello everyone. I am Vyomamitra, the prototype of the half-humanoid, been made for the first unmanned Gaganyaan mission. The robot added, “I can monitor pre-module parameters, alert you and perform life-support operations.”

ISRO chairman K Sivan said the half-humanoid would simulate human functions while in space. “Apart from checking whether the system is right, this will be very useful in simulation, similar to how a human astronaut will be,” he said.
Sivan, during the inaugural function of the three-day symposium titled ‘Human Spaceflight and Exploration: Present Challenges and Future Trends’ also said that ISRO will undertake two unmanned missions — in December 2020 and June 2021 — ahead of India’s first manned space mission Gaganyaan in December 2021.

Speaking to indianexpress.com, an ISRO scientist explained that the primary objective of the robot is to mimic crew activity. “She can also operate switches, and do other activities like replacing carbon-dioxide canisters in case of emergency. Her ability to have seamless interactions with astronauts and ground operations with the help of voice command is another major highlight of this half-humanoid,” the scientist said.

The team of scientists further added that they are envisaging better features, including developing the robot to take part in life-support operations in events causing danger to astronauts’ lives in future missions.

The robot has been named Vyomamitra combining two Sanskrit words — Vyoma (Space) and Mitra (Friend).

When asked why Vyomamitra is called a half-humanoid, another scientist said, “As of now, we have not envisaged mobility with legs for the robot, which makes her a half-humanoid.

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Re: Indian Space Program: News & Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby Prem » 23 Jan 2020 07:35


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Re: Indian Space Program: News & Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby tandav » 23 Jan 2020 13:25

<POOF>
Last edited by hnair on 23 Jan 2020 16:17, edited 1 time in total.
Reason: Please us correct thread for quality of infra in Qatar VS India

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Re: Indian Space Program: News & Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby kit » 25 Jan 2020 18:21

del*
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Re: Indian Space Program: News & Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby jaysimha » 25 Jan 2020 18:36

Remote Sensing for Himalayan Cryosphere
Studies: Recent advances and challenges
February 14, 2020

https://www.iirs.gov.in/iirs/sites/default/files/pdf/Glacier_Brochure.pdf

Request To Admin:
We all know Remote sensing is a offshoot of space program.
But Still can we have separate thread for all topics related to remote sensing?

Thanks

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Re: Indian Space Program: News & Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby kit » 25 Jan 2020 19:15

*del
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Re: Indian Space Program: News & Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby Amber G. » 25 Jan 2020 21:58

At ISRO's 'Gaganyaan' conf, very interesting item (from a IISc prof) about "Space bricks". We recruited an army of bacteria to make these bricks from lunar sand (simulant). At the base of it is a process called microbially induced calcite precipitation (MICP).
Portion of the talk -https://youtu.be/DBoSV-nW-04


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