Indian Naval Aviation

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Re: Indian Naval Aviation

Postby Ashokk » 02 May 2020 21:05


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Re: Indian Naval Aviation

Postby Philip » 03 May 2020 09:50

Sad to see such a distinguished veteran retire.Landing a Sea King on such a small roof is testimony to the superb training and capabilities of IN pilots. The IN and other sister services should in some way see that such experienced veterans are utilised by training establishments, lectures,etc.,etc. Their knowledge is invaluable.

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Re: Indian Naval Aviation

Postby Philip » 03 May 2020 13:56

We never intended to build SHs here! Like our M2Ks,a decent no. of SHs would be still v.useful anc operable.However the IN's budgets have been the smallest and at the time of SH availability it faced a v.severe fund crunch,with few new assets being inducted.

With the current CV crisis,unless the NLCA meets the grade performancewise, it is unlikely to be acquired,as firstly ,a MK-1A Tejas costs upwards of $50M,when a modern MIG-35 costs only around $40M.We bought our 29Ks for $28M at the time,say around $35-40 M for a new one today. Still cheaper and more capable. The crying need of the day are the hundreds of naval helos reqd.

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Re: Indian Naval Aviation

Postby srin » 03 May 2020 16:39

The harriers were one of the most accident prone aircraft. More than half the squadron of SH's were lost due to crashes. Subsonic, complex to fly and land, limited payload due to VSTOL capability. I'm glad we don't fly it anymore.

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Re: Indian Naval Aviation

Postby Philip » 04 May 2020 12:33

How come the USMC are going to keep them in service till 2025 at least? They weren't difficult to fly and the easiest of aircraft to land on a carrier. Examine the experirnce of the SH/Hs in other navies and services. We simply didn't have enough numbers ,spares,etc. to continue worthwhile operating them. 70+ were available for peanuts.The IN wasn't a top priority at that time. Even nowt here is little news about the 4 amphibs,which were on the verge of being awarded to L&T ,but vested interests not wanting the pvt. sector to make inroads into the DPSUs affecting their stranglehold over defence orders,where their patchy performance,delays,cost overruns would be shown up,sabotaged the same.By now the first 2 amphibs would've been completed.

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Re: Indian Naval Aviation

Postby Rakesh » 15 May 2020 16:12

US asks Lockheed Martin to make India Navy’s choppers
https://defence.capital/2020/05/15/us-a ... -choppers/
15 May 2020

The Pentagon confirmed the award to Lockheed Martin in a notification yesterday. “Lockheed Martin Corp., Owego, New York, is awarded a $904,800,000 modification (P00011) to a previously awarded firm-fixed-price, cost-plus-fixed-fee contract N00019-19-C-0013,” the notification on the Department of Defense website said.

“This modification provides for the production and delivery of three MH-60R Seahawk maritime aircraft for the Navy and 21 MH-60Rs for the government of India. Work will be performed at Owego, New York (52%); Stratford, Connecticut (40%); and Troy, Alabama (8%), and is expected to be complete by September 2024.

“Fiscal 2020 aircraft procurement (Navy) funds in the amount of $113,100,000 and Foreign Military Sales funds in the amount of $791,700,000 will be obligated at time of award, none of which will expire at the end of the current fiscal year. The Naval Air Systems Command, Patuxent River, Maryland, is the contracting activity.”

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Re: Indian Naval Aviation

Postby Rakesh » 15 May 2020 16:15

HAL may enter as government revisits Navy chopper plan
https://m.economictimes.com/news/defenc ... 704072.cms
12 May 2020

The defence ministry is re-evaluating its big ‘Make in India’ plan to manufacture naval utility helicopters. The companies have been asked to explain if the programme has export potential and the Centre is also looking at giving Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) a chance to enter the competition. The Rs 21,000-crore plan to manufacture naval utility helicopters in partnership with a foreign vendor has been in the works for over a year and important decisions on going to the next step of technical evaluation have to be taken shortly. Sources said queries have been sent to Indian and foreign companies bidding for the project to understand if there are plans to continue the line beyond the 111helicopters envisaged to meet exports in both civil and military markets.

The ministry is also assessing if a lesser number of choppers were to be ordered, what the impact would be on technology transfer and cost viability. There is an apprehension that the project could be cut down in numbers as the ministry is revising all procurement plans due to an anticipated budget cut. Sources also said the HAL, which has been making a strong pitch for its Advanced Light Helicopter (ALH), could get a chance to enter the competition if it is able to develop compliant prototypes, within a specified period of time. The state-owned company has been pitching a naval variant of the ALH with folding rotor blades and tail but is yet to develop a prototype.

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Re: Indian Naval Aviation

Postby Rakesh » 15 May 2020 16:31

https://twitter.com/KSingh_1469/status/ ... 47584?s=20 ---> ALH is the best bird on offer for the NUH contract. Wish HAL would show the same initiative they have with LCA Mk1A, HTT-40 and LCH LSP and fund the NUH spec ALH (folding tail boom etc) prototype ASAP and give the Indian Navy no scope to turn a blind eye anymore.

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Re: Indian Naval Aviation

Postby Rakesh » 15 May 2020 16:32

https://twitter.com/ThingNavy/status/12 ... 72768?s=20 ---> Indian Navy is going to order at least 6 more Ka-31 AEW&C helicopters from Russia. Total strength of Ka-31 in Indian Navy will be 20+

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Re: Indian Naval Aviation

Postby srin » 15 May 2020 16:38

Why so many Ka-31 AEWs ? Say each of the carriers carry 3 each (2 on rotation duty and one undergoing maintenance) and some on shore for deeper maintenance, it'd still be less than 10.

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Re: Indian Naval Aviation

Postby sankum » 15 May 2020 16:44

The NUH should go to ALH navalised version and 16 to 24 ASW versions of it can be bought to add to 16 ASW naval ALH already ordered so that along with 24 Seahawks the naval requirement of ASW helps can be fullfilled till 2030 when HAL IMRH can be ordered for 123 NMRH.

Total swadeshi solution.

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Re: Indian Naval Aviation

Postby sankum » 15 May 2020 16:47

Each carrier will carry 4 Ka31 and 10 Talwar class frigates will carry one Ka31 for total 18 nos deployment. Hence 20 Ka32 requirement.

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Re: Indian Naval Aviation

Postby titash » 15 May 2020 22:57

sankum wrote:Each carrier will carry 4 Ka31 and 10 Talwar class frigates will carry one Ka31 for total 18 nos deployment. Hence 20 Ka32 requirement.


I'm curious as to the operational philosophy of the Talwar class. I guess if the frigates are operating as part of a large mixed surface action group, the Ka-31 will provide integral AEW coverage without requiring a carrier's presence. 2-3 Talwars in the SAG could ensure continuous 24 hour AEW coverage for a day or two.

If the frigates operate independently, it makes more sense to embark a Ka-28 for ASW/SAR instead I would think.

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Re: Indian Naval Aviation

Postby titash » 15 May 2020 23:01

Also, once thing that can be considered to lower the import bill is to halve the 123 nos MRH requirement. Rely on an ASROC type weapon (DRDO is developing "SMART"...perhaps prioritize it) to deliver ASW munitions at extended ranges.

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Re: Indian Naval Aviation

Postby Kartik » 16 May 2020 00:15

Indian Navy signs contract with Sikorsky for 24 MH-60R 'Romeo' Seahawks. The 3 that are for the US Navy are to be handed over to the Indian Navy as well, so basically a production contract for the 24 MH-60Rs has been signed. Finally!!

Weapons contracts will be signed separately, which explains the huge difference in the $2.4 billion FMS announcement and the actual contract price of $904 million for the airframes.

Image

from AW&ST


The U.S. Navy awarded Lockheed Martin a $904 million contract modification May 14 for 21 MH-60R Seahawks for India and three for the service.

The deal with India was cleared by the State Department roughly 13 months ago and covered 24 MH-60Rs at an estimated cost of $2.6 billion. The work is scheduled to be completed in September 2024.

“India’s selection of the MH-60R ‘Romeo’ multi-mission helicopter provides the Indian Navy with the most advanced anti-surface/anti-submarine warfare helicopter in operation today,” Tom Kane, naval helicopter programs director at Sikorsky, told Aerospace DAILY in a May 14 statement. “The MH-60R provides a vital capability in the Indo-Pacific region and equips the Indian Navy with a tremendous capability that is ready for operations immediately upon delivery.”

The State Department greenlighted additional items to accompany the MH-60R sale. Highlights include 10 AGM-114 Hellfire missiles, five AGM-114 ME36-E9 captive air training missiles, four AGM-114Q Hellfire training missiles, 38 Advanced Precision Kill Weapons System rockets, 30 M. 54 torpedoes, four Naval Strike Missile captive inert training missiles, and one MH-60B/R excess defense article legacy Navy aircraft.

Implementation of the sale will require 20-30 U.S. government or contractor representatives to be assigned in India.

“This proposed sale will support the foreign policy and national security of the United States by helping to strengthen the U.S.-Indian strategic relationship and to improve the security of a major defensive partner which continues to be an important force for political stability, peace, and economic progress in the Indo-Pacific and South Asia region,” according to an April 2019 State Department statement.



Better details from Janes

article link

The US Navy (USN) has awarded a USD904.8 million contract to Lockheed Martin to build 24 MH-60R multirole naval helicopters for delivery to the Indian Navy (IN) under the US Foreign Military Sales (FMS) programme.

In a 14 May announcement the US Department of Defense (DoD) said that three of these anti-surface warfare (ASuW)-, and anti-submarine-warfare (ASW)-capable rotorcraft, would be delivered to the USN, while 21 platforms, costing USD791.7 million, would be handed over to the Indian government.

“The work is expected to be completed by September 2024,” said the Pentagon, adding that the bulk of the helicopter manufacturing would be undertaken at Lockheed Martin/Sikorsky’s facilities in Owego, New York, and in Stratford, Connecticut.
[b]
Official and industry sources in New Delhi cleared up the apparent confusion in the deliveries by explaining that the IN’s first three MH-60Rs will first be handed over to the USN’s Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR), which will then transfer them to India.

The IN will begin training on these first platforms in the United States on an “accelerated basis”, before delivery of the remaining 21 rotorcraft gets under way, they told Janes .

Senior naval officers said NAVAIR had originally intended to hand over the three MH-60Rs during the 22nd round of ‘Malabar’ exercises between the IN and USN – which were scheduled for later this year – but the manoeuvres have been deferred because of the ongoing Covid-19 coronavirus pandemic.


So original plan was for the 3 brand new US Navy MH-60Rs to be transferred to the IN this year during the Malabar exercises. But that plan has now changed, yet they should probably get these 3 MH-60Rs this year itself.

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Re: Indian Naval Aviation

Postby srai » 16 May 2020 05:51

The current quantities of 24 MH-60R are just about sufficient for equipping IN’s capital ships. Not all ships or aircraft at sea at any given point. Another 12-24 would be plenty.

10 x P-15/A/B
10 x P-17/A
4 x P-28
—————
Total: 24

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Re: Indian Naval Aviation

Postby srin » 19 May 2020 18:15

While the focus has been on the MRCA for IAF, I think far greater danger is in the 57 carrier based fighter deal. I don't think that is happening But at the same time, with Vikrant being so close, we need more. I suspect there will be more Mig29Ks coming (and hopefully 1 squadron of LCA-N).

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Re: Indian Naval Aviation

Postby Barath » 19 May 2020 18:26

srin wrote:While the focus has been on the MRCA for IAF, I think far greater danger is in the 57 carrier based fighter deal. I don't think that is happening But at the same time, with Vikrant being so close, we need more. I suspect there will be more Mig29Ks coming (and hopefully 1 squadron of LCA-N).


India bought 45 Mig 29K . Vikramaditya can carry a max of 26 Mig 29K and 10 choppers. Vikrant will take another two years to commission and will be similar.

The most urgent might be the choppers

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Re: Indian Naval Aviation

Postby sankum » 19 May 2020 19:39

INS Vikramaditya can carry 24 Mig29k+ 6 helo or 21 Mig 29k + 13 Helo. Standard complement is 20 Mig29k + 8 Helo.
INS VIKRANT can carry max 24Mig 29k + 12Helo.
Standard complement is 20 Mig29k+ 10Helo.

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Re: Indian Naval Aviation

Postby srin » 19 May 2020 23:34

We have 42 aircraft (3 lost due to accidents).

And if I take also include the aircraft under maintenance and shore-based training, and also requirement of aircraft for combat time "surge", I think we need atleast one more squadron of aircraft.

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Re: Indian Naval Aviation

Postby John » 20 May 2020 06:58

A request was made to Russia for information on additional Mig-29k in 2017 . But we never followed thru and shifted focus to a tender for 57 jets for the navy (Rafael-m, SH are competing in that) which is also in limbo.

https://tass.com/defense/1119171

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Re: Indian Naval Aviation

Postby Kartik » 20 May 2020 10:37

42 MiG-29K and KUBs are enough for the IN's 2 carriers. Most of the year, the two carriers are not at sea at the same time. Carriers undergo lengthy refits and during that time the carrier's aircraft are operated from land bases. The 2 carriers even if embarked at the same time, will likely only carry 16 MiG-29K and KUBs each at any given time.

Plus, the IN cannot make a business case for an additional squadron or 10 more MiG-29Ks when it plans to replace the MiG-29K/KUB fleet in the mid 2030s. They can ask for 10 N-LCA Mk1s to use as trainers, while diverting the MiG-29KUBs from training to combat duties that it is perfectly capable of.

The 57 MRCBF tender is as good as over now. the IAF's needs are far more urgent and they have no funds for MRCA right now, so the 57 MRCBF will definitely not move any further.

The only feasible solution is to make do with the number of MiG-29K/KUBs, work on improving their availability. And focus all their attention on the TEDBF with ADA and HAL. The Navy should be doing all it can to get additional funding to speed up TEDBF development to get it into service by 2030 or so.

If TEDBF funding is accelerated, then the IAF can piggy back on the TEDBF's Air Force variant, the ORCA. ORCA development will help them get a Rafale-class MRCA the numbers that they want, starting 2032 or so.

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Re: Indian Naval Aviation

Postby Philip » 20 May 2020 11:18

Until the lifts remain undersized for larger aircraft, the IN's best option is for upgrades for 29Ks,or wait for new carriers arrive,post 2030. One more 29K sqd. could be ordered to upgraded MIG35 std. It's because the IN have stated yhathdrn[

Acquiring the 120+ ASW helos and supersonic LRMP aircraft a necessity is a higher priority than the 3rd. carrier.

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Re: Indian Naval Aviation

Postby mody » 20 May 2020 15:21

Russian Navy had procured about 24 Mig-29K's. Atleast 1 one of these has crashed. With the Kuzetsnov not likely to sail again, we can perhaps buy about 16 Mig-29K's from the Russians. This would give us a total of 58 Migs 29Ks. This would be enough for 2 carriers.
Sincerely hope the IN also orders say about 16-18 Naval LCA's as well. 4-6 two seat versions and 12 single seat planes. Both the carriers can carry 4 NLCA. The two seat variants can be used to train all future naval aviators.

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Re: Indian Naval Aviation

Postby John » 20 May 2020 20:39

mody wrote:Russian Navy had procured about 24 Mig-29K's. Atleast 1 one of these has crashed. With the Kuzetsnov not likely to sail again, we can perhaps buy about 16 Mig-29K's from the Russians. This would give us a total of 58 Migs 29Ks. This would be enough for 2 carriers.
Sincerely hope the IN also orders say about 16-18 Naval LCA's as well. 4-6 two seat versions and 12 single seat planes. Both the carriers can carry 4 NLCA. The two seat variants can be used to train all future naval aviators.

They are not going to offer much of a discount and ski jump
operations places a lot of stress on airframe, so given the risk why even bother buying used when we can get brand new ones.
Last edited by John on 20 May 2020 20:42, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Indian Naval Aviation

Postby Vivek K » 20 May 2020 20:41

Any point to get fighters with less than 25% up-times? What is the point of throwing good money after bad? Perhaps we should invest in some bows and arrows for the carriers too - result will be the same as a fighter in service hangar during war.

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Re: Indian Naval Aviation

Postby John » 20 May 2020 20:45

Vivek K wrote:Any point to get fighters with less than 25% up-times? What is the point of throwing good money after bad? Perhaps we should invest in some bows and arrows for the carriers too - result will be the same as a fighter in service hangar during war.

Link for that? Navy chief was on record saying serviceability was improved to 70% in dec2018.

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Re: Indian Naval Aviation

Postby Vivek K » 20 May 2020 23:30

Fair question. Let me (hiding my ignorance) pose a question to you - when was the last time that a sitting IN/IA/IAF chief has given out operational flaws accurately? That is quite the right thing to do so as not to provide information to the enemy.

Google chacha shows this from Huma Siddiqui (November 26, 2018):
https://www.financialexpress.com/defenc ... a/1394037/
There are issues related to the landing of the aircraft on the carrier and due to the heavy landing regular maintenance is required to address the wear and tear issues.” The Navy chief will be meeting with the Russian Aircraft Corporation MiG and discuss maintenance related issues with them which includes problems in the airframes, engines as well as other systems onboard.

State-owned Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd (HAL) is the nodal body which is expected to overhaul the engines as well as carry out any other urgent structural changes of these MiG-29k aircraft.As has been reported by FE earlier, the Indian Navy is urgently trying to acquire 57 multi-role fighters for its aircraft carrier to replace the existing fleet for the MiG-29K. “Since the procurement process is long, we need to ensure that the existing fleet of MiG-29K is in operational readiness,” a naval officer explained.


And then we all know that the IN went in for a 57 aircraft purchase attempt. Evidently they did not believe that the aircraft would provide enough life for carrier borne operations and was looking to replace the 2 carrier fleet with a new type. Now to invest further in an aircraft already plagued with maintenance issues, requiring large investment in spares inventory that is entirely dependent on Roos and with their past record, may not be prudent.

I have no chaiwallah connections but does the Mig-29k and its requirement of spares result in cutting short deployments? Is there a number of operational aircraft that Vikramaditya must have before the task force turns back?

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Re: Indian Naval Aviation

Postby Mort Walker » 21 May 2020 00:03

Vivek K,

Absolutely no to any Mig, Rafale, or F-18 of any variety. It must be the Naval LCA. Why? The logistics infrastructure is within India and if enough of the LCA Tejas variants there are, the more it becomes a commodity within India. In other words, there will be lots of parts suppliers, skilled labor, and trained crew to service these aircraft. By default this will push up availability.

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Re: Indian Naval Aviation

Postby Vivek K » 21 May 2020 00:20

Agree Mort. I would rather have NLCAs that are designed from the ground up rather than retrofit carrier capability to an existing aircraft. Additional 29ks do not make much sense at this time. And the IN seems to be of the same opinion.

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Re: Indian Naval Aviation

Postby John » 21 May 2020 03:31

Vivek K wrote:Fair question. Let me (hiding my ignorance) pose a question to you - when was the last time that a sitting IN/IA/IAF chief has given out operational flaws accurately? That is quite the right thing to do so as not to provide information to the enemy.

It was navy chief or navy that brought up the concern that serviceability is earlier at 37.5%, I get It we want to see N-LCA in service but lets stick to facts not just throw #s to justify it. Mig-29k has other issues, currently what is concerting is high attrition rate which makes me question the reliability of its engine and airframe in STOBAR operations.

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Re: Indian Naval Aviation

Postby nam » 21 May 2020 03:42

Kartik wrote:The only feasible solution is to make do with the number of MiG-29K/KUBs, work on improving their availability. And focus all their attention on the TEDBF with ADA and HAL. The Navy should be doing all it can to get additional funding to speed up TEDBF development to get it into service by 2030 or so.

If TEDBF funding is accelerated, then the IAF can piggy back on the TEDBF's Air Force variant, the ORCA. ORCA development will help them get a Rafale-class MRCA the numbers that they want, starting 2032 or so.


TEDBF/ORCA is now becoming a no brainier. We need 300+ twin engine fighters to replace Su30 & Mig29K. Even if we save 30M eaach on the purchase cost, that is a saving of 9 Billion! 4 times the money ADA needs to develop the versions!

Not even considering the opex savings due to common parts!

But then IAF will get Rafale as Make in India and then argue we can replace Su30 & Mig29K with it!

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Re: Indian Naval Aviation

Postby Vivek K » 21 May 2020 05:05

Again - fair observation. However, there are no recent numbers of serviceability of the 29ks and concerns about their excessive wear and tear and engine issues are behind the Navy looking for replacements. So with the shortage of funds ....... and make in India ........

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Re: Indian Naval Aviation

Postby Vivek K » 21 May 2020 05:07

nam wrote:...
Not even considering the opex savings due to common parts!

But then IAF will get Rafale as Make in India and then argue we can replace Su30 & Mig29K with it!

India will run out of money and the economy will collapse if IAF wanted to buy 300 Rafale. So that will not happen unless the price comes down to reasonable levels - and knowing the French, that will not happen too.

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Re: Indian Naval Aviation

Postby John » 21 May 2020 08:59

Vivek K wrote:Again - fair observation. However, there are no recent numbers of serviceability of the 29ks and concerns about their excessive wear and tear and engine issues are behind the Navy looking for replacements. So with the shortage of funds ....... and make in India ........

Last # I have is 60% and Navy is trying to increase to 80%.

https://www.financialexpress.com/defenc ... a/1394037/

“ The serviceability of the MiG-29 from the present 60 % to upto 80 % or more and there is an urgent requirement to meet with the agencies in an effort to expedite the process. ”

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Re: Indian Naval Aviation

Postby Mort Walker » 21 May 2020 09:06

John wrote:
Vivek K wrote:Again - fair observation. However, there are no recent numbers of serviceability of the 29ks and concerns about their excessive wear and tear and engine issues are behind the Navy looking for replacements. So with the shortage of funds ....... and make in India ........

Last # I have is 60% and Navy is trying to increase to 80%.

https://www.financialexpress.com/defenc ... a/1394037/

“ The serviceability of the MiG-29 from the present 60 % to upto 80 % or more and there is an urgent requirement to meet with the agencies in an effort to expedite the process. ”


What is the serviceability rate of the IAF's Mig-29s, is it that high? I doubt it's more than 70%. Both the IAF and IN would be sharing the same logistics chain for the Mig-29.

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Re: Indian Naval Aviation

Postby Manish_P » 21 May 2020 10:11

Is 'serviceability' the same as the 'availability/readiness'?

King Khan is dropping it's earlier policy target of having a uniform 80% availability rate across multiple fighter types, underscoring the challenges involved even for a MIC as powerful as theirs..

The Air Force Is Dropping Mattis' 80% Aircraft Readiness Goal

The U.S. Air Force is no longer working to hit former Defense Secretary Jim Mattis's 80% mission-capable rate goal for its major operational aircraft fleet, according to the general nominated to be the next Air Force chief of staff.

In written responses provided to the Senate Armed Services committee, Gen. Charles "CQ" Brown said the goal, which assesses whether aircraft are able to perform their core functions, is no longer a benchmark for all units. The Air Force will allow commanders to set their own goals, he said.

In 2018, then SecDef Mattis said the services must achieve a minimum level of 80% readiness for the F-16 Fighting Falcon, F-22 Raptor, F-35 Joint Strike Fighter and F/A-18 Hornet fleets by the end of fiscal 2019. Only days before the Sept. 30 deadline, Air Force officials acknowledged that the service wouldn't meet the target.

Lt. Gen. Mark Kelly, deputy chief of staff for operations, told audiences at the 2019 Defense News Conference that only one aircraft platform would make the goal. "The F-16 MC rate in our active-duty units is above 80%," Kelly said during a panel on Air Force prioritization.

But according to recently published statistics in Defense News, even the F-16 fell short.

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Re: Indian Naval Aviation

Postby Bala Vignesh » 21 May 2020 11:35

As I understand it, Serviceability relates to an aircraft being available to fly at any time, which could also means readiness. Availability would also include serviceability of all the munitions and sensors required for the mission. But I could be wrong.

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Re: Indian Naval Aviation

Postby nam » 21 May 2020 14:46

Vivek K wrote:
nam wrote:...
Not even considering the opex savings due to common parts!

But then IAF will get Rafale as Make in India and then argue we can replace Su30 & Mig29K with it!

India will run out of money and the economy will collapse if IAF wanted to buy 300 Rafale. So that will not happen unless the price comes down to reasonable levels - and knowing the French, that will not happen too.


It makes no economic sense for Dassault to setup production lines in India for 114 planes. So IAF's plan for 114 Make in India MRCA 2 is a non-starter.

Unless Dassault is enticed with Su30 & Mig29K replacement..

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Re: Indian Naval Aviation

Postby chola » 21 May 2020 14:53

300 Rafales?! Where is this coming from?

Though the commonality with IAF and IN is really nice to think about.

It's going to be the existing 29Ks for Vikrant and we can only hope for a few NLCAs. There is no moola left for TFTA stuff after Wuhan virus and the lockdown. We are borrowing from the IMF and the BRICS bank for virus fight.

Long term, IN is set on the TEDBF.


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