There is something interesting to ponder on:
There are 4 festivals: Valentine's Day, April Fool's Day, Halloween, Christmas.
I think all these 4 festivals are Pagan festivals originally which were later given christian coloring by church.
These festivals have corresponding Hindu festivals.
Valentine's day == Vasant(Basant) Utsav (Spring Festival) & Holi.
April Fool's day (original New Year) == Ugadi or Gudi Padva (Hindu New Year).
Halloween == Pitru Amavasya.
Christmas == Makara Sankranti.
Pumpkins play a special role in Halloween. Why? According to the Hindu literature, Pumpkins(Kushmanda) are the favourite food of pitris(deceased ancestors). Pitri Amavasya is day, just a few days before Dusherra, which is marked for performing Shraaddha of the pitris. Halloween falls very close to this.
The differences in the exact dates may be explained due to the changes in the calendar. Most of the Indian festivals(except Makara Sankranti) follow Lunar Calendar. So, the dates can vary.
Holi and Basant Utsav are the days when young girls and boys enjoy themselves. Romans used to follow similar festival(most probably they inherited it from the earlier cultures). This was given a christian makeover by the church.
Similarly, Makara Sankranti was made it into the birthday of Jesus, while Sunday was made into the holyday.
The connections are obvious. There is a definite Hindu connection. So, the theory is that once upon a time all the humanity followed a single religion(Hinduism) with some local variations. The newer ideologies sprang from Hinduism(or some derivative of Hinduism). These newer ideologies altered/erased the local customs. But, there are still certain points that could not be altered/erased which reveal the common Hindu past of the entire world.
There has been a serious debate on Dharma on this thread.
In Hinduism, there are 2 types of Dharma:
a) Samanya Dharma (General)
b) Vishesha Dharma (Special)
It seems, according to Manu:
ahimsa satyam asteyam shaucham indriyanigraham
etam samasikam dharmam chaaturvarnye abhravin manuh
Ahimsa(Non-violence), Satyam(Truth), Asteyam(Non-Stealing), Shaucham(Cleanliness) and Indriya-nigraham(Control of senses) are the Dharma of all the 4 varnas.
The general Dharma applicable to all are:
Indriya-nigraham(Control of senses)
The priority is also clear. Ahimsa(Non-Violence) has the highest priority(over and above Satya/Truth also).
Ahimsa Paramo Dharmah.
Ahimsa is the highest Dharma.
So, when there is a conflict between Ahimsa(Non-Violence) and Satya(Truth), then Ahimsa get higher priority.
Ahimsa(Non-violence) can cover topics like: Murder, genocide, harassment(of any kind), injury(direct/indirect), abortion(killing of foetus), ...etc.
Satya(Truth) is self-explanatory. It can cover topics like: Cheating, scams, misrepresentations(specially in public discourses), breaking the agreements, adulterating the items ...etc.
Asteya(Not-stealing) can cover topics like: stealing, bribes, extra-marital affairs(stealing others' wives/husbands/girl-friends/boy-friends ... etc).
The above three are guarding against the wrong actions.
Shaucha(cleanliness) is a quality that is to be encouraged and inculcated.
Shaucha can cover topics like: personal hygiene, keep the environment clean and safe, pollution(air/water/land/sound...etc).
Finally, the bonus quality which is to be respected, admired and rewarded.
Indriya Nigraha: Control of senses(including mind). Indriya Nigraha forms the basis for all other Dharmas. One who is hankering after the sensual enjoyments would hardly care about law or dharma.
These 5 are the general rules for all.
Then, there are special rules. The special rules are based on the time, place, circumstance and subject. It varies from person to person, from gender to gender, from place to place and time to time.
The Special rules have higher priority than the General rules. So, a soldier, whose special duty is to kill, is exempted from the general rule of Ahimsa.
What happens when a person is forced to perform one himsa(violence) or the other?
This is not a hypothetical question, it is based on the reality of life. Ahimsa is a huge topic, so briefly: The reality of the world is that there is conflict and violence in all dealings directly or indirectly. So, no one can abjure violence completely. So, the rule is that as long as one is acting with in one's own needs/duties, himsa(violence) is alright. For example, when a tiger kills a deer, its alright. Similarly, when a soldier kills an enemy, its alright.
A person must not harm anyone(even a plant or animal or insect) beyond one's need/duty. There is a story of Vidura's past life in MB. If one harms even insects, unnecessarily, then it accounts as severe violence. If one kills other men also, as part of duty/need(self-defense), then such a violence is negligible.
Killing oneself(suicide) is considered highest himsa(violence). Suicide is a bigger offense than the Murder. Murder/injury of a close relative/friend is a bigger offense than killing a stranger. Killing/harming someone who helped you in the past is a great offense.
The punishments given for the same crime are not equal. The one with higher privileges gets higher punishment for the same crime.
A robbery by an uneducated poor hungry guy is not the same as the robbery by an educated rich powerful guy. That means the punishments for the rich and powerful(elites) would be more severe than the punishments for the ordinary.
The taxes are equal to all. 1/6th of one's earning. No indirect taxes. The good ruler must take care of the invalids in one's country. The ruler must encourage the entrepreneurs. He must create situations such that the loans are easily available. The ruler must take care that the farmers are provided by seeds and fertilizers. The farmers must also have the chance to sell their produce for fair amounts.
This is the Hindu system.
"Narada said--'Is the wealth thou art earning being spent on proper objects? Doth thy mind take pleasure in virtue? Art thou enjoying the pleasures of life? Doth not thy mind sink under their weight? O chief of men, continuest thou in the noble conduct consistent with religion and wealth practised by thy ancestors towards the three classes of subjects, (viz., good, indifferent, and bad)? Never injurest thou religion for the sake of wealth, or both religion and wealth for the sake of pleasure that easily seduces? O thou foremost of victorious men ever devoted to the good of all, conversant as thou art with the timeliness of everything, followest thou religion, wealth, pleasure and salvation dividing thy time judiciously? O sinless one, with the six attributes of kings (viz., cleverness of speech, readiness in providing means, intelligence in dealing with the foe, memory, and acquaintance with morals and politics), dost thou attend to the seven means (viz., sowing dissensions, chastisement, conciliation, gifts, incantations, medicine and magic)? Examinest thou also, after a survey of thy own strength and weakness, the fourteen possessions of thy foes? These are the country, forts, cars, elephants, cavalry, foot-soldiers, the principal officials of state, the zenana, food supply, computations of the army and income, the religious treatises in force, the accounts of state, the revenue, wine-shops and other secret enemies. Attendest thou to the eight occupations (of agriculture, trade, &c), having examined, O thou foremost of victorious monarchs, thy own and thy enemy's means, and having made peace with thy enemies? O bull of the Bharata race, thy seven principal officers of state (viz., the governor of the citadel, the commander of
forces, the chief judge, the general in interior command, the chief priest, the chief physician, and the chief astrologer), have not, I hope, succumbed to the influence of thy foes, nor have they, I hope, become idle in consequence of the wealth they have earned? They are, I hope, all obedient to thee. Thy counsels, I hope, are never divulged by thy trusted spies in disguise, by thyself or by thy ministers? Thou ascertainest, I hope, what thy friends, foes and strangers are about? Makest thou peace and makest thou war at proper times? Observest thou neutrality towards strangers and persons that are neutral towards thee? And, O hero, hast thou made persons like thyself, persons that are old, continent in behaviour, capable of understanding what should be done and what should not, pure as regards birth and blood, and devoted to thee, thy ministers? O Bharata, the victories of kings can be attributed to good counsels. O child, is thy kingdom protected by ministers learned in Sastras, keeping their counsels close? Are thy foes unable to injure it? Thou hast not become the slave of sleep? Wakest thou at the proper time?
Conversant with pursuits yielding profit, thinkest thou, during the small hours of night, as to what thou shouldst do and what thou shouldst not do the next day? Thou settlest nothing alone, nor takest counsels with many? The counsels thou hast resolved upon, do not become known all over thy kingdom?
Commencest thou soon to accomplish measures of great utility that are easy of accomplishment? Such measures are never obstructed? Keepest thou the agriculturists not out of thy sight? They do not fear to approach thee? Achievest thou thy measures through persons that are trusted incorruptible, and possessed of practical experience? And, O brave king. I hope, people only know the measures already accomplished by thee and those that have been partially accomplished and are awaiting completion, but not those that are only in contemplation and uncommenced? Have experienced teachers capable of explaining the causes of things and learned in the science of morals and every branch of learning, been appointed to instruct the princes and the chiefs of the army? Buyest thou a single learned man by giving in exchange a thousand ignorant individuals? The man that is learned conferreth the greatest benefit in seasons of distress. Are thy forts always filled with treasure, food, weapons, water, engines and instruments, as also with engineers and bowmen? Even a single minister that is intelligent, brave, with his passions under complete control, and possessed of wisdom and judgment, is capable of conferring the highest prosperity on a king or a king's son. I ask thee, therefore, whether there is even one such minister with thee? Seekest thou to know everything about the eighteen Tirthas of the foe and fifteen of thy own by means of three and three spies all unacquainted with one another? O slayer of all foes, watchest thou all thy enemies with care and attention, and unknown to them? Is the priest thou honourest, possessed of humility, and purity of blood, and renown, and without jealousy and illiberality?
Hath any well-behaved, intelligent, and guileless Brahmana, well-up in the ordinance, been employed by thee in the performance of thy daily rites before the sacred fire, and doth he remind thee in proper time as to when thy homa should be performed? Is the astrologer thou hast employed
skilled in reading physiognomy, capable of interpreting omens, and competent to neutralise the effect of the disturbances of nature? Have respectable servants been employed by thee in offices that are respectable, indifferent ones in indifferent offices, and low ones in offices that are low? Hast thou appointed to high offices ministers that are guileless and of well conduct for generations and above the common run? Oppressest thou not thy people with cruel and severe punishment? And, O bull of the Bharata race, do thy ministers rule thy kingdom under thy orders? Do thy ministers ever slight thee like sacrificial priests slighting men that are fallen (and incapable of performing any more sacrifices) or like wives slighting husbands that are proud and incontinent in their behaviour? Is the commander of thy forces possessed of sufficient confidence, brave, intelligent, patient, well-conducted, of good birth, devoted to thee, and competent? Treatest thou with consideration and regard the chief officers of thy army that are skilled in every kind of welfare, are forward, well-behaved, and endued with prowess?
Givest thou to thy troops their sanctioned rations and pay in the appointed time? Thou dost not oppress them by withholding these? Knowest thou that the misery caused by arrears of pay and irregularity in the distribution of rations driveth the troops to mutiny, and that is called by the learned to be one of the greatest of mischiefs? Are all the principal high-born men devoted to thee, and ready with cheerfulness to lay down their lives in battle for thy sake? I hope no single individual of passions uncontrolled is ever permitted by thee to rule as he likes a number of concerns at the same time appertaining to the army? Is any servant of thine, who hath accomplished well a particular business by the employment of special ability, disappointed in obtaining from thee a little more regard, and an increase of food and pay? I hope thou rewardest persons of learning and humility, and skill in every kind of knowledge with gifts of wealth and honour proportionate to their qualifications. Dost thou support, O bull in the Bharata race, the wives and children of men that have given their lives for thee and have been distressed on thy account? Cherishest thou, O son of Pritha, with paternal affection the foe that hath been weakened, or him also that hath sought thy shelter, having been vanquished in battle? O lord of Earth, art thou equal unto all men, and can every one approach thee without fear, as if thou wert their mother and father? And O bull of the Bharata race, marchest thou, without loss of time, and reflecting well upon three kinds of
forces, against thy foe when thou hearest that he is in distress? O subjugator of all foes beginnest thou thy march when the time cometh, having taken into consideration all the omens you might see, the resolutions thou hast made, and that the ultimate victory depends upon the twelve mandalas (such as reserves, ambuscades, &c, and payment of pay to the troops in advance)? And, O persecutor of all foes, givest thou gems and jewels, unto the principal officers of enemy, as they deserve, without thy enemy's knowledge? O son of Pritha, seekest thou to conquer thy incensed foes that are slaves to their passions, having first conquered thy own soul and obtained the mastery over thy own senses?
Before thou marchest out against thy foes, dost thou properly employ the four arts of reconciliation, gift (of wealth) producing disunion, and application of force? O monarch, goest thou out against thy enemies, having first strengthened thy own kingdom? And having gone out against them, exertest thou to the utmost to obtain victory over them? And having conquered them, seekest thou to protect them with care? Are thy army consisting of four kinds of forces, viz., the regular troops, the allies, the mercenaries, and the irregulars, each furnished with the eight ingredients, viz., cars, elephants, horses, offices, infantry, camp-followers, spies possessing a thorough knowledge of the country, and ensigns led out against thy enemies after having been well trained by superior officers? O oppressor of all foes, O great king, I hope thou slayest thy foes without regarding their seasons of reaping and of famine? O king, I hope thy servants and agents in thy own kingdom and in the kingdoms of thy foes continue to look after their respective duties and to protect one another. O monarch, I hope trusted servants have been employed by thee to look after thy food, the robes thou wearest and the perfumes thou usest. I hope, O king, thy treasury, barns, stables arsenals, and women's apartments, are all protected by servants devoted to thee and ever seeking thy welfare. I hope, O monarch, thou protectest first thyself from thy domestic and public servants, then from those servants of thy relatives and from one another. Do thy servants, O king, ever speak to thee in the forenoon regarding thy extravagant expenditure in respect of thy drinks, sports, and women? Is thy expenditure always covered by a fourth, a third or a half of thy income? Cherishest thou always, with food and wealth, relatives, superiors, merchants, the aged, and other proteges, and the distressed? Do the accountants and clerks employed by thee in looking after thy income and expenditure, always appraise thee every day in the forenoon of thy income and expenditure?
Dismissest thou without fault servants accomplished in business and popular and devoted to thy welfare? O Bharata, dost thou employ superior, indifferent, and low men, after examining them well in offices they deserve? O monarch, employest thou in thy business persons that are thievish or open to temptation, or hostile, or minors? Persecutest thou thy kingdom by the help of thievish or covetous men, or minors, or women? Are the agriculturists in thy kingdom contented. Are large tanks and lakes constructed all over thy kingdom at proper distances, without agriculture being in thy realm entirely dependent on the showers of heaven? Are the agriculturists in thy kingdom wanting in either seed or food? Grantest thou with kindness loans (of seed-grains) unto the tillers, taking only a fourth in excess of every measure by the hundred? O child, are the four professions of agriculture, trade, cattle-rearing, and lending at interest, carried on by honest men? Upon these O monarch, depends the happiness of thy people. O king, do the five brave and wise men, employed in the five offices of protecting the city, the citadel, the merchants, and the agriculturists, and punishing the criminals, always benefit thy kingdom by working in union with one another? For the protection of thy city, have the villages been made like towns, and the hamlets and outskirts of villages like villages? Are all these entirely under thy supervision and sway? Are thieves and robbers that sack thy town pursued by thy police over the even and uneven parts of thy kingdom?
Consolest thou women and are they protected in thy realm? I hope thou placest not any confidence in them, nor divulgest any secret before any of them? O monarch, having heard of any danger and having reflected on it also, liest thou in the inner apartments enjoying every agreeable object? Having slept during the second and the third divisions of the night, thinkest thou of religion and profit in the fourth division wakefully. O son of Pandu, rising from bed at the proper time and dressing thyself well, showest thou thyself to thy people, accompanied by ministers conversant with the auspiciousness or otherwise of moments? O represser of all foes, do men dressed in red and armed with swords and adorned with ornaments stand by thy side to protect thy person? O monarch! behavest thou like the god of justice himself unto those that deserve punishment and those that deserve worship, unto those that are dear to thee and those that thou likest not? O son of Pritha, seekest thou to cure bodily diseases by medicines and fasts, and mental illness with the advice of the aged? I hope that the physicians engaged in looking after thy health are well conversant with the eight kinds of treatment and are all attached and devoted to thee. Happeneth it ever, O monarch, that from covetousness or folly or pride thou failest to decide between the plaintiff and the defendant who have come to thee? Deprivest thou, through covetousness or folly, of their pensions the proteges who have sought thy shelter from trustfulness or love? Do the people that inhabit thy realm, bought by thy foes, ever seek to raise disputes with thee, uniting themselves with one another? Are those amongst thy foes that are feeble always repressed by the help of troops that are strong, by the help of both counsels and troops? Are all the principal chieftains (of thy empire) all devoted to thee? Are they ready to lay down their lives for thy sake, commanded by thee? Dost thou worship Brahmanas and wise men according to their merits in respect of various branches of learning? I tell thee, such worship is without doubt, highly beneficial to thee. Hast thou faith in the religion based on the three Vedas and practised by men who have gone before thee? Dost thou carefully follow the practices that were followed by them? Are accomplished Brahmanas entertained in thy house and in thy presence with nutritive and excellent food, and do they also obtain pecuniary gifts at the conclusion of those feasts? Dost thou, with passions under complete control and with singleness of mind, strive to perform the sacrifices called Vajapeya and Pundarika with their full complement of rites? Bowest thou unto thy relatives and superiors, the aged, the gods, the ascetics, the Brahmanas, and the tall trees (banian) in villages, that are of so much benefit to people? O sinless one, causest thou ever grief or anger in any one? Do priests capable of granting thee auspicious fruits ever stand by thy side? O sinless one, are thy inclinations and practices such as I have described them, and as always enhance the duration of life and spread one's renown and as always help the cause of religion, pleasure, and profit? He who conducteth himself according to this way, never findeth his kingdom distressed or afflicted; and that monarch, subjugating the whole earth, enjoyeth a high degree of felicity. O monarch, I hope, no well-behaved, pure-souled, and respected person is ever ruined and his life taken, on a false charge or theft, by thy ministers ignorant of Sastras and acting from greed? And, O bull among men, I hope thy ministers never from covetousness set free a real thief, knowing him to be such and having apprehended him with the booty about him? O Bharata, I hope, thy ministers are never won over by bribes, nor do they wrongly decide the disputes that arise between the rich and the poor.
Dost thou keep thyself free from the fourteen vices of kings, viz., atheism, untruthfulness, anger,
incautiousness, procrastination, non-visit to the wise, idleness, restlessness of mind, taking counsels with only one man, consultation with persons unacquainted with the science of profit, abandonment of a settled plan, divulgence of counsels, non-accomplishment of beneficial projects, and undertaking everything without reflection? By these, O king, even monarchs firmly seated on their thrones are ruined. Hath thy study of the Vedas, thy wealth and knowledge of the Sastras and marriage been fruitful?
From Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 5. (K M Ganguli) Link
स कच्चिद् ब्राह्मणो विद्वान् धर्म नित्यो महा द्युतिः |
इक्ष्वाकूणाम् उपाध्यायो यथावत् तात पूज्यते || २-१००-९
9. "My darling! Are you treating respectfully as before that preceptor of the Ikshvakus, the one who knows the sacred scriptures, the one who knows the sacred scriptures, the learned who constantly keep up the virtues and he who has a great splendour?"
सा तात कच्चिच् च कौसल्या सुमित्रा च प्रजावती |
सुखिनी कच्चिद् आर्या च देवी नन्दति कैकयी || २-१००-१०
10. "My darling! I hope that Kausalya and Sumitra having good offspring are happy. I hope the venerable queen Kaikeyi is rejoicing."
कच्चिद् विनय सम्पन्नः कुल पुत्रो बहु श्रुतः |
अनसूयुर् अनुद्रष्टा सत्कृतः ते पुरोहितः || २-१००-११
11. "I hope that the preceptor (Suyajgna the son of Vasishta); who is rich in humility, a son of a noble family, who has a knowledge of many scriptures an unenvious person and who is full of insight, is duly honoured by you."
कच्चिद् अग्निषु ते युक्तो विधिज्नो मतिमान् ऋजुः |
हुतम् च होष्यमाणम् च काले वेदयते सदा || २-१००-१२
12. "I hope that a brahmin who is versed in the traditions, who is intelligent and just, employed in your sacred fires, always informs you in time, about a sacrificial fire having been or going to be fed with oblations."
कच्चिद्देवान् पित्ऱ्^ऊन् भृत्वान्गुरून् पितृसमानपि |
वृद्धांश्च तात वैद्यांश्च ब्राह्मणांश्चाभिमन्यसे || २-१००-१३
13. "My darling! I hope that you are holding in high esteem the gods, your ancestors, dependents and teachers of your father's age the doctors and the brahmins."
इषु अस्त्र वर सम्पन्नम् अर्थ शास्त्र विशारदम् |
सुधन्वानम् उपाध्यायम् कच्चित् त्वम् तात मन्यसे || २-१००-१४
14. "O, my darling! I hope that you treat with due respect; Sudhanva, your teacher in archery, who is furnished with the most excellent arrows and darts and well-versed in political economy."
कच्चिद् आत्म समाः शूराः श्रुतवन्तो जित इन्द्रियाः |
कुलीनाः च इन्गितज्नाः च कृताः ते तात मन्त्रिणः || २-१००-१५
15. "I hope that ministers who are valiant like you, learned, masters of their senses of noble birth and skilled interpreting internal sentiments by external gesture, are assigned to you."
मन्त्रो विजय मूलम् हि राज्नाम् भवति राघव |
सुसम्वृतो मन्त्र धरैर् अमात्यैः शास्त्र कोविदैः || २-१००-१६
16. "The source of victory for kings indeed comes from a concealed counsel by ministers, who are well-versed in political sciences and who can hide their thoughts within themselves."
कच्चिन् निद्रा वशम् न एषि कच्चित् काले विबुध्यसे |
कच्चिन् च अपर रात्रिषु चिन्तयस्य् अर्थ नैपुणम् || २-१००-१७
17. "I hope you do not fall a prey to excess of sleep and do wake up at appropriate time. I hope you contemplate during the later half of the night, about the adroitness of an action."
कच्चिन् मन्त्रयसे न एकः कच्चिन् न बहुभिः सह |
कच्चित् ते मन्त्रितो मन्त्रो राष्ट्रम् न परिधावति || २-१००-१८
18. "I hope that you do not deliberate alone nor indeed with numerous men. I hope your decision arrived at by you through such deliberation does not flow to the public (even before it is carried out)".
कच्चिद् अर्थम् विनिश्चित्य लघु मूलम् महा उदयम् |
क्षिप्रम् आरभसे कर्तुम् न दीर्घयसि राघव || २-१००-१९
19. "O, Bharata! I hope considering your interest fully, you lanuch an undertaking, which has maximum benefit with minimum coast and indeed do not delay it further."
कच्चित् तु सुकृतान्य् एव कृत रूपाणि वा पुनः |
विदुः ते सर्व कार्याणि न कर्तव्यानि पार्थिवाः || २-१००-२०
20. "I hope the other kings know your entire undertakings only after they have been successfully completed as well as those which have taken a shape, but not your proposed undertakings."
कच्चिन् न तर्कैर् युक्त्वा वा ये च अप्य् अपरिकीर्तिताः |
त्वया वा तव वा अमात्यैर् बुध्यते तात मन्त्रितम् || २-१००-२१
21. "My darling! I hope that others are not knowing, by their enquiries or strategies or by any other approaches not mentioned, the details of discussions you make with your ministers."
कच्चित् सहस्रान् मूर्खाणाम् एकम् इग्च्छसि पण्डितम् |
पण्डितो ह्य् अर्थ कृग्च्छ्रेषु कुर्यान् निह्श्रेयसम् महत् || २-१००-२२
22. "I hope you solicit for one wise man rather than for a thousand stupids for, a wise man can be of a great help to you in difficult matters."
सहस्राण्य् अपि मूर्खाणाम् यद्य् उपास्ते मही पतिः |
अथ वा अप्य् अयुतान्य् एव न अस्ति तेषु सहायता || २-१००-२३
23. "Even if a king employs thousands or tens of thousands of fools, they will not be helpful to him."
एको अप्य् अमात्यो मेधावी शूरो दक्षो विचक्षणः |
राजानम् राज मात्रम् वा प्रापयेन् महतीम् श्रियम् || २-१००-२४
24. "Even one wise, valiant sagacious and efficient minister alone can cause to secure a great prosperity to the king or to one who enjoys royal authority."
कच्चिन् मुख्या महत्सु एव मध्यमेषु च मध्यमाः |
जघन्याः च जघन्येषु भृत्याः कर्मसु योजिताः || २-१००-२५
25. "I hope that superior servants are assigned superior works only, mediocre servants in mediocre works and inferior servants in inferior works."
अमात्यान् उपधा अतीतान् पितृ पैतामहान् शुचीन् |
श्रेष्ठान् श्रेष्ठेषु कच्चित् त्वम् नियोजयसि कर्मसु || २-१००-२६
26. "I hope you are appointing those ministers, who are eminent incorruptible, born of the fathers and for bears of good family and who are full of integrity in matters of great importance."
कच्चिन्नोग्रेण दण्डेन भृशमुद्वेजितप्रजम् |
राज्यं तवानुजानन्ति मन्त्रिणः कैकयीसुत || २-१००-२७
27. "O, Bharata! I hope your ministers do not watch as mere witnesses, while your subjects in the kingdom wielding tremble with great fear, under your inflexible wielding of the scepter."
कच्चित् त्वाम् न अवजानन्ति याजकाः पतितम् यथा |
उग्र प्रतिग्रहीतारम् कामयानम् इव स्त्रियः || २-१००-२८
28. "I hope those who perform the sacrifice do not hold you in contempt, as one who accepts terrible gifts; as one who is fallen, as women hold in contempt of those highly lustful men."
उपाय कुशलम् वैद्यम् भृत्य संदूषणे रतम् |
शूरम् ऐश्वर्य कामम् च यो न हन्ति स वध्यते || २-१००-२९
29. "He, who does not slay a physician skilled in ways and means of aggravating a disease, a servant intent on bringing disgrace and a valiant warrior seeking kingly power, is *himself) slain by them."
कच्चिद्द् हृष्टः च शूरः च धृतिमान् मतिमान् शुचिः |
कुलीनः च अनुरक्तः च दक्षः सेना पतिः कृतः || २-१००-३०
30. "I hope an army-chief, who is cheerful, wise, courageous, valiant, well-behaved, born in a good family, who is beloved by his subordinates and efficient, is selected by you."
बलवन्तः च कच्चित् ते मुख्या युद्ध विशारदाः |
दृष्ट अपदाना विक्रान्ताः त्वया सत्कृत्य मानिताः || २-१००-३१
31. "I hope those warriors, who are excellent strong, skilled in war-face, whose excellent actions were seen before and the most courageous ones are duly honoured and respected by you."
कचिद् बलस्य भक्तम् च वेतनम् च यथा उचितम् |
सम्प्राप्त कालम् दातव्यम् ददासि न विलम्बसे || २-१००-३२
32. "I hope you are regularly giving your army, the daily provisions and the suitable salary to them, without any delay."
काल अतिक्रमणे ह्य् एव भक्त वेतनयोर् भृताः |
भर्तुः कुप्यन्ति दुष्यन्ति सो अनर्थः सुमहान् स्मृतः || २-१००-३३
33. "When there is delay in giving bread and wages, the servants become incensed against their master and become corrupt; and that is said to be a great unfortunate occurrence."
कच्चित् सर्वे अनुरक्ताः त्वाम् कुल पुत्राः प्रधानतः |
कच्चित् प्राणामः तव अर्थेषु सम्त्यजन्ति समाहिताः || २-१००-३४
34. "I hope all the foremost descendents of your race (kshatriyas) are devoted to you and do they lay down their lives steadfastly for your sake?"
कच्चिज् जानपदो विद्वान् दक्षिणः प्रतिभानवान् |
यथा उक्त वादी दूतः ते कृतो भरत पण्डितः || २-१००-३५
35. "I hope that a knowledgeable man, living in your own country, a wise man a skilled person endowed with presence of mind and the one who knows how to speak to the point, is selected as an ambassador by you."
कच्चिद् अष्टादशान्य् एषु स्व पक्षे दश पन्च च |
त्रिभिः त्रिभिर् अविज्नातैर् वेत्सि तीर्थानि चारकैः || २-१००-३६
36. "Do you get to know throught three spies, each unacquainted with each other, about the eighteen* functionaries of the enemies and the fifteen functionaries of your own side?"
*They are: 1)the chief minister; 2) the king's family priest; 3)the crown prince; 4)the leader of the army; 5) the chief warder; 6) the chamberlain (antaHpuraaH adhyaksha); 7)the superintendent of gails (kaaraagaara adhyaksha); 8 ) the chancellor of the exchequer; 9)the herald; 10)the government advocate; 11) the judge; 12)the assessor; 13) the officer disbursing salaries to army men; 14) the officer drawing money from the state exchequer to disburse the workmen's wages; 15) the superintended of public works; 16) the protector of the borders of a kingdom, who also performed the duties of a forester; 17) the magistrate; 18) the officer entrusted with conservation of waters; hills, forests and tracts difficult of access.: The fifteen functionaries of one's own side are the last fifteen of this very list, omitting the first three; viz; the chief ministers, the family priest and the crown prince.
कच्चिद् व्यपास्तान् अहितान् प्रतियातामः च सर्वदा |
दुर्बलान् अनवज्नाय वर्तसे रिपु सूदन || २-१००-३७
37. "O, slayer of your Foes! I hope you do not forever think lightly of your foes, who are weak and having been expelled, return again."
कच्चिन् न लोकायतिकान् ब्राह्मणामः तात सेवसे |
अनर्थ कुशला ह्य् एते बालाः पण्डित मानिनः || २-१००-३८
38. I hope are not honouring the materialistic brahmins, My dear brother! These men are skilled in perverting the mind, ignorant as they are and thinking themselves to be learned."
धर्म शास्त्रेषु मुख्येषु विद्यमानेषु दुर्बुधाः |
बुद्धिमान् वीक्षिकीम् प्राप्य निरर्थम् प्रवदन्ति ते || २-१००-३९
39. "Reaching to their logical acumen, these men of perverted intellect preach meaninglessly, in the presence of eminent books on righteousness."
वीरैर् अध्युषिताम् पूर्वम् अस्माकम् तात पूर्वकैः |
सत्य नामाम् दृढ द्वाराम् हस्त्य् अश्व रथ सम्कुलाम् || २-१००-४०
ब्राह्मणैः क्षत्रियैर् वैश्यैः स्व कर्म निरतैः सदा |
जित इन्द्रियैर् महा उत्साहैर् वृत अमात्यैः सहस्रशः || २-१००-४१
प्रासादैर् विविध आकारैर् वृताम् वैद्य जन आकुलाम् |
कच्चित् समुदिताम् स्फीताम् अयोध्याम् परिरक्षसि || २-१००-४२
40; 41; 42. "I hope you preserve the City of Ayodhya, furnished with everything and flourishing, that was formerly inhabited by our heroic ancestors, O my dear brother, that is worthy of its name, with its fortified gates, its elephant horses and chariots that fill it, with its brahmins, warriors and merchants in thousands, ever engaged in their respective duties, with its noble citizens self-controlled and full of energy, with its palaces in various shapes and the learned who abound there."
कच्चिच् चैत्य शतैर् जुष्टः सुनिविष्ट जन आकुलः |
देव स्थानैः प्रपाभिः च तडागैः च उपशोभितः || २-१००-४३
प्रहृष्ट नर नारीकः समाज उत्सव शोभितः |
सुकृष्ट सीमा पशुमान् हिंसाभिर् अभिवर्जितः || २-१००-४४
अदेव मातृको रम्यः श्वा पदैः परिवर्जितः |
परित्यक्तो भयैः सर्वैः खनिभिश्चोपशोभितः २-१००-४५
विवर्जितो नरैः पापैर्मम पूर्वैः सुरक्षितः |
कच्चिज् जन पदः स्फीतः सुखम् वसति राघव || २-१००-४६
43; 44; 45; 46; 47. I hope that the kingdom, adorned with peaceful places rich in temples and sheds where water stored for distribution to passers-by in tanks, with happy men and women, graced by social festivities, with land well-tilled, abiding in cattle which are totally free from cruelties, the agricultural land not exclusively fed by rains, which is beautiful and is purged of beasts of prey, which is completely rid of fears, studded with mines, a destitute of sinful men, and well-protected by our fore-fathers, is prosperous and an abode of happiness.
कच्चित् ते दयिताः सर्वे कृषि गो रक्ष जीविनः |
वार्तायाम् संश्रितः तात लोको हि सुखम् एधते || २-१००-४७
47. "Are you cherishing all those who live by agriculture and cattle-rearing, O, dear borhter! The people living on agriculture and cattle-rearing indeed prosper well."
तेषाम् गुप्ति परीहारैः कच्चित् ते भरणम् कृतम् |
रक्ष्या हि राज्ना धर्मेण सर्वे विषय वासिनः || २-१००-४८
48. "I hope their maintenance is being looked after by you, in providing what they need and eschewing what they fear. All the citizens are indeed to be protected by a king through his righteousness."
कच्चित् स्त्रियः सान्त्वयसि कच्चित् ताः च सुरक्षिताः |
कच्चिन् न श्रद्दधास्य आसाम् कच्चिद् गुह्यम् न भाषसे || २-१००-४९
49. "I hope you are pacifying the women well. Are they protected by you? I hope you are not believing the words of these women and not telling them the secrets."
कच्चिन्नागवनं गुप्तं कच्चित्ते सन्ति धेनुकाः |
कचिन्न गणिकाश्वानां कुञ्जराणां च तृप्यसि || २-१००-५०
50. "Are you supervising the woods inhabited by elephants? I hope female elephants are there to you in good number. I hope you are not simply satisfied with the existing population of female elephants, horses and male-elephants."
कच्चिद् दर्शयसे नित्यम् मनुष्याणाम् विभूषितम् |
उत्थाय उत्थाय पूर्व अह्णे राज पुत्रो महा पथे || २-१००-५१
51. "O, Prince! Do you, regally adorned, appear before the people on rising each morning, on the great high way?"
कच्चिन्न सर्वे कर्मान्ताः प्रत्यक्षास्तेऽविशङ्कया |
सर्वे वा पुनरुत्सृष्टा मध्यमे वात्र कारणम् २-१००-५२
52. "I hope that all your servants, in your presence, do not adopt a disrespectful attitude or on the other hand all of them do not hasten away on seeing you. Ofcourse, a middle course only in the principle to be followed in this matter."
कच्चित् सर्वाणि दुर्गाणि धन धान्य आयुध उदकैः |
यन्त्रैः च परिपूर्णानि तथा शिल्पि धनुर् धरैः || २-१००-५३
53. "I hope all your citadels are quite full of money, grain, weapons, water and mechanical contrivances as well as artisans and archers."
आयः ते विपुलः कच्चित् कच्चिद् अल्पतरो व्ययः |
अपात्रेषु न ते कच्चित् कोशो गग्च्छति राघव || २-१००-५४
54. "I hope your income is abundant and expenditure, minimum. I hope your treasure does not reach undeserving people, O, Bharata!"
देवता अर्थे च पित्र् अर्थे ब्राह्मण अभ्यागतेषु च |
योधेषु मित्र वर्गेषु कच्चिद् गग्च्छति ते व्ययः || २-१००-५५
55. "I hope that your expenditure goes for the cause of divinity, manes, brahmins, unexpected visitors, soldiers and hosts of friends."
कच्चिद् आर्यो विशुद्ध आत्मा क्षारितः चोर कर्मणा |
अपृष्टः शास्त्र कुशलैर् न लोभाद् बध्यते शुचिः || २-१००-५६
56. "If one of noble work, despite his honesty and integrity, is falsely accused of some offence, I hope he is not killed impatiently, without enquiry by those well-versed in law-books."
गृहीतः चैव पृष्टः च काले दृष्टः सकारणः |
कच्चिन् न मुच्यते चोरो धन लोभान् नर ऋषभ || २-१००-५७
57. "O, foremost of men! If a thief is seen and even caught at the time of his act on sufficient ground and interrogated-I hope, he is not released from greed of wealth."
व्यसने कच्चिद् आढ्यस्य दुगतस्य च राघव |
अर्थम् विरागाः पश्यन्ति तव अमात्या बहु श्रुताः || २-१००-५८
58. "O, Bharata! I hope that your well-educated ministers examine a case dispassionately when a contention occurs between a rich man and a poor man, after studying the situation carefully."
यानि मिथ्या अभिशस्तानाम् पतन्त्य् अस्राणि राघव |
तानि पुत्र पशून् घ्नन्ति प्रीत्य् अर्थम् अनुशासतः || २-१००-५९
59."The tears fallen from those who are the victims of false accusations, O Bharata, destroy their sons and herds of those who are indifferent to justice, merely for the sake of pleasure."
कच्चिद् वृधामः च बालामः च वैद्य मुख्यामः च राघव |
दानेन मनसा वाचा त्रिभिर् एतैर् बुभूषसे || २-१००-६०
60. "I hope that you seek to conciliate by the following three means, viz. gifts, a loving mind and polite words- the aged, the children and the foremost physicians."
कच्चिद् गुरूमः च वृद्धामः च तापसान् देवता अतिथीन् |
चैत्यामः च सर्वान् सिद्ध अर्थान् ब्राह्मणामः च नमस्यसि || २-१००-६१
61."I hope you greet your teachers, the elderly, the ascetics, the deities; the unexpected visitors, the trees standing at cross roads and all the brahmins of auspicious life and conduct."
कच्चिद् अर्थेन वा धर्मम् धर्मम् धर्मेण वा पुनः |
उभौ वा प्रीति लोभेन कामेन न विबाधसे || २-१००-६२
62. "I hope you do not abrogate virtue by your excessive devotion to wealth or your excessive devotion to wealth or your earthly interests by your over-emphasis on religion or both your religious and secular interests by your self-indulgence in pleasure, greed and gratification of the senses."
कच्चिद् अर्थम् च धर्मम् च कामम् च जयताम् वर |
विभज्य काले कालज्न सर्वान् भरत सेवसे || २-१००-६३
63."I hope your pursue wealth, religion and the delights of the sense dividing them all according to time, O Jewel among the victorious, the one who is conversant with the proper time and O, the bestower of boons!"
कच्चित् ते ब्राह्मणाः शर्म सर्व शास्त्र अर्थ कोविदः |
आशंसन्ते महा प्राज्न पौर जानपदैः सह || २-१००-६४
"O, the one who is endowed with great wisdom! I hope that brahmins versed in the knowledge of the scriptures, the inhabitants of town and the country pray for your happiness."
नास्तिक्यम् अनृतम् क्रोधम् प्रमादम् दीर्घ सूत्रताम् |
अदर्शनम् ज्नानवताम् आलस्यम् पन्च वृत्तिताम् || २-१००-६५
एक चिन्तनम् अर्थानाम् अनर्थज्नैः च मन्त्रणम् |
निश्चितानाम् अनारम्भम् मन्त्रस्य अपरिलक्षणम् || २-१००-६६
मन्गलस्य अप्रयोगम् च प्रत्युत्थानम् च सर्वशः |
कच्चित् त्वम् वर्जयस्य् एतान् राज दोषामः चतुर् दश || २-१००-६७
Do you eschew the following fourteen for of kings -viz. atheism, falsehood, anger carelessness, procrastination, disregard of the wise, sloth, bondage to the five senses, himself alone devoting thought to the affairs of the state (without consulting the ministers); taking counsel with those of perverted insight; failure to undertake the projects already decided, failure to keep secrets, failure to utter auspicious words (at the beginning of an undertaking); and rising from one's seat (indiscriminately) to receive all.
दशपंचचतुर्वर्गान् सप्तवर्गं च तत्त्वतः |
अष्टवर्गम् त्रिवर्गं च विद्यास्तिस्रश्च राघव २-१००-६८
इन्द्न्द्रियाणां जयं बुद्ध्यं षाड्गुण्यं दैवमानुषम् |
कृत्यं विंशतिवर्गं च तथा प्रकृतिमण्डलं || २-१००-६९
यात्रादण्डविधानं च द्वियोनी संधिविग्रहौ |
कच्छिदेतान् महाप्राज्ञ यथावदनुमन्यसे २-१००-७०
"O, the very wise Bharata! I hope you understand the following and deal them properly the ten evils(1); the five kinds of fortifications(2); the four expedients(3); the seven limbs of state(4); the eight evils (born of anger) the three objects of human pursuit(5); the three branches of learning(6) subjugation of the senses, the six strategic expedients(7); adversity brought about by divine agencies(8); and by human agencies(9); the twenty types of monarches(10); and the entire population of the kingdom, setting about an an expedition, drawing up an army in a battle-array and the two bases viz, peace and war.
(1). Ten evils attendant on royalty to be eschew. Hunting, gambling, sleeping during the day, lustfulness, inebriation, pride, calumny, lounging about idly or aimlessly, diversions such as singing and dancing. (2). Five kinds of fortifications: By moat, high bank, trees thickly planted, a space destitute of grain or provisions, the turning of waters. (3) Four expedients:- Making peace, liberality, sowing dissension, chastisement. (4) Seven limbs of state king, ministers, friends, treasure, territory, forts and an army. (5) Three objects of human pursuit: Religious merit, material wealth and sensuous enjoyment or the three kinds of power (viz. energy, power of dominion, power of counsel) (6) Three branches of learning: the three Vedas, the knowledge relating to agriculture, commerce and other vocational pursuits and political science. (7) Six strategic expedients: Coming to terms with the enemy, waging war against him, marching against him, biding one's time to seek a favourable opportunity, causing dissension in the enemy's ranks, seeking protection of a powerful ally. (8) Adversity brought about by divine agencies: Fire, water in the shape of excessive rains or floods, epidemic or endemic diseases, famine and pestulence, earthquakes and Tsunamis. (9) Adversity brought about by human agencies: officials, thieves, enemies, king's favourites and king himself, when acutated by greed. (10)Twenty types of monarchs (who are not worth-negotiating with):1. a king who is yet a child. 2. Aged. 3. Who has been ailing for a long time. 4. who has been ostracised by his own kith and kin. 5. ho is characterized by a cowardly attitude. 6. who is surrounded by cowards. 7. who is greedy. 8. has greedy associated. 9. who has estranged his ministers and others. 10. who confers with fickle-minded persons 11. who speaks ill of divine begins and brahmins; 12. who is extremely indulged in sensuous pleasures and luxuries; 13. who is ill-fated; 14. a fatalist (who believes that all things are pre-determined or subject to fate); 15. who is afflicted by famine and; 16. by military reverses; 17. who (mostly) remains away from home; 18. who has numerous enemies; 19. who is in the clutches of adverse times and; 20. who is not devoted to truth and piety.
मन्त्रिभिस्त्वं यथोद्दिष्टैश्चतुर्भिस्त्रिभिरेव वा |
कच्चित्समस्तैर्व्यस्तैश्च मन्त्रं मन्त्रयसे मिथः || २-१००-७१
"I hope that you consult with three or four ministers as mentioned in scriptures any proposal collectively and singly with each of them in secret."
कच्चित्ते सफला वेदाः कच्चित्ते सफलाः क्रियाः |
कच्चित्ते सफला दाराः कच्चित्ते सफलं श्रुतम् || २-१००-७२
"Do you find advantages in your study of Vedas? Are your acts, production of fair results? Do you benefit from the company of your consorts? Has your learning been fruitful?"
कच्चिदेषैव ते बुद्धिर्यथोक्ता मम राघा |
आयुष्या च यशस्या च धर्मकामार्थसंहिता || २-१००-७३
"O, Bharata! I hope that your conviction, is the same as mentioned by me in the foregoing verses, which is conducive to long life, fame, religious merit, enjoyment and wealth."
यां वृत्तिं वर्तते रातो यां चनः प्रपितामहाः |
तां वृत्तिं वर्तसे कच्चिद्याच सत्पथगा शुभा २-१००-७४
"Do you follow the common practice, which our fore fathers observed and which is in accord with the path of the virtuous and which is distinguished in itself."
कच्चित् स्वादु कृतं भोज्यमेको नाश्नासि राघव |
कच्चिदाशंसमानेभ्यो मित्रेभ्यः सम्प्रयच्छसि २-१००-७५
"I hope you do not eat by yourself nicely made eatable and do you share it with your friends, who seek it?"
अवाप्य कृत्स्नां वसुधां यथाव |
दितश्छ्युतः स्वर्गमुपैति विद्वान् || २-१००-७६
"A wise and learned king, having obtained and ruled the entire earth, properly by righteousness and by administering justice to the people, indeed ascends to heaven when detached from the mortal body."
Ramayana, Ayodhya Khanda, Chapter 101. Link