Bharat Rakshak Forum Announcement

Hello Everyone,

A warm welcome back to the Bharat Rakshak Forum.

Important Notice: Due to a corruption in the BR forum database we regret to announce that data records relating to some of our registered users have been lost. We estimate approx. 500 user details are deleted.

To ease the process of recreating the user IDs we request members that have previously posted on the BR forums to recognise and identify their posts, once the posts are identified please contact the BRF moderator team by emailing BRF Mod Team with your post details.

The mod team will be able to update your username, email etc. so that the user history can be maintained.

Unfortunately for members that have never posted or have had all their posts deleted i.e. users that have 0 posts, we will be unable to recreate your account hence we request that you re-register again.

We apologise for any inconvenience caused and thank you for your understanding.

Regards,
Seetal

Indian Space Programme Discussion - Sept 2016

The Military Issues & History Forum is a venue to discuss issues relating to the military aspects of the Indian Armed Forces, whether the past, present or future. We request members to kindly stay within the mandate of this forum and keep their exchanges of views, on a civilised level, however vehemently any disagreement may be felt. All feedback regarding forum usage may be sent to the moderators using the Feedback Form or by clicking the Report Post Icon in any objectionable post for proper action. Please note that the views expressed by the Members and Moderators on these discussion boards are that of the individuals only and do not reflect the official policy or view of the Bharat-Rakshak.com Website. Copyright Violation is strictly prohibited and may result in revocation of your posting rights - please read the FAQ for full details. Users must also abide by the Forum Guidelines at all times.
shiv
BRF Oldie
Posts: 31536
Joined: 01 Jan 1970 05:30
Location: Pindliyon ka Gooda

Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby shiv » 02 Mar 2017 21:49

Apropos a discussion we had earlier (on this thread I think) - zoomed in images of objects at high altitude usually show background sky as very dark - Navy blue (or darker) in this case. Note that the camera has to get as much light as possible from a pinpoint object (the aircraft) and despite that the sky is dark

Image

Rakesh
Webmaster BR
Posts: 2807
Joined: 15 Jan 2004 12:31
Location: Planet Earth
Contact:

Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby Rakesh » 08 Mar 2017 06:32

ISRO seeks permission to build India's very own Space Station
http://defencenews.in/article.aspx?id=250834

disha
BR Mainsite Crew
Posts: 5567
Joined: 03 Dec 2006 04:17
Location: gaganaviharin

Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby disha » 09 Mar 2017 04:09


Varoon Shekhar
BRFite
Posts: 1505
Joined: 03 Jan 2010 23:26

Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby Varoon Shekhar » 09 Mar 2017 08:06

^
Great news! I admit, that soft part of my mind was a bit agitated that these satellites were tumbling around in their orbits, it felt that the mission was incomplete without these craft being stabilised. Never mind that the other 102 satellites were perfectly functioning, there was a feeling, misguided though it was, that something was missing. Now that little monkey is off!

JTull
BRFite
Posts: 1868
Joined: 18 Jul 2001 11:31

Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby JTull » 10 Mar 2017 17:05

ISRO’s ‘lost’ Chandrayaan-1 spotted orbiting the moon by NASA’s interplanetary radar

India’s first lunar mission -- the Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft, which was generally considered lost -- is still orbiting the moon, NASA scientists have found with new technological application of interplanetary radar.

Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) lost communication with Chandrayaan-1 on August 29, 2009, barely a year after it was launched on October 22, 2008.

Chandrayaan-1 is still circling some 200 kilometers above the lunar surface, the scientists determined.

In addition to finding Chandrayaan-1, the scientists also located NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter around the Moon.

“We have been able to detect NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and the Indian Space Research Organisation’s Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft in lunar orbit with ground-based radar,” said Marina Brozovic, a radar scientist at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, and principal investigator for the test project.

“Finding LRO was relatively easy, as we were working with the mission’s navigators and had precise orbit data where it was located. Finding India’s Chandrayaan-1 required a bit more detective work because the last contact with the spacecraft was in August of 2009,” Brozovic said in a NASA statement on Thursday.

Finding derelict spacecraft and space debris in Earth’s orbit can be a technological challenge.

Detecting these objects in orbit around Earth’s Moon is even more difficult.

Optical telescopes are unable to search for small objects hidden in the bright glare of the Moon.

However, with the new technological application of interplanetary radar, the scientists at JPL successfully located the two spacecraft orbiting the Moon.

The researchers believe that the new technique could assist planners of future Moon missions.

Add to the mix that the Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft is very small, a cube about 1.5 metres on each side -- about half the size of a smart car.

Although the interplanetary radar has been used to observe small asteroids several million miles from Earth, researchers were not certain that an object of this smaller size as far away as the moon could be detected, even with the world’s most powerful radars.

Chandrayaan-1 proved the perfect target for demonstrating the capability of this technique, the researchers said.

abhijitm
BRF Oldie
Posts: 2630
Joined: 08 Jun 2006 15:02
Contact:

Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby abhijitm » 10 Mar 2017 19:59

Rakesh wrote:ISRO seeks permission to build India's very own Space Station
http://defencenews.in/article.aspx?id=250834

I agree every word he said. I have also said before on this forum that we need to start planning our space station NOW in order to have it fully functional in next 50 years. We have mastered satellite launches. It is time to move up the ladder otherwise soon in next few years north korean NADA and ISRO will be playing in the same field, only difference will be we will be using more advanced vehicles than them.

disha
BR Mainsite Crew
Posts: 5567
Joined: 03 Dec 2006 04:17
Location: gaganaviharin

Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby disha » 11 Mar 2017 00:16

^Agree with the space station part., but I have this small monkey* on my shoulder whispering in my ears., what research will we do on space station that cannot be done by nanosats?

So abhijitm., can we objectively or dispassionately state which research is possible on space station which is NOT possible on nano sats?

*With due apologies to varoon'ji for stealing his vivid visualization :-D

Bheeshma
BRFite
Posts: 517
Joined: 15 Aug 2016 22:01

Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby Bheeshma » 11 Mar 2017 00:19

Isn't manned mission more important than space station right now. Lets get the building blocks in place. An Indian space station will come and I am sure they are already planning it.

disha
BR Mainsite Crew
Posts: 5567
Joined: 03 Dec 2006 04:17
Location: gaganaviharin

Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby disha » 11 Mar 2017 00:53

^^Bheeshma'ji - sure manned mission is more important., but what is the purpose of manned mission to space?

Here are my thoughts., ISRO should aim for a permanent, semi-sustainable and financially independent base on moon. Moon base among several things like research and mining will also serve as the launching pad for further deep space missions., both manned and unmanned.

Bheeshma
BRFite
Posts: 517
Joined: 15 Aug 2016 22:01

Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby Bheeshma » 11 Mar 2017 01:16

I agree in short term a small space station or Indian space shuttle, medium term IMB (Indian moon base) and in long term IMaB (Indian mars base) is required. But ISRO alone cannot do it and Indian public and private sector better be ready when the time comes.

Rishi Verma
BRFite
Posts: 914
Joined: 28 Oct 2016 13:08

Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby Rishi Verma » 11 Mar 2017 01:57

Other than research, Indian space station can be geared towards a) space warfare purposes, b) for space tourism purposes. Even if isro were to have a base on the moon then a permenant space station would have important roles such as staging area, training area, emergency tasks etc.

hanumadu
BRF Oldie
Posts: 3464
Joined: 11 Nov 2002 12:31

Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby hanumadu » 11 Mar 2017 02:04

Bheeshma wrote:Isn't manned mission more important than space station right now. Lets get the building blocks in place. An Indian space station will come and I am sure they are already planning it.


I am assuming space station implies manned mission.

Mort Walker
BRF Oldie
Posts: 5961
Joined: 31 May 2004 11:31
Location: The rings around Uranus.

Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby Mort Walker » 11 Mar 2017 08:22

disha wrote:^Agree with the space station part., but I have this small monkey* on my shoulder whispering in my ears., what research will we do on space station that cannot be done by nanosats?

So abhijitm., can we objectively or dispassionately state which research is possible on space station which is NOT possible on nano sats?

*With due apologies to varoon'ji for stealing his vivid visualization :-D


The space station will be on Chandramama to be wholly owned by Bharat! That is the long term advantage.

Mort Walker
BRF Oldie
Posts: 5961
Joined: 31 May 2004 11:31
Location: The rings around Uranus.

Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby Mort Walker » 11 Mar 2017 08:22

Rishi Verma wrote:Other than research, Indian space station can be geared towards a) space warfare purposes, b) for space tourism purposes. Even if isro were to have a base on the moon then a permenant space station would have important roles such as staging area, training area, emergency tasks etc.


+1

kit
BRFite
Posts: 1923
Joined: 13 Jul 2006 18:16

Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby kit » 11 Mar 2017 13:57

A permanent space station will result in technology advancement in a whole lot of areas ..given ISRO's methodological approach it will lay the foundation for a host of science and technology areas. For starters ISRO needs challenges both technical and technological to overcome and what better time tHan right now ? .. a space station is of high priority for the country to move ahead . Let's not make the same mistake as there was in developing rockets .The spin offs of such a venture is truly immense for the country to ignore.

abhijitm
BRF Oldie
Posts: 2630
Joined: 08 Jun 2006 15:02
Contact:

Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby abhijitm » 11 Mar 2017 15:36

disha wrote:^Agree with the space station part., but I have this small monkey* on my shoulder whispering in my ears., what research will we do on space station that cannot be done by nanosats?

So abhijitm., can we objectively or dispassionately state which research is possible on space station which is NOT possible on nano sats?

*With due apologies to varoon'ji for stealing his vivid visualization :-D

Well, apart from me you also need to convince ISRO chief that nano sats == space station :D

Here is the link of researches done/being done at ISS. Since you brought the comparison between space station and nano sats, you should objectively explain me how each research can be achieved using nano sat. :wink:
https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments_category
Last edited by abhijitm on 11 Mar 2017 15:37, edited 1 time in total.

A Nandy
BR Mainsite Crew
Posts: 102
Joined: 06 Sep 2009 23:39

Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby A Nandy » 11 Mar 2017 15:37

Helium mining on the moon and asteroid mining for rare elements are possibilities too.

Development of robotic and automation technology that could help the farming sector introduce automated farming machines. These could be spun off as independent companies that challenge the western companies in their own turf.

Having a hi-tech ecosystem that sustains a space station gives us enormous advantages and industrial might. As well as challenges and engages our best brains. It gives us the technology capability to launch research telescopes like the JWST. Hell, solely for that we should do this!

We cant budget for a space station then use empty rocket boosters http://www.century-of-flight.net/Aviati ... Skylab.htm

kit
BRFite
Posts: 1923
Joined: 13 Jul 2006 18:16

Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby kit » 11 Mar 2017 15:55

the base technology and brains is there .. just the funding and political will is required .. a manned space station will enhance the S and T base of the country right from pharma and bio tech to nano tech .. Foreign investors can do their research here in india at a fraction of that in developed countries ..this will be huge .. for the make in India campaign this will be the top gear !!

kit
BRFite
Posts: 1923
Joined: 13 Jul 2006 18:16

Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby kit » 11 Mar 2017 15:58

The space station is indeed ISROs next stage of evolution .. let it not become stagnant !

JTull
BRFite
Posts: 1868
Joined: 18 Jul 2001 11:31

Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby JTull » 11 Mar 2017 19:07

Space station will be a logical follow on from the manned spaceflight program. But, I think ISRO has many other more pressing targets that GoI may want to address before that, viz,
Transponder shortage (more launches and the new launchpad),
dedicated sats for services,
Heavier launch vehicles (read SCE-200) and heavier satellites (proving this may take multiple attempts),
reusable launch vehicles (SpaceX is building a lead here),
first level (basic) manned program (even Virgin Galactic, etc, are way ahead of what ISRO has),
payloads (bigger sats, earth obs tech, SARs for more applications, disaster relief),
wider coverage of IRNSS and growing independent of Russian tech (and that unreliable Swiss clock)
International cooperation (SAARC sat, tsunami monitoring, educational sats)
Commercial success of launch vehicles and starting to build sats for others

Perhaps demonstrate launching modules or resupply vessels for ISS with docking technology in the meantime once some of the above have been achieved.

Until then, ISRO should keep space station dreams on the back burner.

Indranil
Forum Moderator
Posts: 5191
Joined: 02 Apr 2010 01:21

Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby Indranil » 11 Mar 2017 22:46

shiv wrote:Apropos a discussion we had earlier (on this thread I think) - zoomed in images of objects at high altitude usually show background sky as very dark - Navy blue (or darker) in this case. Note that the camera has to get as much light as possible from a pinpoint object (the aircraft) and despite that the sky is dark

Image

I did not want to enter the discussion then. I don't want to enter it now. Simply because I don't know. But, I don't think this is a valid example. We don't the conditions under which this picture was taken. Time of day, position of photographer, etc.

Bheeshma
BRFite
Posts: 517
Joined: 15 Aug 2016 22:01

Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby Bheeshma » 11 Mar 2017 23:01

JTull, Heavier boosters, RLV and SCE are all steps towards space station. No way but to develop all of them.

JTull
BRFite
Posts: 1868
Joined: 18 Jul 2001 11:31

Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby JTull » 12 Mar 2017 01:23

Bheeshma wrote:JTull, Heavier boosters, RLV and SCE are all steps towards space station. No way but to develop all of them.


Yes, but let's start getting this things first. It makes ISRO look cocky in the meantime. We're not even testing basic versions of these and so IMO talking of space station is premature.

Neshant
BRF Oldie
Posts: 3974
Joined: 01 Jan 1970 05:30

Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby Neshant » 12 Mar 2017 02:18

Space station would be a giant waste of money.

Little if any gains from the technological or even scientific point of view. A whole lot of never-ending expenses to keep the station maintained and re-supplied.

For the kind of money going down that rat hole, dozens and dozens of ground and space based science projects could be launched - many with commercial viability & a good science/tech component.

Space station is more of a luxury project than anything else. Maybe it can be launched in 20 years time when the country is richer and has money to burn. For now, stay focused on the kind of space science that brings in revenue or adds to military/economic capability.

We don't need a space station.

LokeshC
BRFite
Posts: 594
Joined: 15 Aug 2016 04:36

Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby LokeshC » 12 Mar 2017 02:23

Space station will be replaced by Satellite sized labs armed with robots and AI with high bandwidth link to ground.

Can be achieved with just PSLVs. That should not be an excuse to NOT do the manned one IMHO.

SriniY
BRFite -Trainee
Posts: 75
Joined: 20 Sep 2008 11:11

Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby SriniY » 13 Mar 2017 01:57

Inside DARPA’s Mission to Send a Repair Robot to Geosynchronous Orbit
http://spectrum.ieee.org/aerospace/sate ... nous-orbit

Long article but posting in full

Let’s say you are the program manager of a very large, complex system. Perhaps it’s an aircraft, or a building, or a communications network. Your system is valued at over US $500 million. Could you imagine being told that you won’t ever be able to maintain it? That, once it’s operational, it will never be inspected, repaired, or upgraded with new hardware?

Welcome to the world of satellite building. After a satellite is launched, it is on a one-way journey to disrepair and obsolescence, and there is little anyone can do to alter that path. Faults (which are called anomalies in the space business) can only be diagnosed remotely, using data and inferential reasoning. Software fixes and upgrades may be possible, but most mechanical anomalies can’t be corrected. And hardware can’t be replaced, which means that even if a satellite is operating well, it could lose its state-of-the-art status just a few years into a typical 15-year lifetime.

This is a lost opportunity. At this moment, more than 300 commercial satellites are providing television, radio, data transfer, weather, and telephony from geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO), some 36,000 kilometers above the Earth’s surface. Dozens of government satellites are there too. Each of those satellites costs hundreds of millions of dollars to build and launch. If governments and private companies could actively repair and revitalize their satellites in GEO—and move them to new orbits as needed—they could extend their investments and substantially defer the cost of building and launching replacements.

To be sure, people have already done such “servicing” work. In the past, astronauts have captured orbiting satellites—most notably in a series of space shuttle missions to repair and upgrade the Hubble Space Telescope. But these operations have been performed only in low Earth orbit, many thousands of kilometers closer to Earth, and each mission puts human lives on the line. Sending humans out to GEO would put them at even further risk, as they’d be exposed to more intense radiation from solar particles and cosmic rays.

The bottom line is this: If we hope to make satellite repair economical, safe, and routine, we’ll have to turn to robotics—that is, build spacecraft with dexterous robotic arms and design them so they can perform a range of delicate operations, often on their own.

The idea of building such robotic satellite servicers isn’t new, but we think it is finally starting to get some traction. We are now working on a project sponsored by the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) to develop a robotic servicing spacecraft that can work on satellites that were never designed to be ­serviced—which is pretty much all of them in orbit today. This ­public-private partnership, the Robotic Servicing of Geosynchronous Satellites (RSGS) program, builds on a decade of work by DARPA (where coauthor Roesler works) and the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (where Jaffe and Henshaw work), as well as the efforts of university researchers and space agencies around the world.

When RSGS launches in the early 2020s, we will be able to work with satellite owners to move GEO satellites to new orbits, fix stuck solar panels, and perform several other important chores. Independently, NASA plans to launch a robotic mission around the same time called Restore-L, which aims to refuel and relocate a government-owned satellite in low Earth orbit.

If successful, these two missions will push the limits of automation and robotic operation in space. They could be the first steps toward space construction projects like vast solar arrays that can beam energy back to Earth, robots that could mine asteroids and deflect those that pose a danger to Earth, and many other applications that would revolutionize the way we operate in space and what we can accomplish there.

The development of robotic servicing has been stymied by a classic chicken-and-egg problem: Satellites aren’t designed to be serviced because there are no robotic servicers out there they need to be compatible with, and no one builds robotic servicers because there are no satellites for them to service.

This situation has persisted for decades, in large part because servicing satellites robotically is a really difficult problem. Satellites are built to be as lightweight as possible to keep launch costs down, and their systems are tightly integrated for the same reason. Even opening up a completed spacecraft to replace a part when it’s still in the factory is a major proposition.

To do even the most basic operation on a satellite, a robotic repair vehicle must be able to manipulate a very expensive, relatively fragile device under challenging conditions. Among these are high radiation levels, wildly varying temperatures and illumination, and time delays that dramatically complicate remote control. To add to the difficulty, an inadvertent tap can send something spinning away through the drag-free, frictionless environment.

To be successful, a robotic servicer’s electronic and mechanical systems must operate reliably because a computer crash or a motor failure could damage the patient. The robot must carry enough onboard intelligence to know how to avoid unintentionally hitting itself with its own arm or slamming into the client spacecraft. Both the position of its arms and the force they exert must be controlled with great precision. Above all it needs to be able to understand when things are going well, when they aren’t, and what to do in response.

Even in a terrestrial laboratory, these are challenging criteria, but roboticists have made great strides toward meeting them. The first in-space demonstration was done in the late 1990s by a Japanese flight experiment called Engineering Test Satellite VII, or ETS-VII. In 2007, the United States conducted a more ambitious on-orbit experiment, the DARPA Orbital Express program. ETS-VII had shown that a service robot can autonomously rendezvous and dock with another satellite. In addition to those tasks, Orbital Express demonstrated both fuel and component transfer. But neither ETS-VII nor Orbital Express solved the chicken-and-egg problem. Each mission launched two spacecraft—a servicer and a client satellite—and each client was specially designed to be compatible with the servicer’s robotic hardware.

The demonstrations were useful, but they weren’t sufficient to convince satellite makers to alter their designs to make them compatible with robotic maintenance (and of course, existing satellites would be ineligible for help). So in 2002, DARPA set out to answer a different question: What can a robotic servicer do for the sorts of satellites we have today, which aren’t made to be serviced? To help find the answer, the agency sponsored studies by researchers at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, in Pasadena, Calif., and at the Naval Center for Space Technology (NCST) of the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, D.C.—the oldest continuously operating satellite design and testing facility in the United States.

One study, called RescueSat, considered a fairly common scenario, in which a satellite reaches space but a rocket or motor failure prevents it from getting to its intended orbit. RescueSat concluded that at least one problem with servicing could be solved: the process of grabbing hold of the satellite, or ­“grappling.” It turns out that every satellite has structures that connect it to its booster, which separates shortly after launch. What remains after separation are large aluminum rings or bolt holes, which are exposed and strong. These can be grappled fairly easily by the robotic arms of a servicer. This robotic embrace would turn the two independently moving satellites into one rigid two-satellite assembly that could remain steady during servicing.
/image/Mjg2OTM5Nw.jpeg

Illustration: Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
RSGS will have two main components: a “bus” and the payload. The bus will handle basic spacecraft activities like propulsion. The payload will contain all the specialized instruments and hardware needed to perform servicing tasks. This sketch is a preliminary vision of what the payload will look like. It includes two robotic arms, a laser-ranging system,and numerous cameras.

If a servicer can grapple a satellite with these exposed booster-attachment features, it should be able to push the satellite around and move it to a new orbit. But “should be” isn’t conclusive enough to convince satellite owners to allow a servicer to approach their spacecraft. So RescueSat was followed by a second study called Spacecraft for the Universal Modification of Orbits (SUMO), which tested the approach with real hardware, including a pair of commercially available robotic arms. This trial took advantage of a newly constructed facility at NCST that features a computer-controlled crane system that can move test satellites around as if they were in orbit. This system allows engineers to simulate rendezvous operations with realistic orbital mechanics, where firing a thruster in order to speed up or slow down will also put your spacecraft in a new orbit.

The main focus of the SUMO tests was autonomy, which is arguably the biggest technical challenge to robotic servicing. Owing largely to data-processing delays, it can take several seconds for pictures from a satellite in GEO to reach human operators on the ground, and the same interval again for a command to get back up to the satellite. This delay makes teleoperation quite challenging and even dangerous, so at certain times, such as during the last few meters of a servicer’s approach to a satellite, the servicer needs to be able to control itself—and be able to abort if anything seems to be going wrong.

By 2005, SUMO showed that it should be possible for a robotic servicer to safely and reliably approach and grab hold of another satellite using automated software. The project was a good proof of principle, but to get a more realistic simulation, we would need to test flight-quality robotic arms, ones that would be sturdy enough to handle the docking of two multiton objects in orbit. So in 2005, DARPA selected California-based Alliance Spacesystems, which built the robotic arm on NASA’s Curiosity rover, to construct a flight prototype under a program called Front-end Robotics Enabling Near-term Demonstration (FREND).
/image/Mjg3MDk5MA.jpeg

Photo: U.S. Naval Research Laboratory
The flight prototype FREND arm is installed in a thermal vacuum chamber at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, to test its resilience to the harsh conditions of space.

Completed in 2008, the FREND arm was able to pass the rigorous tests required of hardware to fly in space. And it enabled the team at NCST to conduct more realistic experiments, using the simulator facility to test rendezvous-and-grappling processes under conditions that mimicked those in space.

One difficult factor that had to be simulated and addressed was lighting. Many parts of satellites are covered with thermal blankets that can be made of such materials as aluminized Mylar, the same material used in rescue blankets. Illuminated by the sunlight, some spacecraft parts may “sparkle.” Machine vision is used to process camera images, but the highly reflective, high-dynamic-range conditions in space are quite challenging, and they can cause the spacecraft to over- or underestimate distance. Rather than trying to solve this problem in software, laser-ranging sensors can be used to overcome this effect.

Another challenge was processing power. Space-qualified computers typically lag the state of the art by several generations. But during the SUMO and FREND programs, we demonstrated that we could implement all the needed autonomy, machine vision, and control software on CPUs considerably slower than those used in current terrestrial robots, and that we could make these slower systems work together in a reliable way.

You may have heard about satellite servicing a few years back. After FREND was complete, DARPA began a program called Phoenix, which looked at the possibility of harvesting large antennas from “dead” satellites and giving them new life by attaching electronics and propulsive modules. This very appealing idea would have been a first step toward doing something useful with what was otherwise “space junk.” But ultimately, DARPA decided that servicing active satellites in GEO would result in a higher payoff than refurbishing defunct spacecraft. Still, the tools and techniques developed in ­Phoenix are now available for the RSGS mission, which aims to offer commercial and military satellite operators a wide range of services to extend the lives of existing satellites.

Everything we’ve learned from previous projects will go into RSGS. A commercial provider (recently announced to be Space Systems Loral) will build the spacecraft “bus”—the base of the spacecraft that will supply power and handle communications with the ground. The Naval Research Laboratory will assemble and test the payload to go atop it. This payload will consist of a laser-ranging system to help with long-distance targeting, a dozen cameras, two robotic arms with cameras mounted on the ends, more than 100 circuit boards, and a tool kit of appendages the arms can swap in and out like a multibit screwdriver. The arms—each 88 kilograms and 2.3 meters long—are improved versions of the FREND arm. The FREND team in Pasadena is now a subsidiary of ­MacDonald, Dettwiler and Associates, which built robotic arms for the space shuttles and the International Space Station.

RSGS will aim for geosynchronous orbit, and because GEO satellites orbit in or near a single plane, the RSGS servicer will be able to visit dozens of them throughout its planned 5- to 8-year lifetime.
/image/Mjg3MDk5MQ.jpeg
Photo: U.S. Naval Research Laboratory

A view of the flight prototype FREND arm, with flightlike sensors, mounted in a simulation facility at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory.

The spacecraft won’t be able to open up those tightly packaged satellites to swap out fried circuit boards and reseat connectors. But it could help correct some common mechanical problems, by using one of its robotic arms to hold onto a satellite while the other gently prods and “unsticks” a solar panel or antenna. These appendages are folded up for launch and are meant to unfold after they reach space. But once every two or three years, an antenna or solar panel does not deploy properly—and a mission costing hundreds of millions of dollars comes to naught.

These will be delicate operations. Antennas and solar panels are designed to be as lightweight as possible; in fact, spacecraft solar panel assemblies aren’t even strong enough to support their own weight in gravity. So, in order to ensure the robot is gentle enough to manipulate client spacecraft components without damaging them, we implemented a technique called compliance control. The force applied by an arm is constantly measured, and the robot joints are commanded to respond appropriately so the applied force always stays within a safe margin.

This sort of feedback will be important in space. Wide temperature swings alter dozens of parameters on the arm, including stiffness and coefficients of friction. In the current design, the RSGS arms will be able to push on a small spring mounted on the exterior of the servicer to make sure their force and torque sensors are calibrated properly throughout the mission.

Another valuable service that we began exploring with SUMO is pushing client satellites to new orbits. This could be done to help deliver a satellite to its intended orbit if it has failed to get there or to modify an existing orbit to save the spacecraft’s onboard fuel. RSGS’s repositioning capacity could also be useful at the end of a satellite’s life. Retiring satellites are moved some 300 km above GEO to ensure that the valuable orbit doesn’t get filled up with nonoperational satellites that could collide with others and create space debris. A servicer could be used to ferry satellites to this outer “graveyard” orbit, which would extend the satellites’ lives by allowing them to use the last of their fuel for routine operations.
/image/Mjg3MTAwNw.jpeg

Photo: U.S. Naval Research Laboratory
RSGS will require a good deal of autonomy in order to safely work with other spacecraft in geosynchronous orbit. But a human will always be in the loop.

A particularly exciting capability being developed for RSGS is to attach small new payloads to operating satellites. These modules would have to carry their own power and communications gear, but they could piggyback on an operating satellite’s positioning and propulsion capabilities to stay in the correct orbit and pointed in the right direction.

Because of communications delays—and the time it would take for an earthbound human operator to analyze the spacecraft’s position and other factors—it would be impractical and potentially dangerous to try to conduct these sorts of activities by remote control. As a result, we expect RSGS will use a mix of human and autonomous operation called supervised autonomy. A human will always be in the loop, monitoring RSGS’s activities, but for certain critical tasks such as grappling, the spacecraft will be on its own, performing either a prescripted activity or operating in a fully autonomous mode by which the servicer can rapidly respond if something does not go according to plan.

RSGS engineers are still working on this capability and expect to conduct more tests over the next few years. That effort includes the onboard software needed to control the servicer, which is expected to run to about a million lines of code—not unheard of for a spacecraft, but definitely more than the average satellite.

Space robotics capabilities that are being developed for RSGS and NASA’s Restore-L could be extended, in the long term, well beyond servicing existing satellites. Today, great effort is expended in complicated (and sometimes unreliable) mechanisms to maximize the size of mirrors and antennas that can be deployed from a single launch with a single satellite. But a dexterous and capable space robot could assemble pieces from multiple launches in space to construct antennas and other structures of enormous size.

On-orbit robotic construction could boost the sensitivity of radar imaging and speed of communications by allowing for much bigger and more sensitive radio antennas. It could also be a boon for Earth-observing satellites and astronomical telescopes.

We could even help address Earth’s growing energy demands. Nearly all spacecraft gather energy from solar panels. If we can increase the area of solar panels a thousand- or a ­millionfold, and send the energy to Earth via microwaves, we could create a new source of clean, constant, and globally transmissible energy [for more, see “It’s Always Sunny in Space,” IEEE Spectrum, May 2014]. This idea is starting to look more economically viable, thanks to the recent success of SpaceX and Blue Origin in recovering expensive booster rockets for reuse, and the ongoing development of modular and mass-producible space components.

Further in the future, robotic construction capabilities could also be applied to create space infrastructure—standing structures such as refueling depots, in-space manufacturing facilities, space-tourism complexes, and asteroid mining stations. And the same sorts of robots that can move satellites could also help keep the space environment around Earth safe, by helping eliminate space debris. Someday, work in this area might even lead to spacecraft capable of diverting asteroids from likely collision courses with Earth.

It may be decades before we can see scores of robots working in space. But within five years, we expect to have systems in orbit that can demonstrate the autonomy, dexterity, and delicacy needed to begin work on these more far-reaching capabilities. Delivering on their promise will require overcoming many technical as well as economic hurdles. But if RSGS succeeds in its mission to demonstrate autonomous servicing in GEO, it will send a message to satellite owners: A new robotic revolution awaits on the high frontier


nukavarapu
BRFite
Posts: 848
Joined: 18 Aug 2009 08:01

Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby nukavarapu » 13 Mar 2017 12:49

^^^ The bitterness from Devas deal

Rishi Verma
BRFite
Posts: 914
Joined: 28 Oct 2016 13:08

Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby Rishi Verma » 13 Mar 2017 12:55

Neshant wrote:Space station would be a giant waste of money. ...

We don't need a space station.


Making sweeping statements makes one a sweeper. You obviously have a narrow view of what a space station ought to be. You seem to have visions of Mir or the Spacelab.

Isro is proposing a "space station", try to understand what they are proposing before jumping to a conclusion.

jayasimha
BRFite
Posts: 213
Joined: 09 Feb 2011 17:31

Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby jayasimha » 13 Mar 2017 13:49

Posting for records since dont remember seeing thsi here.
---------
http://pib.nic.in/newsite/PrintRelease. ... lid=155958

Print ReleasePrintXClose
Press Information Bureau
Government of India
Department of Space
29-December-2016 16:22 IST
Year End review: Department of Space

An unprecedented seven missions launched, all successful

Successful maiden test flights of Reusable Launch Vehicle and SCRAMJET

The year 2016 was very eventful for the Indian space programme which scored very prominent and significant successes in launch vehicle, satellite, applications and space exploration domains. The year saw an unprecedented seven launch vehicle missions all of which were successful. Eight ISRO satellites, four student satellites and 22 foreign satellites were launched by these missions. The year 2016 also saw two successful advanced launch vehicle technology initiatives of ISRO – the Reusable Launch Vehicle-Technology Demonstrator (RLV-TD) and SCRAMJET technology demonstrator – which had their maiden test flights. Additionally, the highly successful Mars Orbiter Spacecraft of India completed two years in its orbit around Mars and India's ASTROSAT multi-wavelength observatory successfully completed one year in orbit.

Launch Vehicle and Satellite Missions of ISRO:

1.1. PSLV-C31/IRNSS-1E Mission: In this flight, the workhorse launch vehicle PSLV launched IRNSS-1E, the fifth satellite of the Indian Regional Navigational Satellite System (IRNSS) constellation, on January 20, 2016.

1.2. PSLV-C32/IRNSS-1F Mission: In this flight, which was its 34th, PSLV launched IRNSS-1F, the sixth satellite of the Indian Regional Navigational Satellite System (IRNSS) constellation, on March 10, 2016.

1.3. PSLV-C33/IRNSS-1G Mission: In this flight, PSLV launched the seventh and the last satellite IRNSS-1G of the Indian Regional Navigational Satellite System (IRNSS) constellation on April 28, 2016. With this, the space segment of the IRNSS is fully deployed. IRNSS signals are now available and trials with the receiver system are in progress. The Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi dedicated IRNSS to the nation as ‘NavIC’ (Navigation Indian Constellation). This is an independent regional navigation satellite system designed to provide position information in the Indian region and 1500 km around the Indian mainland. IRNSS provides two types of services, namely, Standard Positioning Services (SPS) - provided to all users and Restricted Services (RS) - provided to authorised users only.

1.4. Reusable Launch Vehicle – Technology Demonstrator (RLV-TD): India’s first winged body aerospace vehicle, RLV-TD i.e. Reusable Launch Vehicle-Technology Demonstrator (RLV-TD), was successfully flight tested on May 23, 2016. From the peak altitude of 65 km, RLV-TD began its descent followed by atmospheric re-entry at around Mach 5 (five times the speed of sound). After successfully surviving a high temperature of re-entry, RLV-TD successfully glided down to the defined landing spot over Bay of Bengal. In this flight, critical technologies such as autonomous navigation, guidance & control, reusable thermal protection system and re-entry mission management were successfully validated.

1.5. PSLV-C34/Cartosat-2 Series Mission: On June 22, 2016, PSLV-C34 successfully launched 20 satellites in a single mission. It included India’s CARTOSAT-2 series of satellite (weighing 727 kg) as primary payload and two academic institutes’ satellites, namely, SWAYAM and SATHYABAMASAT and 17 satellites (total weighing 555 kg) of foreign customers from Canada, Germany, Indonesia and USA as co-passengers.

1.6. GSLV-F05/ INSAT-3DR Mission: On September 08, 2016, GSLV-F05, India's Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle, equipped with the indigenous Cryogenic Upper Stage (CUS), successfully launched the country's weather satellite INSAT-3DR. INSAT-3DR is a follow-on meteorological satellite to INSAT-3D. This launch is significant, considering that fact that this is the third consecutive success of the indigenous CUS, which signified the country’s successful assimilation of the complex cryogenic rocket propulsion.

The satellite carries two meteorological payloads, viz., 6 channel imager & 19 channel sounder. It also carries a Data Relay Transponder (DRT) and Satellite Aided Search and Rescue (SA&R) payload to provide continuity to INSAT SA&R services. The satellite has started providing services to the weather and meteorological community in tandem with INSAT 3D that is already in the orbit. By virtue of these 2 satellites in orbit, the country gets weather updates every 15 minutes which is yet another unique service from space.

1.7. Successful Flight Testing of ISRO's Scramjet Engine Technology Demonstrator: The first experimental mission of ISRO’s Scramjet Engine towards the realisation of an Air Breathing Propulsion System was successfully conducted on August 28, 2016 from Satish Dhawan Space Centre SHAR, Sriharikota. The Scramjet engine designed by ISRO uses Hydrogen as fuel and the Oxygen from the atmospheric air as the oxidiser. This marked the maiden short duration experimental test of ISRO’s Scramjet engine with a hypersonic flight at Mach 6. ISRO’s Advanced Technology Vehicle (ATV), which is an advanced sounding rocket, was the solid rocket booster used for the test of Scramjet engines at supersonic conditions. ATV carrying Scramjet engines weighed 3277 kg at lift-off.

India is the fourth country to demonstrate the flight testing of Scramjet Engine. The successful technology demonstration of air-breathing Scramjet engines in flight by ISRO during the year was a modest yet important milestone in its endeavour to design and develop advanced air breathing engines including engines for ISRO’s future space transportation system

2. PSLV-C35/SCATSAT-1: By successfully launching SCATSAT-1 satellite carrying a scatterometer for wind vector measurement into the required polar Sun Synchronous Orbit in its PSLV-C35 mission on September 26, 2016, the PSLV facilitated continuity to Oceansat-2 Scatterometer, which completed its service in March 2014. The wind vector at sea surface information facilitated by SCATSAT-1 is used in weather prediction models and helps in accurate prediction of cyclone track. This launch of PSLV had yet another unique achievement of placing satellites in 2 different orbits and also the longest of the missions that lasted for more than 2 hrs 15 mins after lift-off. In this mission, engine multiple restart experiment of upper stage of PSLV was also demonstrated.

2.1. PSLV-C36/Resourcesat-2A: In its 38th flight, PSLV successfully launched RESOURCESAT-2A satellite on December 07, 2016 into an 822 km polar Sun Synchronous Orbit. This was PSLV’s 37th consecutive success. The 1235 kg RESOURCESAT-2A is a follow on mission to Resourcesat-2 and intended to ensure data continuity to the users for land and water resources applications. The satellite is configured with three-tier imaging capability consisting of three solid-state cameras, viz., LISS-IV, LISS-III and an Advanced Wide Field Sensor (AWiFS).

2.2. GSAT-18: The 3405 kg communication satellite GSAT-18, launched on October 06, 2016 by European Ariane V, carries a total of 48 transponders in Ku-band, C-band and Ext C-band for providing continuity of services and has further augmented the transponder capacity.

3. Disaster Management Support (DMS):

3.1. Uttarakhand Forest Fire: The Uttarakhand state witnessed episodic fire incidents during the last two weeks of April 2016. Recurrence of fire incidences is common in the hilly state in summer season. Satellite data based temperature anomalies were used for the detection of active fire locations. About 1600 active forest fire locations were recorded during 24th April to 4th May 2016. The burnt area was also assessed using Satellite data. The information on a near-real time basis was disseminated to Forest Survey of India, State Forest Departments, NDMA and SMS on fire alerts were sent to the identified forest officials of Uttarakhand. All Fire alerts were also published on BHUVAN geoportal. The most affected districts were Nainital, Pithoragarh, Champawat, Almora, Pauri and Tehri Garhwal.
3.2. Floods occurred in Assam and Manipur states during 2016. Three waves of floods were reported in Assam; first during fourth week of April, 2016, second on 21st June, 2016 and third on 4th July, 2016. Lakhimpur, Jorhat, Sibsagar, Charaideo, Dhemaji and Karbi Anglong districts were affected. Heavy pre-monsoon rains lashed Manipur during the last week of April 2016 and Imphal, Thoubal and Bishnupur districts were reported to be affected. The information on flood inundation was disseminated to the Central and respective State Government departments, State Relief Commissioners and nodal Ministries.
4. Mars Orbiter Mission: India’s first inter-planetary mission completed two years in its orbit around Mars. The health parameters of Mars Orbiter spacecraft are normal and all the five payloads are sending useful data. The Mars Colour Camera has produced more than 530 images so far, one of which has appeared on the cover page of the November 2016 issue of the National Geographic Magazine. The spacecraft successfully negotiated ‘whiteout’ geometry during May 18 - 30, 2016 using onboard autonomy. The archived data is now made public for free download and scientific research through ISRO’s website. More than 1.75 Lakh hits and about 40 GB data was downloaded in just 2 weeks. ISRO has also launched MOM Announcement of Opportunity (AO) programmes for researchers in the country to use the MOM data for R&D. The success of Mars Orbiter Mission has showcased India’s technical capability in exploring planetary bodies and has motivated India’s student and research community in a big way.

5. ASTROSAT Mission: ASTROSAT, India’s first multi-wavelength observatory has completed one year in orbit as of September 2016. An Announcement of Opportunity (AO) was made in June 2016 for Indian researchers to explore the universe using data from ASTROSAT. As a part of one year completion of ASTROSAT in orbit, a one-day workshop was organised at Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCAA), Pune on Sept 29, 2016, to highlight the technical and scientific achievements of this satellite. The first scientific set of results and the future scope of the satellite were presented during the meeting.

6. Space technology based tools in Governance & Development: Space technology applications, derived through synergistic use of earth observation, communication & navigation satellites and complemented with ground-based observations, play a key role in harnessing the benefits of space technology for socio-economic development in the country and improving the quality of life of citizens.

Satellite-based Earth Observation is a cost effective means of obtaining essential and reliable data on our Earth. Such data on natural resources have become an integral part of planning and implementation of action plans for managing land & water resources, developing urban & rural infrastructure, monitoring weather & climate, protecting environment including disaster risk reduction. The capabilities of satellite communication are also exploited for delivering societal applications towards education & health, connectivity, skill development and livelihood sustenance. Space technology-based applications & tools are being increasingly used in governance and development for enabling planning, periodic monitoring, mid-course correction, evaluation of developmental activities and scientific decision making in various sectors right from agriculture, urban & rural planning to disaster risk reduction.

Department of Space is working closely with various Central Ministries/Departments and State Governments towards maximizing the use of space technology in the various areas viz. Natural Resources Management, Energy & Infrastructure, Disaster & Early Warning, Communication & Navigation, e-Governance & Geo-spatial Governance and Societal Services. Many flagship programmes namely, Atal Mission for Rejuvenation & Urban Transformation; Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana; Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana; National Mission for Clean Ganga, Digital India & MGNREGA are also utilizing space-based tools.

ISRO is focusing on providing assured services through data continuity, improved connectivity & location-based services and enabling proactive user engagement through institutionalisation of space applications and capacity building. In a nutshell, ISRO is enabling the space applications in tune with the requirements of Ministries/Departments to enhance functional effectiveness, facilitate planning and decision making to improve governance and development.

7. Follow-up Actions on National Meet for Application of Space Technology & Tools: Out of the 160 projects emerged as an outcome of the national meet, work was initiated in 144 projects. In about 60 projects, significant progress has been made in terms of development of methodology, web and mobile applications, training and execution of work. About 75 customised web applications and 50 mobile applications were deployed. MoUs were signed with Central Ministries/Departments as well as the State Governments. Based on the request of the Ministries/ Departments for capacity building, more than 9,000 officials were trained. Additionally, Outreach programmes were also conducted in Colleges and Schools. State Meets on ‘Promoting space technology -based tools’ were completed for many States.
8. International Cooperation: As part of the ongoing civil space cooperation, cooperative Agreements/MoUs were signed with UAE space agency (February 2016); US Geological Survey (July 2016); Afghanistan (September 2016); Vietnam (September 2016); Russia (October 2016) Japan (November 2016) and NASA of USA (November 2016). India hosted the two international events, viz., i) UN/India workshop on “Use of earth observation data in disaster management and risk reduction: sharing the Asian experience” in Hyderabad in March 2016 and ii) 10th SPIE-Asia Pacific Remote Sensing Symposium (APRS) in New Delhi in April 2016. ISRO along with French space agency hosted a meeting of heads of space agencies on April, 03, 2016 in New Delhi to highlight the importance of space inputs for climate change studies. Space Agencies of India and Mexico organised a joint workshop in Mexico on use of space technology for disaster management in July 2016. Bilateral space cooperation meetings were organised with delegations of Australia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, France, Germany, Japan, Russia, Switzerland, Sri Lanka, the Netherlands, UK and USA.

***

KSD/PK/KM

Neshant
BRF Oldie
Posts: 3974
Joined: 01 Jan 1970 05:30

Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby Neshant » 14 Mar 2017 06:19

Rishi Verma wrote:
Neshant wrote:Space station would be a giant waste of money. ...

We don't need a space station.


Making sweeping statements makes one a sweeper. You obviously have a narrow view of what a space station ought to be. You seem to have visions of Mir or the Spacelab.

Isro is proposing a "space station", try to understand what they are proposing before jumping to a conclusion.


Other than putting space station in quotes, you haven't explained anything!

What's the difference between a space station and a "space station" and how does it justify the cost of this behemoth?

disha
BR Mainsite Crew
Posts: 5567
Joined: 03 Dec 2006 04:17
Location: gaganaviharin

Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby disha » 14 Mar 2017 07:02

Neshant and Rishi'ji., we need pros and cons (or vice versa) from each of you. Please try to make it objective. It will add to the body of understanding of space stations.

krishGo
BRFite -Trainee
Posts: 29
Joined: 03 Feb 2017 04:24

Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby krishGo » 14 Mar 2017 07:04

I don't think there is a need to get worked up over the supposed Indian Space Station. Even if the HSF program is sanctioned today, work on the Space Station cant be taken up for the next 15-20 years.

There is a lot of technologies (like docking, EVA etc ) that need to be proven before a Space Station can be put in orbit. A good example would be the Chinese HSF program. They had their first manned flight in 2003 and are still a good 2-3 years from launching the first components of their Space Station. All this with a huge pool of funding and getting design assistance from the Russians.

IMHO, ISRO would be better served with proving technologies like docking eventually leading upto a Space Lab (a small space station) with a short lifetime. Beyond that, cooperation with other countries on the successor of International Space Station makes sense. Let us not forget that China might have a lot of money to throw around now but it might not always be the case.

There is a general consensus that sustained human exploration of the other worlds can happen only through cooperation. That said, we should also aim for reasonable independent capability in HSF in addition to cooperation so that we are at the forefronts of the technology & exploration, regardless of the prevailing international relations.

A Nandy
BR Mainsite Crew
Posts: 102
Joined: 06 Sep 2009 23:39

Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby A Nandy » 14 Mar 2017 09:44

A good example would be the Chinese HSF program. They had their first manned flight in 2003 and are still a good 2-3 years from launching the first components of their Space Station.


eh?

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tiangong-1

prasannasimha
BR Mainsite Crew
Posts: 291
Joined: 15 Aug 2016 00:22

Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby prasannasimha » 14 Mar 2017 16:05

ISRO is gotng to do the first trial space rendezvouz ,docking undocking with satellites as per some reports. This will allow various elements including satellite fuel replenishment etc to be possible as first step.

Rishi Verma
BRFite
Posts: 914
Joined: 28 Oct 2016 13:08

Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby Rishi Verma » 14 Mar 2017 17:54

disha wrote:Neshant and Rishi'ji., we need pros and cons (or vice versa) from each of you. Please try to make it objective. It will add to the body of understanding of space stations.


I had already written on the same page. .. So quoting me
Other than research, Indian space station can be geared towards a) space warfare purposes, b) for space tourism purposes. Even if isro were to have a base on the moon then a permenant space station would have important roles such as staging area, training area, emergency tasks etc


I also feel that the "space station" need not be continuously "manned", so food supply trucks don't have to go as often. But a space station is the need of the hour, tailored to Indian needs for Indian interests.

Varoon Shekhar
BRFite
Posts: 1505
Joined: 03 Jan 2010 23:26

Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby Varoon Shekhar » 14 Mar 2017 19:40

prasannasimha wrote:ISRO is gotng to do the first trial space rendezvouz ,docking undocking with satellites as per some reports. This will allow various elements including satellite fuel replenishment etc to be possible as first step.


It may occur this year on a PSLV mission, I've even heard unsubstantiated reports that it could be on PSLV C-38 in April. Let's see!

Right now, I'm looking forward to the two GSLV launches taking place within the span of less than one full month! The GSLV Mark 2 launch on March 31st and the GSLV Mark 3 lift off on April 20-23. That will be really impressive! No delays, please!

Varoon Shekhar
BRFite
Posts: 1505
Joined: 03 Jan 2010 23:26

Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby Varoon Shekhar » 15 Mar 2017 19:02

Already one minor delay :( , the GSLV Mark 2 has been rescheduled for April 4th, as per Spaceflight Now. Okay, but please don't push back the GSLV Mark 3 launch, from its current date of April 20-23.

One good thing about the Mark 2 delay, is that if the Mark 3 keeps on schedule, we will see two GSLV missions in 3 weeks, not even one month. That would be wonderful! The NASA launch website has a PSLV being launched around April 15th. Is that possible, with a GSLV one week later? Anyway, to repeat, please no more delays!

prasannasimha
BR Mainsite Crew
Posts: 291
Joined: 15 Aug 2016 00:22

Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby prasannasimha » 15 Mar 2017 21:29

You will get a delay like it or not. They ahve just recently done some qualification tests. No one will take a chance with GSLV Mk 3

PratikDas
BRFite
Posts: 1783
Joined: 06 Feb 2009 07:46
Contact:

Re: Indian Space Programme Discussion - Sept 2016

Postby PratikDas » 15 Mar 2017 21:32

prasannasimha wrote:You will get a delay like it or not. They ahve just recently done some qualification tests. No one will take a chance with GSLV Mk 3

I'd have to agree.


Return to “Military Issues & History Forum”

Who is online

Users browsing this forum: ashishvikas, ashthor, DrRatnadip, JayS, marimuthu and 26 guests