Out-of-India - From Theory to Truth

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RajeshA
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Re: Out-of-India - From Theory to Truth

Postby RajeshA » 01 Nov 2012 21:44

shiv wrote:Rajesh a question for you. (or anyone else who joined that discussion) You read the Reich paper and other related genetic papers. Would you be able to point to a ref that gives a ballpark figure for the date of mix of ASI/ANI? Was it there n the Reich paper. I recall that there have been many papers that suggest no imports into India in the last 7-10 thousand years. So mixture if any was around that time? Any pointers?

Maybe I need to re read Reich


shiv saar,

there was a paper by Metspalu et al. (2011):
Shared and Unique Components of Human Population Structure and Genome-Wide Signals of Positive Selection in South Asia

Our simulations show that one can detect differences in haplotype diversity for a migration event that occurred 500 generations ago, but chances to distinguish signals for older events will apparently decrease with increasing age because of recombination. In terms of human population history, our oldest simulated migration event occurred roughly 12,500 years ago and predates or coincides with the initial Neolithic expansion in the Near East. Knowing whether signals associated with the initial peopling of Eurasia fall within our detection limits requires additional extensive simulations, but our current results indicate that the often debated episode of South Asian prehistory, the putative Indo-Aryan migration 3,500 years ago (see e.g., Abdulla15) falls well within the limits of our haplotype-based approach. We found no regional diversity differences associated with k5 at K = 8. Thus, regardless of where this component was from (the Caucasus, Near East, Indus Valley, or Central Asia), its spread to other regions must have occurred well before our detection limits at 12,500 years. Accordingly, the introduction of k5 to South Asia cannot be explained by recent gene flow, such as the hypothetical Indo-Aryan migration. The admixture of the k5 and k6 components within India, however, could have happened more recently—our haplotype diversity estimates are not informative about the timing of local admixture.


As for the admixing of ANI and ASI, there was an abstract from Priya Moorjani et al. (2011): Estimating a date of mixture of ancestral South Asian populations

Our analyses suggest that major ANI-ASI mixture occurred in the ancestors of both northern and southern Indians 1,200-3,500 years ago, overlapping the time when Indo-European languages first began to be spoken in the subcontinent. These results suggest that this formative period of Indian history was accompanied by mixtures between two highly diverged populations, although our results do not rule other, older ANI-ASI admixture events.

ramana
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Re: Out-of-India - From Theory to Truth

Postby ramana » 01 Nov 2012 21:58

RajeshA,

I started a new thread for you to explore the MIE of all theories!

viewtopic.php?f=24&t=6458

Thanks, ramana

peter
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Re: Out-of-India - From Theory to Truth

Postby peter » 01 Nov 2012 22:25

Here is what some Polish researchers sent me:

There are lot of changes since 2009 on MODERN R1a Diversity and Denisity,:


1. We know lot of MAIN R1a SNPs which shows biggest diveristy of R1a in Europe

(European: M417-, L664, M458, Z280, Z284 against Asian: Z93)


2. Modern situation of R1a Haplo in local societes can't be real "mirror image" of R1a in distant past


3. TO say something abt. migration and connections of old Haplos we need a-DNA (ancient DNA from archeological sites). So far we have only few from Western Asia, Eastern Europe and... Central Europe

(oldest site is European site in Eulau (Germany) - 2600 BC (!)):

http://www.buildinghistory.org/distantp ... tdna.shtml


not too much


Underhill map and study seems that didn.t check aDNA sites and historical evidence , but was generated on simple mechanism of modern R1a denisity - that's why map's shows 2 cores of R1a - in Poland and India/Pakistan

Two places where R1a samples seems to have bigest amounts

RajeshA
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Re: Out-of-India - From Theory to Truth

Postby RajeshA » 02 Nov 2012 03:44

Precession of Equinoxes and Yugas

Published on August 26, 2012
By Walter Cruttenden from the Binary Research Institute
An Ancient Message for the Future: GrahamHancock.com

According to Vedic scriptures, when the autumnal equinox moves from Virgo to Aries, humanity moves through the ascending Kali, Dwapara, Treta, and Satya yugas, before slowly declining in reverse order as the equinox completes its journey (the Satya Yuga marks a golden era). The Greeks and other early Mediterranean civilizations described similar periods and labeled them the Iron, Bronze, Silver, and Golden ages. The ancient Maya and Hopi used names such as “worlds” and “suns” and numbered them to identify specific epochs.

Whatever language is used, the concept is the same. In his book, Sri Yukteswar, explains that when our solar system is at a point farthest from its companion star, humanity’s consciousness is at its lowest point (which last occurred around 500 AD), and when the sun is at its closest point (which next occurs in 12,500 AD), consciousness reaches its highest point in this cycle. These celestial points are located at the intersection of the autumnal equinox sun and one of the zodiac’s twelve constellations – thus the equinox and constellations comprise a celestial clock - just as our hour hand and twelve numbers comprise a mechanical clock. When the AE sun is in Aries, which is almost always placed in the twelve o’clock position of the zodiac, the Earth is in the best possible stellar environment, making it easy for many people to experience an awakened state of consciousness. When the AE sun is in the constellation Libra, conditions are at their worst, and a dark age, a period of deluded consciousness, prevails.


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Nilesh Oak
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Re: Out-of-India - From Theory to Truth

Postby Nilesh Oak » 02 Nov 2012 05:24

RajeshA wrote:Precession of Equinoxes and Yugas

Published on August 26, 2012
By Walter Cruttenden from the Binary Research Institute
An Ancient Message for the Future: GrahamHancock.com

According to Vedic scriptures, when the autumnal equinox moves from Virgo to Aries, humanity moves through the ascending Kali, Dwapara, Treta, and Satya yugas, before slowly declining in reverse order as the equinox completes its journey (the Satya Yuga marks a golden era). The Greeks and other early Mediterranean civilizations described similar periods and labeled them the Iron, Bronze, Silver, and Golden ages. The ancient Maya and Hopi used names such as “worlds” and “suns” and numbered them to identify specific epochs.

Whatever language is used, the concept is the same. In his book, Sri Yukteswar, explains that when our solar system is at a point farthest from its companion star, humanity’s consciousness is at its lowest point (which last occurred around 500 AD), and when the sun is at its closest point (which next occurs in 12,500 AD), consciousness reaches its highest point in this cycle. These celestial points are located at the intersection of the autumnal equinox sun and one of the zodiac’s twelve constellations – thus the equinox and constellations comprise a celestial clock - just as our hour hand and twelve numbers comprise a mechanical clock. When the AE sun is in Aries, which is almost always placed in the twelve o’clock position of the zodiac, the Earth is in the best possible stellar environment, making it easy for many people to experience an awakened state of consciousness. When the AE sun is in the constellation Libra, conditions are at their worst, and a dark age, a period of deluded consciousness, prevails.


Image

RajeshA ji,

If above is accepted (not sure where it is mentioned in vedic literature), then it aligns with period of ~12,000 assumed by me for each episode of Chaturyuga. This duration allows us, not exactly, but much better than other suggested lenghts of time, to explain many timelines of our ancient past.

RajeshA
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Re: Out-of-India - From Theory to Truth

Postby RajeshA » 02 Nov 2012 05:50

Precession of Equinoxes and Yugas

Published on July 15, 2012
By Bibhu Dev Misra
Image IIT, IIM graduate with more than 14 years experience as an IT consultant.

The end of the Kali Yuga in 2025: Unraveling the mysteries of the Yuga Cycle: GrahamHancock.com

_____

Part 1: Unraveling the Yuga Cycle Timeline

The Yuga Cycle doctrine tells us that we are now living in the Kali Yuga; the age of darkness, when moral virtue and mental capabilities reach their lowest point in the cycle. The Indian epic The Mahabharata describes the Kali Yuga as the period when the “World Soul” is Black in hue; only one quarter of virtue remains, which slowly dwindles to zero at the end of the Kali Yuga. Men turn to wickedness; disease, lethargy, anger, natural calamities, anguish and fear of scarcity dominate. Penance, sacrifices and religious observances fall into disuse. All creatures degenerate. Change passes over all things, without exception.

The Kali Yuga (Iron Age) was preceded by three others Yugas: Satya or Krita Yuga (Golden Age), Treta Yuga (Silver Age) and the Dwapara Yuga (Bronze Age). In the Mahabharata, Hanuman gives the following description of the Yuga Cycle to the Pandava prince Bhima:

"The Krita Yuga was so named because there was but one religion, and all men were saintly: therefore they were not required to perform religious ceremonies… Men neither bought nor sold; there were no poor and no rich; there was no need to labour, because all that men required was obtained by the power of will…The Krita Yuga was without disease; there was no lessening with the years; there was no hatred, or vanity, or evil thought whatsoever; no sorrow, no fear. All mankind could attain to supreme blessedness. The universal soul was White… the identification of self with the universal soul was the whole religion of the Perfect Age. In the Treta Yuga sacrifices began, and the World Soul became Red; virtue lessened a quarter. Mankind sought truth and performed religious ceremonies; they obtained what they desired by giving and by doing. In the Dwapara Yuga the aspect of the World Soul was Yellow: religion lessened one-half. The Veda was divided into four parts, and although some had knowledge of the four Vedas, others knew but three or one. Mind lessened, Truth declined, and there came desire and diseases and calamities; because of these men had to undergo penances. It was a decadent Age by reason of the prevalence of sin.”[1]

And now we are living in the dark times of the Kali Yuga, when goodness and virtue has all but disappeared from the world. But when did the Kali Yuga begin? And when does it end? In spite of the elaborate theological framework which describes the characteristics of this age, the start and end dates of the Kali Yuga remain shrouded in mystery. The popularly accepted date for the beginning of the Kali Yuga is 3102 BC, thirty-five years after the conclusion of the great battle of the Mahabharata. This is remarkably close to the proposed beginning of the current “Great Cycle” of the Mayan Long Count Calendar in 3114 BC. It is of interest to note that in both of these cases the beginning dates of the respective cycles were calculated retrospectively. The Mayans had recomputed their ancient calendars sometime between 400 BC to 50 CE, at the ceremonial center of Izapa in Mexico, and fixed the starting date of the current Great Cycle of their Long Count Calendar. And in India, sometime around 500 CE, a major review of the Indian calendric systems had taken place. It was during this time that the renowned astronomer Aryabhatta had identified the beginning date of the Kali Yuga as 3102 BC. Why was it suddenly necessary for two ancient civilizations to re-calculate dates that should have been an integral part of their calendric systems? How did such important time-markers slip out of their collective memory? We will revisit these questions later.

It is generally believed that Aryabhatta had calculated the start date of the Kali Yuga on the basis of the information in the Sanskrit astronomical treatise, the Surya Siddhanta, according to which the five “geocentric planets” (i.e. the planets visible to the naked eye) - Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn - were aligned to 0° of Aries (near the star zeta Piscium) at the beginning of the Kali Yuga. He, thus, arrived at the date of 17/18 February, 3102 BC as the starting point of the Kali Yuga. However, modern simulations carried out by Richard Thompson show that on 17/18 February, 3102 BC, the five geocentric planets occupied an arc of roughly 42° in the sky and were scattered over three zodiacal signs – Aries, Pisces and Aquarius. This cannot be considered as a conjunction by any means. Far more spectacular ‘alignment’ of planets has occurred in the preceding and succeeding centuries. In other words, the conjunction of geocentric planets at 0° of Aries that was supposedly targeted by Aryabhatta did not take place in 3102 BC.

Does this mean Aryabhatta made an error in his back calculations? Not really. For, the Surya Siddhanta does not ever specify that such an alignment of planets took place at the beginning of the Kali Yuga. On the contrary, the Surya Siddhanta explicitly states that this conjunction of planets at 0° of Aries takes place at the end of the Golden Age (Satya / Krita Yuga). The text states: “Now, at the end of the Golden Age (Krita Yuga), all the planets, by their mean motion – excepting however their nodes and apsides – are in conjunction in the first of Aries”[2] Unfortunately, however, this simple statement was misrepresented by some of the early commentators, in their eagerness to find an astronomical rationale for the 3102 BC date, and it has subsequently been promulgated as a fact.

The general understanding in ancient Hindu astronomy was that at the beginning of the present order of things, all the planets commenced their movement together at 0° of Aries; and all the planets return to the same position in the heavens, at certain fixed intervals, resulting in a universal conjunction. The Surya Siddhanta states that this conjunction takes place at the end of the Golden Age. However, there is also a prevailing belief in Hindu astronomy that this conjunction takes place at the beginning of a Day and Night of Brahma, comprising of a 1000 Yuga Cycles.

Similar information regarding the conjunction of planets is also present in the ancient Greek texts. In the Timaeus, Plato refers to a “Perfect Year” which elapses at that moment when the sun, moon and the planets all return to the same relative position despite all their intervening reversals.[3] This idea was echoed by the 3rd century Roman writer Censorinus, who said that the orbits of the sun, moon and the five wandering planets complete one “Great Year of Heraclitus”, when they are brought back together at the same time to the same sign where once they were.[4] This “Great Year” which is known by various other names – “Perfect Year”, “Platonic Year”, “Supreme Year of Aristotle” etc. - was variously represented as being of 12,954 years (Cicero) or 10,800 years (Heraclitus) duration.

There can be no doubt that the 3102 BC date for the Kali Yuga was not based on any information in the Surya Siddhanta or any other Sanskrit text. The date virtually pops out of nowhere. Before 500 CE, this date was not mentioned in any Sanskrit text. From where, then, did Aryabhatta obtain this date? There seems to be no indication that Aryabhatta had computed this date himself. There is a single, stray reference to this date in the Sanskrit text Aryabhatiya, where Aryabhatta mentions that the text was composed 3,630 years into the Kali Yuga, when he was 23 years old. Since the Aryabhatiya was composed in 499 CE, the beginning of the Kali Yuga can be traced back to 3102 BC. The statement, by itself, does not reveal any information about the astronomical basis on which the date was calculated, or whether the calculation was performed by Aryabhatta himself. It is possible that this date was adopted by Aryabhatta from some other source. The vagueness surrounding the origin of this date makes its validity highly suspect.

The task of figuring out this date from the ancient Sanskrit texts, however, is fraught with difficulties, since a number of inaccuracies have crept into the Yuga Cycle information contained within them. As pointed out by Sri Yukteswar, in many Sanskrit texts the 12,000 year duration of the Yuga Cycle was artificially inflated to an abnormally high value of 4,320,000 years by introducing a multiplication factor of “360”, which was represented as the number of “human years” which constitutes a “divine year”. However, certain texts, such as the Mahabharata and the Laws of Manu, still retain the original value of the Yuga Cycle as 12,000 years. Many other ancient cultures – the Chaldeans, Zoroastrians and Greeks – also believed in a 12,000 year Cycle of the Ages. The renowned Sanskrit scholar and nationalist leader of India, B.G.Tilak had mentioned in his book, The Arctic Home in the Vedas (1903), that:

“The writers of the Puranas, many of which appear to have been written during the first few centuries of the Christian, era, were naturally unwilling to believe that the Kali Yuga had passed away...An attempt was, therefore, made to extend the duration of the Kali Yuga by converting 1000 (or 1200) ordinary human years thereof into as many divine years, a single divine year, or a year of the gods, being equal to 360 human years…this solution of the difficulty was universally adopted, and a Kali of 1200 ordinary years was at once changed, by this ingenious artifice, into a magnificent cycle of as many divine, or 360 × 1200 = 432,000 ordinary years.”[5]

Yukteswar also clarified in the book The Holy Science (1894), that a complete Yuga Cycle takes 24,000 years, and is comprised of an ascending cycle of 12,000 years when virtue gradually increases and a descending cycle of another 12,000 years, in which virtue gradually decreases. Hence, after we complete a 12,000 year descending cycle from Satya Yuga -> Kali Yuga, the sequence reverses itself, and an ascending cycle of 12,000 years begins which goes from Kali Yuga -> Satya Yuga. Yukteswar states that, “Each of these periods of 12,000 years brings a complete change, both externally in the material world, and internally in the intellectual or electric world, and is called one of the Daiva Yugas or Electric Couple.”[6] The 24,000 year duration of the complete Yuga Cycle closely approximates the Precessional Year of 25,765 years, which is the time taken by the sun to “precess” i.e. move backwards, through the 12 zodiac constellations. Interestingly, the Surya Siddhanta specifies a value of 54 arc seconds per year for precession, as against the current value of 50.29 arc seconds per year. This translates into a Precessional Year of exactly 24,000 years! This raises the possibility that the current observed value of precession may simply be a temporary deviation from the mean.

The concept of an ascending and descending cycle of Yugas is not a proposition that Yukteswar conjured out of thin air. This idea is still prevalent among the Jains of India, who are one of the oldest religious sects of the country. The Jains believe that a complete Time Cycle (Kalachakra) has a progressive and a regressive half. During the progressive half of the cycle (Utsarpini), there is a gradual increase in knowledge, happiness, health, ethics, and spirituality, while during the regressive half of the cycle (Avasarpini) there is a gradual reduction in these qualities. Each half cycle is comprised of six smaller periods, and together these two half cycles constitute a complete Time Cycle. These two half cycles follow each other in an unbroken succession for eternity, just like the cycles of day and night or the waxing and waning of the moon. It is possible that Yukteswar may have been influenced by the belief system of the ancient Jains; or he may have based his ideas on ancient oral traditions that are not a part of the mainstream documented knowledge.

The idea of an ascending and descending Cycle of Ages was also prevalent in Greek myths. The Greek poet Hesiod (c. 750 BC – 650 BC) had given an account of the World Ages in the Works and Days, in which he had inserted a fifth age called the “Age of Heroes”, between the Bronze Age and the Iron Age. In Hesiod’s Cosmos, Jenny Strauss Clay writes:

“Drawing on the myth in Plato’s Statesman, Vernant also claimed that the temporal framework of Hesiodic myth, that is, the succession of races, is not linear but cyclical; at the end of the age of iron, which he divides into two, the cycle of races starts again with a new golden age or, more likely, a new age of heroes, as the sequence reverses itself…Vernant himself offers a solution when he remarks that ‘there is not in reality one age of iron but two types of human existence.’ ”[7]

This is highly interesting. Jean-Pierre Vernant, who is a highly acclaimed specialist in ancient Greek culture, clearly believes that the Cycle of the Ages reverses itself as per Hesiod’s account. Not only that, he states that the Iron Age has two parts, which corresponds exactly to Yukteswar’s interpretation in which the descending Kali Yuga is followed by the ascending Kali Yuga. We can surmise, in this context, that the “Age of Heroes”, which immediately followed the Bronze Age in Hesiod’s account, must be the name ascribed by Hesiod to the descending Kali Yuga.

The evidence from different sources supports the notion of a complete Yuga Cycle of 24,000 years, comprised of an ascending and descending cycle of 12,000 years each. This brings us to the question of the relative durations of the different Yugas in the Yuga Cycle, and the transitional periods, which occur at the beginning and end of each Yuga, and are known as Sandhya (dawn) and Sandhyansa (twilight) respectively. The following values are provided in the Sanskrit texts for the duration of the Yugas and their respective dawns and twilights.

  • Satya Yuga (Golden Age): 4000 years + 400 years dawn + 400 years twilight = 4800 years

  • Treta Yuga (Silver Age): 3000 years + 300 years dawn + 300 years twilight = 3600 years

  • Dwapara Yuga (Bronze Age): 2000 years + 200 years dawn + 200 years twilight = 2400 years

  • Kali Yuga (Iron Age): 1000 years + 100 years dawn + 100 years twilight = 1200 years

Since so many inaccuracies have crept into the Yuga Cycle doctrine, as pointed out by Yukteswar and Tilak, we also need to question the accuracy of the relative durations of the Yugas mentioned in the Sanskrit texts. Although the Yuga Cycle is mentioned in the mythic accounts of around thirty ancient cultures, as described by Giorgio de Santillana, professor of the history of science at MIT, in the book Hamlet's Mill (1969), we find very little information regarding the relative durations of the different ages within this cycle. This is quite surprising. Nearly all the accounts tell us that virtue and righteousness decreases as we move from the Golden Age to the subsequent ages. Some of them specifically mention that virtue decreases by a quarter in every age. However, there appears to be scant mention of the durations of the ages themselves. If the duration of each Yuga decreased from one Yuga to the next, shouldn’t this important point also have been mentioned in these accounts?

In the few accounts where the durations of the Yuga are specified, we find that each age in the Yuga Cycle is of the same duration. For instance, the Zoroastrians believe that the world lasts for 12,000 years, which is divided into four equal ages of 3,000 years each. A Mexican source known as the Codex Rios (also referred to as Codex 3738 and Codex Vaticanus A) states that each age lasts for 4008, 4010, 4801 and 5042 years respectively for a total of 17,861 years. We can see that in this case also the duration of each age is nearly the same.

Therefore, the durations of the four Yugas mentioned in the Sanskrit texts (i.e. 4800, 3600, 2400, and 1200 years) deviate from the norm. The duration of each Yuga, in this sequence, decreases by 1200 years from the previous one. This is an arithmetic progression which is rarely, if ever, found in natural cycles. This seemingly unnatural sequence raises the question whether the Yuga durations were deliberately altered at some point in the past, in order to give the impression that the duration of each Yuga decreases in tandem with the decrease in virtue from one Yuga to the next. It is important to note that the ratio’s of the durations of the four Yugas in this sequence is 4:3:2:1. This gives the superficial impression that the duration of each Yuga is reducing by a quarter from one to the next. But that is actually not the case. They are decreasing by a fixed number of years i.e. 1200 years.

Here is the most startling fact: Two of the most famous astronomers of ancient India, Aryabhatta and Paulisa, both believed that the Yuga Cycle is comprised of Yugas of equal duration! In the 11th century, the medieval scholar Al-Beruni had travelled across India for 13 years, questioning and conversing with learned men, reading the Sanskrit texts, observing the religious rites and customs, and had compiled a comprehensive commentary on Indian philosophy, sciences and culture. In Alberuni’s India, Al-Beruni mentions that the Yuga Cycle doctrine was based on the derivations of the Indian astronomer Brahmagupta, who in turn derived his knowledge from the Sanskrit Smriti texts. He makes an interesting statement in this regard:

“Further, Brahmagupta says that “Aryabhatta considers the four yugas as the four equal parts of the caturyuga (Yuga Cycle). Thus he differs from the doctrine of the book Smriti, just mentioned, and he who differs from us is an opponent”.[8]

The fact that Aryabhatta believed the four yugas to be of equal duration is extremely pertinent! Al-Beruni reasserts this in no uncertain terms: “Therefore, according to Aryabhatta, the Kali Yuga has 3000 divya years….each two yugas has 6000 divya years…each three years has 9000 divya years.” Why would Aryabhatta subscribe to such a belief? Did he have access to sources of information that are lost to us now?

Surprisingly, it was not only Aryabhatta, who held this point of view. Another celebrated astronomer of ancient India was Paulisa, who had apparently earned Brahmagupta’s favor by supporting the 4:3:2:1 ratio for the duration of the yugas. According to Al-Beruni, however, “it is possible that Paulisa simply mentions this method as one among others, and that it is not that one in particular which he himself adopted.”[9] This is evident from Paulisa’s belief regarding the caturyuga, as documented by Al-Beruni: “Of the current caturyuga (Yuga Cycle), there have elapsed three yugas i.e. according to him 3,240,000 years i.e. 9000 divya-years. The latter number represents three-fourths of the years of a caturyuga.”[10] This indicates that Paulisa believed that each Yuga was of 3000 divine years’ duration. He uses the same method while presenting his calculations for the duration of a kalpa where “he (Pulisa) has not changed the caturyugas into exact yugas, but simply changed them into fourth parts, and multiplied these fourth parts by the number of years of a single fourth part.”[11]

This clearly indicates that two of the most respected astronomers of ancient India, Aryabhatta and Paulisa, believed in a Yuga Cycle that comprised of 4 Yugas of equal duration of 3,000 divine-years each. However, their opinion was overshadowed by the contradictory view held by Brahmagupta. He railed against Aryabhatta and the other astronomers who held differing opinions, and even abused them. Al-Beruni says about Brahmagupta:

“He is rude enough to compare Aryabhatta to a worm which, eating the wood, by chance describes certain characters in it without understanding them and without intending to draw them. “He, however, who knows these things thoroughly, stands opposed to Aryabhatta, Srishena, and Vishnucandra like the lion against gazelles. They are not capable of letting him see their faces. ” In such offensive terms he attacks Aryabhatta and maltreats him.”[12]

We can now understand why Brahmagupta’s opinion finally prevailed over that of the other astronomers of his time, and it certainly did not have anything to do with the inherent soundness of his logic, or the authenticity of his sources.

It is time for us to stop standing in opposition to Aryabhatta, Paulisa, Srishena, Vishnucandra and others like the “lion against gazelles”, and instead take cognizance of the very real possibility that the Yugas in the Yuga Cycle are of equal duration, and the 4:3:2:1 sequence of the Yugas may have been a mathematical manipulation that crept into the Yuga Cycle doctrine sometime prior to 500 CE. It is possible that this manipulation was introduced because people were inclined to believe that the duration of a Yuga should decrease in tandem with the decrease in virtue and human longetivity from one Yuga to the next. A neat formula was devised in which the total duration of the Yugas added up to 12,000 years. However, there was one problem. If the Kali Yuga is of 1,200 years duration, then it should have been completed many times over, since its proposed beginning in 3102 BC. In order to circumvent this potentially embarrassing situation, another complexity was introduced. Each “year” of the Yuga Cycle became a “divine year” comprised of 360 human years. The Yuga Cycle became inflated to 4,320,000 years (12,000*360) and the Kali Yuga became equal to 432,000 years (1,200*360). Humanity became consigned to an interminable duration of darkness.

The original Yuga Cycle doctrine appears to have been very simple: A Yuga Cycle duration of 12,000 years, with each Yuga lasting for 3,000 years. This cycle is encoded in the “Saptarsi Calendar” which has been used in India for thousands of years. It was used extensively during the Maurya period in the 4th century BC, and is still in use in some parts of India. The term “Saptarsi” refers to the “Seven Rishis” or the “Seven Sages” representing the seven stars of the Great Bear constellation (Ursa Major). They are regarded as the enlightened rishis who appear at the beginning of every Yuga to spread the laws of civilization. The Saptarsi Calendar used in India had a cycle of 2,700 years; it is said that the Great Bear constellation stays for 100 years in each of the 27 “Nakshatras” (lunar asterisms) which adds up to a cycle of 2,700 years.[13] The 2,700 year cycle was also referred to as a “Saptarsi Era” or a “Saptarsi Yuga”.

Image
Fig 1: The Great Bear constellation (Ursa Major) is clearly visible in the northern sky throughout the year. The seven prominent stars represent the Seven Sages (Saptarshi). The Great Bear constellation figures prominently in the mythology of many cultures.

If the 2,700 year cycle of the Saptarsi Calendar represents the actual duration of a Yuga, then the remaining 300 years out of the total Yuga duration of 3,000 years (representing 1/10th of the Yuga duration), automatically represents the “transitional period”, before the qualities of the subsequent Yuga are fully manifested. In accordance with the current convention, this intervening period can be broken up into two separate periods of 150 years each, one occurring at the beginning of the Yuga, known as Sandhya (i.e. dawn), and the other at its termination, known as Sandhyansa (i.e. twilight). The total duration of the Yuga Cycle, excluding the transitional periods, is equal to (2700*4) i.e. 10,800 years, which is same as the duration of the “Great Year of Heraclitus” in the Hellenic tradition!

It is agreed by historians that the Saptarsi Calendar that was in use during the Maurya period in the 4th century BC, started in 6676 BC. In the book, “Traditions of the Seven Rsis”, Dr.J.E. Mitchiner confirms this: “We may conclude that the older and original version of the Era of the Seven Rsis commenced with the Seven Rsis in Krttika in 6676 BC…This version was in use in northern India from at least the 4th century BC, as witnessed by the statements of Greek and Roman writers; it was also the version used by Vrddha Garga, at around the start of the Christian era.”[14]

In fact, the recorded choronology of Indian kings goes back further than 6676 BC as documented by the Greek and Roman historians Pliny and Arrian. Pliny states that, “From Father Liber [Roman Bacchus or Greek Dionysus] to Alexander the Great (d. 323 BC), Indians reckon 154 kings, and they reckon (the time as) 6451 years and 3 months.”[15] Arrian puts 153 kings and 6462 years between Dionysus and Sandrokottos (Chandragupta Maurya), to whose court a Greek embassy was sent in 314 BC.[16] Both indications add up to a date of roughly c.6776 BC, which is a 100 years prior to the beginning of the Saptarsi Calendar in 6676 BC.

It is obvious from the accounts of Pliny and Arrian that they must have identified a specific king in the Indian kings list, who corresponded to the Greek Dionysus or Roman Bacchus, and whose reign had ended at around c.6776 BC. Who could that have been? According to the renowned scholar and Orientalist Sir William Jones, Dionysus or Bacchus was none other than the Indian monarch Rama. In his essay “On the Gods of Greece, Italy and India” (1784), Sir William Jones “deems Rama to be the same as the Grecian Dionysos, who is said to have conquered India with an army of satyrs, commanded by Pan; and Rama was also a mighty conqueror, and had an army of large monkeys or satyrs, commanded by Maruty (Hanuman), son of Pavan. Rama is also found, in other points, to resemble the Indian Bacchus.”[17] Sir William Jones also points out that, “Meros is said by the Greeks to have been a mountain of India, on which their Dionysus was born, and that Meru is also a mountain near the city of Naishada, or Nysa, called by the Grecian geographers Dionysopolis, and universally celebrated in the Sanskrit poems.”[18]

Both Pliny and Arrian were aware of these associations. Pliny had placed the Dionysian satyrs “in the tropical mountains of India”, while “we learn from Arrian (Hist.Ind. p 318, 321) that the worship of Bacchus, or Dionysus, was common in India and that his votaries observed a number of rites similar to those of Greece…On this account, when Alexander entered India, the natives considered the Greeks as belonging to the same family with themselves; and when the people of Nysa sent the principal person of their city to solicit their freedom of the Grecian conqueror, they conjured him by the well-known name of Dionysus, as the most effectual means of obtaining their purpose. ‘O King, the Nyssaeans entreat thee to allow them to enjoy their liberties and their laws, out of respect to Dionysus .’”[19]

The identification of Dionysus with Rama provides us with fresh perspectives. According to the Indian tradition, Rama had lived towards the end of the Treta Yuga (Silver Age), and the Dwapara Yuga (Bronze Age) had started soon after his demise. This implies that the 6676 BC date for the beginning of the Saptarsi Calendar, which is a 100 years after Dionysus i.e. Rama, indicates the beginning of the Dwapara Yuga in the descending cycle.

A later Saptarsi Calendar, still in use in India, began from 3076 BC. But, as Dr. Subhash Kak points out, “the new count that goes back to 3076 BC was started later to make it as close to the start of the Kali era as possible”[20]. This modification can be easily identified, since in 3076 BC, the Great Bear were in the “Magha” nakshatra (lunar asterism) as mentioned by Varahamihira in Brihat-Samhita (Brs. 13-3). But Subhash Kak points out that, “By the time of the Greeks, the naksatras were listed starting with Asvin (Surya Siddhanta 8.9). As Magha is the tenth naksatra in a count beginning with Asvin, one needs to add 900 years to find the epoch for the beginning of the cycle. This takes one to 3976 BC. One more complete Saptarsi Cycle of 2,700 years before that brings us to 6676 BC.”[21] Since the Dwapara Yuga immediately precedes the Kali Yuga, we are once again led to the conclusion that the Saptarsi Calendar with a start date of 6676 BC was counting time from the Dwapara Yuga.

Image
Fig 2: The List of the 27 Nakshatras. The Great Bear was in Magha in 3076 BC and in Ashvini in 3976 BC / 6676 BC

We also know that the Saptarsi Calendar used during the Mauryan period was used for tracking the genealogical records of the Mahabharata war kings. Since the Mahabharata describes events that transpired in the Dwapara Yuga, there cannot be any doubt that the Saptarsi Cycle beginning 6676 BC marks the beginning of the descending Dwapara Yuga. If we use this date as the anchor point, and the Saptarsi Calendar as the basis for the Yuga Cycle durations (i.e. Yuga duration of 2,700 years, with transitional periods of 300 years), then the entire timeline of the Yuga Cycle gets unraveled:

Image
Fig 3: Yuga Cycle Timeline.

This Yuga Cycle timeline takes the beginning of the Golden Age to 12676 BC, more than 14,500 years before present, when the Great Bear was in the “Shravana” nakshatra (the Great Bear will advance by 3 nakshtras in every Yuga because of the 300 year transitional period). This agrees very well with the Indian tradition, since the Mahabharata mentions that in the ancient tradition the Shravana nakshatra was given the first place in the Nakshatra cycle. The timeline also indicates that the ascending Kali Yuga, which is the current epoch in which we are living, will end in 2025 CE. The full manifestation of the next Yuga – the ascending Dwapara – will take place in 2325 CE, after a transitional period of 300 years. The ascending Dwapara Yuga will then be followed by two more Yugas: the ascending Treta Yuga and the ascending Satya Yuga, which will complete the 12,000 year ascending cycle. The Sanskrit text Brahma-vaivarta Purana describes a dialogue between Lord Krishna and the Goddess Ganges. Here, Krishna says that after 5,000 years of Kali Yuga there will be a dawn of a new Golden Age which will last for 10,000 years (Text 50, 59). This can be immediately understood in the context of the Yuga Cycle timeline described here. We are now ending the Kali Yuga, nearly 5,700 years since its beginning in 3676 BC. And the end of the Kali Yuga will be followed by three more Yugas spanning 9,000 years, before the ascending cycle ends.

Part 2: The archaeological and historical evidence

According to the Yuga Cycle doctrine, the transitional periods between Yugas are always associated with a worldwide collapse of civilizations and severe environmental catastrophes, which wipe out virtually every trace of any human civilization. The new civilization that emerges in the new Yuga is guided by a few survivors of the cataclysm, who carry with them the technical and spiritual knowledge of the previous epoch. Many ancient sources tell us of the enigmatic group of “Seven Sages” (“Saptarsi”) who are said to appear at the beginning of every Yuga and promulgate the arts of civilization. We find them in myths from across the world – in Sumeria, India, Polynesia, South America and North America. They possessed infinite wisdom and power, could travel over land and water, and took on various forms at will. Were they the survivors of the previous Yuga or visitors from outer space? Opinions differ on this point, but surely neither option can be discarded without proper scrutiny. In any case, the main point is that the transitional periods between Yugas must necessarily correlate with the severe cataclysmic events that regularly impact our planet, as reflected in the archeological records. As we shall see, the Yuga Cycle timeline proposed here correlates with these catastrophic events with a stunning accuracy. In addition, the transitional periods can also be correlated with dates recorded in various ancient calendars and traditions.

The first transitional period in the 12,000 year descending Yuga Cycle is the 300 year period at the end of the Golden Age from 9976 BC – 9676 BC. This is the time when the last Ice Age came to a sudden end; the climate became very warm quite abruptly, and several large mammalian species such as the woolly mammoth became extinct. A number of scientific studies show that a devastating global flood occurred at around 9600 BC.[22] This is in accordance with many ancient traditions and legends. In the Timaeus, Plato talks of the mythical island of Atlantis, which was swallowed up by the sea in a “single day and night of misfortune” in c.9600 BC. This event has also been recorded in the flood myths of many ancient cultures, which almost uniformly talk of enormous walls of water that submerged the entire land to the highest mountain tops, accompanied by heavy rain, fireballs from the sky, intense cold and long periods of darkness. In the Indian tradition, this flood took place at the end of the Satya Yuga (Golden Age). The survivor of this great deluge was Manu, the progenitor of mankind, who is placed at the head of the genealogy of Indian kings.

What could have led to this sudden worldwide deluge? Archaeologist Bruce Masse of the Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico had examined a sample of 175 flood myths from different cultures around the world and concluded that the environmental aspects described in these events, which is also consistent with the archaeological and geophysical data, could have only been precipitated by a destructive, deep-water, oceanic comet impact.[23] In 2008, a team of Danish geologists from the Niels Bohr Institute (NBI) in Copenhagen studied the ice core data from Greenland, and concluded that the ice age ended exactly in 9703 BC. Researcher Jorgen Peder Steffensen said that, “in the transition from the ice age to our current warm, interglacial period the climate shift is so sudden that it is as if a button was pressed”[24]. More recently, in 2012, an international team of scientists concluded that the earth was bombarded by a meteorite storm nearly 12,000 years ago, which effectively ended the ice age, and led to the end of a prehistoric civilization and the extinction of many animal species.[25] It is interesting to note that the 9703 BC date for the sudden climate shift falls within the 300 year transitional period at the end of the Golden Age from 9976 BC – 9676 BC, and as such, it provides the first important validation of the Yuga Cycle timeline identified here.

The 300 year transitional period between the Treta Yuga (Silver Age) and the Dwapara Yuga (Bronze Age) from 6976 BC – 6676 BC also coincides with a significant environmental event - the Black Sea Catastrophe which has recently been dated to 6700 BC. The Black Sea once used to be a freshwater lake. That is, until the Mediterranean Sea, swollen with melted glacial waters, breached a natural dam, and cut through the narrow Bosphorous Strait, catastrophically flooding the Black Sea. This raised the water levels of the Black Sea by several hundred feet, flooded more than 60,000 square miles of land, and significantly expanded the Black Sea shoreline (by around 30%).[26] This event fundamentally changed the course of civilization in Southeastern Europe and western Anatolia. Geologists Bill Ryan and Walter Pitman of Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory in New York, who had first proposed the Black Sea Catastrophe hypothesis, have gone to the extent of comparing it to Noah’s Flood.

Similar major flooding events were taking place in many parts of the world, as massive glacial lakes, swelled by the waters of the melting ice, breached their ice barriers, and rushed into the surrounding areas. In the book Underworld, Graham Hancock has described some of the terrible events that ravaged the planet during that time. Sometime between 6900 BC – 6200 BC the Laurentide ice-sheet disintegrated in the Hudson Bay and an enormous quantity of glacial waters from the inland Lake Agassiz/Ojibway discharged into the Labrador Sea. This was possibly the “single largest flood of the Quarternary Period”, which may have single-handedly raised global sea-level by half a metre.[27] The period between 7000 BC – 6000 BC was also characterized by the occurrences of gigantic earthquakes in Europe. In northern Sweden, some of these earthquakes caused “waves on the ground”, 10 metres high, referred to as “rock tsunamis”. It is possible that the global chain of cataclysmic events during this transitional period may have been triggered by a single underlying cause, which we are yet to find out.

Image
Fig 5: The Black Sea catastrophe, before and after. The water from the Mediterranean (Aegean) Sea, cut through a narrow Gorge (now known as the Bosphorous Strait), and plunged into the Black Sea (whose water level was 80 m below sea level) creating a gigantic waterfall. Every day for two years, 42 cubic km of sea water cut through the narrow channel and plunged into the lake — more than 200 times the flow over Niagara Falls. Source: NASA

The transitional period between the Dwapara Yuga and Kali Yuga, from 3976 BC – 3676 BC was again marked by a series of environmental cataclysms, whose exact nature remains a mystery. It is referred to in geology as the 5.9 kiloyear event, and it is considered as one of the most intense aridification events during the Holocene period. It occurred around 3900 BC, ending the Neolithic Subpluvial and initiated the most recent desiccation of the Sahara desert. At the same time, between 4000 BC – 3500 BC, the coastal plains of Sumer experienced severe flooding, which “was the local effect of a worldwide episode of rapid, relatively short-term flooding known as the Flandrian transgression – which had a significant impact not only along the shores of the Gulf but in many other parts of Asia as well.”[28] This catastrophic flooding event led to the end of the Ubaid period in Mesopotemia, and triggered a worldwide migration to river valleys.

This transitional period between the Yugas is recorded in many ancient calendars, as we find a clustering of important dates around this epoch. For a very long time, there was a prevalent belief in the western world that the world was created in 4004 BC. This date comes to us from the genealogies of the Old Testament. This date is just 28 years prior to the end of the Dwapara and the beginning of the transitional period. A Saptarsi Calendar, still in use in India, counted time in the Kali Yuga starting from 3976 BC, which coincides with the beginning of the transitional period. The year of world creation in the Jewish religious calendar is 3761 BC, which is in the middle of the transitional period.

The famous Mahabharata War of the Indian subcontinent, which took place during the transitional period between Yugas, 35 years prior to the beginning of the Kali Yuga, can now be dated to 3711 BC. The Mahabharata mentions that the Dwapara Yuga ended and the Kali Yuga started as soon as Krishna left this world; and then the seas swelled up and submerged the island-city of Dwarka, which was located off the coast of western India. In 2002, the National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIO), India, discovered two cities submerged in the Gulf of Cambay, at a depth of 120 feet. These mysterious submerged cities were laid out in a grid, had towering walls, massive geometrical buildings and huge engineering works such as dams, and they stood entirely above water around 7,000 years ago. Nearly 2,000 man-made artifacts were recovered from the sites, some of which have been carbon dated to 6500 BC – 7500 BC, indicating their existence in the Dwapara Yuga.

Image Image
Fig 6: The underwater ruins of the fabled city of Dwarka, off the coast of western India, at a depth of 170 feet below the Arabian Sea.
Source: The Lost City of Dvaraka - By S.R. Rao


As per the ancient traditions, the descending Kali Yuga, which was referred to by Hesiod as the “Age of Heroes”, came to an end with the battle fought on the plains of Troy. The Yuga Cycle timeline indicates that the 300 year intervening period between the descending and ascending Kali Yuga extended from 976 BC – 676 BC; and very interestingly, this overlaps with the 300 year period from 1100 BC to 800 BC which is referred to by historians as the Greek Dark Ages! The archaeological evidence shows that tremendous destruction visited the Greek isles at this time. The great Mycenaean cities and palaces collapsed. Villages and towns were burnt, destroyed and abandoned. The population of the cities reduced drastically, there was widespread famine and people lived in isolated, small settlements. Such was the magnitude of the cataclysms that ancient Greeks entirely forgot the art of writing which they had to re-learn from the Phoenicians in the 8th century! The ancient trade networks were disrupted and came to a grinding halt.

However, this was not just a collapse of the ancient Greek civilization; there was a worldwide collapse of civilizations during this period. The Hittites suffered serious disruption and cities from Troy to Gaza were destroyed. Egypt too lost control over its kingdom. The period from 1070 BC – 664 BC is known as the “Third Intermediate Period” of Egypt, during which time Egypt was run over and ruled by foreign rulers, and there was political and social disintegration and chaos. Egypt was increasingly beset by a series of droughts, below-normal flooding of the Nile, and famine. In India, the Indus Valley civilization finally ended at around 1000 BC. Catastrophe also struck the ancient Olmec civilization of Mesoamerica at this time. The first Olmec center, San Lorenzo, was abandoned at around 900 BC. A wholesale destruction of many San Lorenzo monuments also occurred in c.950 BC, and scholars believe that drastic environmental changes may have been responsible for this shift in Olmec centers, with certain important rivers changing course.

Once again we don’t know what may have triggered this calamitous turn of events across the world. Historians speculate about a combination of catastrophic climatic events. Egyptian accounts tell us that, “something in the air prevented much sunlight from reaching the ground and also arrested global tree growth for almost two full decades until 1140 BC.”[29] One proposed cause is the Hekla 3 eruption of the Hekla volcano in Iceland, but the dating of that event remains in dispute. However, since the descending and ascending Kali Yuga are not so different in terms of their qualitative aspects, the level of devastation during this transitional period was perhaps not as severe as the previous one, as a result of which some aspects of civilization survived.

When the ascending Kali Yuga began in 676 BC, much of the knowledge, traditions and skills from the descending Kali Yuga were lost. In Greece, the construction of monumental architecture ceased. The cavalry was replaced by foot soldiers. Pottery styles were simplified. In India, the use of Sanskrit as the means of communication was replaced by the language of the common masses – Pali and Prakrit. Knowledge of the ancient scriptures, sciences and arts had been all but forgotten. Possibly in response to this grave social crisis, a number of philosophers and prophets appeared at this time, trying to re-discover the lost wisdom, and spread it amongst the ignorant masses. Among them were Buddha (623 BC), Pythagoras (570 BC), Zoroaster (600 BC), and Mahavir Jain (599 BC).

People were so perturbed by the calamities of the previous centuries that they began a vigorous attempt to finally document the ancient scriptures, which were till then being transmitted in a purely oral fashion. It was in this grave social and cultural milieu that the Mayans re-calculated and re-calibrated their calendric system at Izapa sometime after 400 BC. And a few centuries later Aryabhatta and others attempted to fix the beginnings of the Kali Yuga. Such an effort would have been quite un-necessary if the cataclysms of the previous centuries had not disrupted the flow of the rich oral traditions. However, much of the knowledge from the previous epoch was irretrievably lost. For instance, the original Vedas were comprised of 1,180 sakhas (i.e. branches), of which only 7 or 8 sakhas (less than 1 %) are remembered now. As a result, it is only natural to expect that even within the texts that were finally documented, various errors and omissions had crept in. The mistakes in the Yuga Cycle doctrine were some of them.

The Yuga Cycle timelines proposed here accurately mirrors the worldwide environmental catastrophes that accompanies the transitional periods between Yugas. The four key transitional periods, since the end of the Golden Age, have been summarized here:

Image
Fig 7: The Transitional Periods between Yugas

This recurrent pattern of devastation is clearly discernible in the archaeological records. Every 2,700 years our planet is impacted by a series of cataclysmic events for a period of a few hundred years, which brings about a total or near total collapse of civilizations across the world. In all the cases, however, we find that civilization restarts immediately after the period of destruction.

In recent years, many independent historians and researchers have realized that the concept of a Yuga Cycle is a far better descriptor of ancient history, than the model of linear progress favored by mainstream historians. Egyptologist John Anthony West, whose seminal work on the dating of the Sphinx has won him worldwide acclaim, mentions in his article “Consider the Kali Yuga” that:

“Since Egypt's Old Kingdom, up until very recently…civilization has been going down, not up; simple as that. We can follow that degenerative process physically in Egypt; it is written into the stones and it is unmistakable. The same tale is told in the mythologies and legends of virtually all other societies and civilizations the world over...Progress does not go in a straight line from primitive ancestors to smart old us with our bobblehead dolls and weapons of mass destruction; our traffic jams and our polluted seas, skies and lands. There is another, and far more realistic, way to view history. Plato talked about a cycle of Ages: Golden, Silver, Bronze and Iron (or Dark) Age; a cycle, a wave form - not a straight line. A similar understanding is reflected by virtually all other ancient accounts. The best known, and by far the most elaborately developed of these systems, is the Hindu, with its Yuga Cycle, which corresponds to the Platonic idea of four definable Ages.”[30]

It is evident that the original Yuga Cycle was based on the Saptarsi Calendar. It was of 12,000 years duration, comprised of four Yugas of equal duration of 2,700 years each, separated by transitional periods of 300 years. The complete Yuga Cycle of 24,000 years was comprised of an ascending and descending Yuga cycle, which followed each other for eternity like the cycles of day and night. For the past 2,700 years we have been evolving through the ascending Kali Yuga, and this Yuga is coming to an end in 2025. The end of the Yuga will inevitably be followed by cataclysmic earth changes and civilization collapses, as is characteristic of the transitional periods. The Dwapara Yuga is fundamentally different from the Kali in its spiritual and material dimensions, as can be gleaned from the ancient texts. Hence, we may anticipate far-reaching changes in our environment, and possibly in our cosmic neighborhood, as we transition to this period of enhanced consciousness. The current upswing in tectonic activities and the increased incidence of extreme weather phenomena may be indicative of the fact that we are slowly entering into a period of volatile earth changes. We need to be aware of these greater cycles of time that govern human civilization, and the changes that are looming in the horizon.


Endnotes

  1. The Mahabharata, Book 3: Vana Parva, Tirtha-yatra Parva, SECTION CXLVIII, Kisari Mohan Ganguli, tr.[1883-1896], from sacredtexts.com
  2. Sûrya-Siddhânta: a text-book of Hindu astronomy, Ebenezer Burgess, Phanindralal Gangooly, Chapter 1, p 41
  3. Timaeus 39d
  4. De die natali 18.11
  5. Lokamanya Bâl Gangâdhar Tilak, The Arctic Home in the Vedas, Messrs. TILAK BROS, Gaikwar Wada, Poona City,1903
  6. Sri Yukteswar, The Holy Science, 1894, p xi
  7. Jenny Strauss Clay, Hesiod’s Cosmos, Cambridge University Press, 2003, p 83
  8. Alberuni’s India, Chapter XLII
  9. Alberuni’s India, Chapter XLII, p 375
  10. Alberuni’s India, Chapter XLII, p 376
  11. Alberuni’s India, Chapter XLII, p 375
  12. Alberuni’s India, Chapter XLII, p 376
  13. Subhash Kak, On the Chronological Framework for Indian Culture, Indian Council of Philosophical Research, 2000, p 1-24.
  14. J.E. Mitchiner, Traditions of the Seven Rishis, Motilal B, Delhi 1982, p. 163.
  15. Pliny, Naturalis Historia, 6.59-60
  16. Arrian,Indica, 9.9
  17. Encyclopaedia Londinensis, Vol 21, 1826, p 677
  18. Sir William Jones, On the Gods of Greece, Italy and India, 1784
  19. The Edinburgh encyclopaedia, Volume 3, 1830, p 174
  20. Subhash Kak, On the Chronological Framework for Indian Culture, Indian Council of Philosophical Research. 2000, pp. 1-24.
  21. Subhash Kak, On the Chronological Framework for Indian Culture, Indian Council of Philosophical Research. 2000, pp. 1-24.
  22. Graham Hancock, Underworld: The Mysterious Origins of Civilization, Three Rivers Press, p 74 [back to text]
  23. Luigi Piccardi and Bruce Masse, Myth and Geology, Geological Society of London Special Publication 273, 2007
  24. Danish Arctic research dates Ice Age, Politiken.dk, 11 Dec 2008, http://politiken.dk/newsinenglish/article611464.ece
  25. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/ ... ation.html, Daily Mail, 12 June 2012
  26. Geologists Link Black Sea Deluge To Farming's Rise, New York Times, December 17, 1996 http://www.nytimes.com/1996/12/17/scien ... all&src=pm
  27. Graham Hancock, Underworld: The Mysterious Origins of Civilization, Three Rivers Press, p 82-83
  28. Graham Hancock, Underworld: The Mysterious Origins of Civilization, Three Rivers Press, p 31
  29. Frank J. Yurco, "End of the Late Bronze Age and Other Crisis Periods: A Volcanic Cause" in Gold of Praise: Studies on Ancient Egypt in Honor of Edward F. Wente, ed: Emily Teeter & John Larson, (SAOC 58) 1999, pp.456-458, taken from wikipedia
  30. John Anthony West, Consider the Kali Yuga, March 2008, http://www.grahamhancock.com/forum/WestJA2.php?p=1

RajeshA
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Re: Out-of-India - From Theory to Truth

Postby RajeshA » 02 Nov 2012 06:03

Nilesh Oak ji,

Bhibu Dev Misra is proposing Mahabharata War for 3711 BCE. I know it lies outside of Epoch of Arundhati. Perhaps you may like to have a look at it, once you have some time.

Also he is proposing 6776 BCE for the end of Sri Rama's reign.

Nilesh Oak wrote:Image
RajeshA ji,

If above is accepted (not sure where it is mentioned in vedic literature), then it aligns with period of ~12,000 assumed by me for each episode of Chaturyuga. This duration allows us, not exactly, but much better than other suggested lenghts of time, to explain many timelines of our ancient past.


Would like to hear more from you on this.

shiv
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Re: Out-of-India - From Theory to Truth

Postby shiv » 02 Nov 2012 06:48

RajeshA wrote:
shiv wrote:Rajesh a question for you. (or anyone else who joined that discussion) You read the Reich paper and other related genetic papers. Would you be able to point to a ref that gives a ballpark figure for the date of mix of ASI/ANI? Was it there n the Reich paper. I recall that there have been many papers that suggest no imports into India in the last 7-10 thousand years. So mixture if any was around that time? Any pointers?

Maybe I need to re read Reich


shiv saar,

there was a paper by Metspalu et al. (2011):
Shared and Unique Components of Human Population Structure and Genome-Wide Signals of Positive Selection in South Asia

Our simulations show that one can detect differences in haplotype diversity for a migration event that occurred 500 generations ago, but chances to distinguish signals for older events will apparently decrease with increasing age because of recombination. In terms of human population history, our oldest simulated migration event occurred roughly 12,500 years ago and predates or coincides with the initial Neolithic expansion in the Near East. Knowing whether signals associated with the initial peopling of Eurasia fall within our detection limits requires additional extensive simulations, but our current results indicate that the often debated episode of South Asian prehistory, the putative Indo-Aryan migration 3,500 years ago (see e.g., Abdulla15) falls well within the limits of our haplotype-based approach. We found no regional diversity differences associated with k5 at K = 8. Thus, regardless of where this component was from (the Caucasus, Near East, Indus Valley, or Central Asia), its spread to other regions must have occurred well before our detection limits at 12,500 years. Accordingly, the introduction of k5 to South Asia cannot be explained by recent gene flow, such as the hypothetical Indo-Aryan migration. The admixture of the k5 and k6 components within India, however, could have happened more recently—our haplotype diversity estimates are not informative about the timing of local admixture.


As for the admixing of ANI and ASI, there was an abstract from Priya Moorjani et al. (2011): Estimating a date of mixture of ancestral South Asian populations

Our analyses suggest that major ANI-ASI mixture occurred in the ancestors of both northern and southern Indians 1,200-3,500 years ago, overlapping the time when Indo-European languages first began to be spoken in the subcontinent. These results suggest that this formative period of Indian history was accompanied by mixtures between two highly diverged populations, although our results do not rule other, older ANI-ASI admixture events.

Thanks. More from Thangaraj
Complex genetic origin of Indian populations and its implications
RAKESH TAMANG, LALJI SINGH and KUMARASAMY THANGARAJ
8. Was there an Aryan invasion?
It is commonly believed that there was an Aryan invasion/
migration to India from the west. However, there is prolonged
debate on this topic. It has been well established that various
castes and tribal populations of India have a common late
Pleistocene maternal as well as paternal ancestry and minor
east and west Eurasian ancestries (Kivisild et al. 2003;
Metspalu et al. 2004, 2011; Sahoo et al. 2006; Sengupta et
al. 2006; Chaubey et al. 2007, 2008; Reich et al. 2009; Shah
et al. 2011; Sharma et al. 2012). Most of these studies
presumed that the detected west Eurasian genepool may be
the Aryan component. Interestingly, both the ANI and ASI
ancestry components of the Indian populations are found to
harbour higher haplotypic diversity than those predominant in
west Eurasia. The shared genetic affinity between the ANI
component of northern India and west Eurasia was dated prior
to the Aryan invasion (Metspalu et al. 2011). These realities
suggest the rejection of the Aryan invasion hypothesis but
support an ancient demographic history of India.


Image

disha
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Re: Out-of-India - From Theory to Truth

Postby disha » 02 Nov 2012 07:32

In layman terms, this is my understanding:

1. A group of anatomically modern humans left Africa 65k years bp and migrated along shores and reached Australia via Laos, Indonesia, Java. A small and unique extant of that line is found only in Andaman & Nicobar island. Let me call this ASI.

2. Another group left 45k years ago, and via Syria landed into India. This is ANI (45k years bp).

3. India is now a complete admixture of ANI and ASI, with no trace of ANI anywhere. Trace of ASI exists thanks to populations in A & N.

All the admixture happened some 45k years bp. Hence no Aryan Invasion.

Since there is greater diversity in R1* clade, more so than european, the split in the ANI could have happened in India! That is the split and migration towards eurasia happened some 15k to 10k years bp from northern India following the recession of glaciers.

The papers above not just give AIT a boot but provide a basis for the OIT.

shiv
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Re: Out-of-India - From Theory to Truth

Postby shiv » 02 Nov 2012 08:15

disha wrote:
The papers above not just give AIT a boot but provide a basis for the OIT.

True and we have collected so much data that there is archaeoastronomic, linguistic, folk history and archaeological evidence to support this.

Virendra
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Re: Out-of-India - From Theory to Truth

Postby Virendra » 02 Nov 2012 19:51

RajeshA wrote:Image
Fig 7: The Transitional Periods between Yugas

This recurrent pattern of devastation is clearly discernible in the archaeological records. Every 2,700 years our planet is impacted by a series of cataclysmic events for a period of a few hundred years, which brings about a total or near total collapse of civilizations across the world. In all the cases, however, we find that civilization restarts immediately after the period of destruction.

2700 - 676 = Year 2024 !! Holy Sh** :((

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Re: Out-of-India - From Theory to Truth

Postby svinayak » 02 Nov 2012 21:21

Virendra wrote:2700 - 676 = Year 2024 !! Holy Sh** :((


It could be starting from 2015 - 2022.

We are entering a period of global transition and even human awareness which has not happened in the last 300 years

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Re: Out-of-India - From Theory to Truth

Postby ramana » 02 Nov 2012 22:07

So rise of the Anglo Saxon West is in the yuga sandhya period just as the Kauravas from Shantanu!

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Re: Out-of-India - From Theory to Truth

Postby Nilesh Oak » 03 Nov 2012 00:50

Virendra wrote:2700 - 676 = Year 2024 !! Holy Sh** :((

However there is way to avoid the gruesome fate envisioned in the timing posted by you Virendra ji.

It will involve :rotfl: supporting my timeline of MBH War and accepting timeline superimposed (using B Mishra) principle. here is the summary. It will instantaneously put you in Dwapara Yuga...and a bonus... ascending Dwapara Yuga. Now do remember MBH war occurred at end of Dwapara, but that would still be not until 1000 years from now! Breathe.. :D

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Re: Out-of-India - From Theory to Truth

Postby RajeshA » 03 Nov 2012 01:17

X-Posting from "Archaeo-Astronomy and Dating of Indian Texts" Thread in GDF

Precession of Equinoxes and Yugas

For argument's sake let's take Nilesh Oak ji's date for Mahabharata but Bibhu Dev Misra's formula for Yugas of equal size. According to Nilesh Oak ji, Sri Krishna died in 5525 BCE, i.e. if he died 36 years after the Mahabharata War, and Kali is supposed to start then, the Yugas would look like:

Code: Select all

AGE                                                   BEGIN            END        DURATION (years)
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Sandhya of Descending Satya Yuga:                  14675 BCE        14525 BCE        150
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Descending Satya Yuga:                             14525 BCE        11825 BCE       2700
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Transition Period to Descending Treta Yuga:        11825 BCE        11525 BCE        300
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Descending Treta Yuga:                             11525 BCE         8825 BCE       2700
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Transition Period to Descending Dwapara Yuga:       8825 BCE         8525 BCE        300
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Descending Dwapara Yuga:                            8525 BCE         5825 BCE       2700
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Transition Period to Descending Kali Yuga:          5825 BCE         5525 BCE        300
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Descending Kali Yuga:                               5525 BCE         2825 BCE       2700
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Transition Period to Ascending Kali Yuga:           2825 BCE         2525 BCE        300
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ascending Kali Yuga:                                2525 BCE          176 CE        2700
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Transition Period to Ascending Dwapara Yuga          176 CE           476 CE         300
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ascending Dwapara Yuga                               476 CE          3176 CE        2700
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Transition Period to Ascending Treta Yuga           3176 CE          3476 CE         300
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ascending Treta Yuga                                3476 CE          6176 CE        2700
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Transition Period to Ascending Satya Yuga           6176 CE          6476 CE         300
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ascending Satya Yuga                                6476 CE          9176 CE        2700
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sandhyansa of Ascending Satya Yuga                  9176 CE          9326 CE         150


Nilesh Oak ji also speaks of some events around 15,000 BCE - 14,000 BCE - Fall of Abhijit, Pururavas, etc.

Another thing we should keep in mind is that the precession of equinoxes proposed by Sri Yukteswar, and a few others is not 25,800 years but actually 24,000 years. Bibhu Dev Misra also speaks of this cycle length, so perhaps a few things may need to be adjusted if the 24,000 year cycle is to be adopted.

Added Later: I am in favor of the timeline given below for the Yuga system.
Last edited by RajeshA on 03 Nov 2012 02:24, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Out-of-India - From Theory to Truth

Postby RajeshA » 03 Nov 2012 01:51

Aligning Mahabharata with the Yugas


There is however another way to look at the Yugas.

1) Let's say we use Bibhu Dev Misra's suggestion of having Yugas of equal size equal to a Saptarshi Cycle of 2700 years plus a 300 year transition period.

2) Now let's consider the current Kali Calendar to really be starting on 18th February, 3102 BCE at 0:00 am.

3) Let's also consider Nilesh Oak ji's theory of Mahabharata War starting on 16th October, 5561 BCE to be correct.

4) Now there are suggestions that actually Kali Yuga had already started when Lord Krishna were around though not too long ago, but due to the Lord's presence the Adharmic nature of Kali Yuga was kept at bay.

5) So how do we reconcile the two? Well the confusion arises when we mix up the two Kali Yugas - the Descending Kali Yuga and the Ascending Kali Yuga. The Descending Kali Yuga started in 6102 BCE. Mahabharat War was in 5561 BCE. Lord Krishna passed away in 5525 BCE. The Ascending Kali Yuga started in 3102 BCE, and that is the Yuga according to which we are still keeping our time-keeping, though we should have changed to another Yuga by now.


Code: Select all

AGE                                                   BEGIN            END        DURATION (years)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sandhya of Descending Satya Yuga:                  15252 BCE        15102 BCE        150
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Descending Satya Yuga:                             15102 BCE        12402 BCE       2700
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Transition Period to Descending Treta Yuga:        12402 BCE        12102 BCE        300
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Descending Treta Yuga:                             12102 BCE         9402 BCE       2700
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Transition Period to Descending Dwapara Yuga:       9402 BCE         9102 BCE        300
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Descending Dwapara Yuga:                            9102 BCE         6402 BCE       2700
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Transition Period to Descending Kali Yuga:          6402 BCE         6102 BCE        300
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Descending Kali Yuga:                               6102 BCE         3402 BCE       2700
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Transition Period to Ascending Kali Yuga:           3402 BCE         3102 BCE        300
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ascending Kali Yuga:                                3102 BCE          402 BCE       2700
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Transition Period to Ascending Dwapara Yuga          402 BCE          102 BCE        300
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ascending Dwapara Yuga                               102 BCE         2599 CE        2700
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Transition Period to Ascending Treta Yuga           2599 CE          2899 CE         300
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ascending Treta Yuga                                2899 CE          5599 CE        2700
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Transition Period to Ascending Satya Yuga           5599 CE          5899 CE         300
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ascending Satya Yuga                                5899 CE          8599 CE        2700
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sandhyansa of Ascending Satya Yuga                  8599 CE          8749 CE         150

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Re: Out-of-India - From Theory to Truth

Postby johneeG » 04 Nov 2012 10:15

Vedic Origins of the Europeans: the Children of Danu
June 13th, 2012

By Dr. David Frawley (Pandit Vamadeva Shastri)

This article shows how the Proto-European Aryans, like the Celts, were originally a Vedic people called the Danavas or Sudanavas (good Danavas) connected to Vedic kings, sages and yogis. It is adapated from Frawley’s Rig Veda and the History of India.

Many ancient European peoples, particularly the Celts and Germans, regarded themselves as children of Danu, with Danu meaning the Mother Goddess, who was also, like Sarasvati in the Rig Veda, a river Goddess. The Celts called themselves “Tuatha De Danaan”, while the Germans had a similar name. Ancient European river names like the Danube and various rivers called Don in Russia, Scotland, England and France reflect this. The Danube which flows to the Black Sea is their most important river and could reflect their eastern origins.

In fact, the term Danu or Danava (the plural of Danu) appears to form the substratum of Indo-European identity at the base of the Hellenic, Illyro-Venetic, Italo-Celtic, Germanic and Balto-Slavic elements. The northern Greeks were also called Danuni. Therefore, the European Aryans could probably all be called Danavas.

According to Roman sources, Tacitus in his Annals and Histories, the Germans claimed to be descendants of the Mannus, the son of Tuisto. Tuisto relates to Vedic Tvasthar, the Vedic father-creator Sky God, who is also a name for the father of Manu (RV X.17.1-2). This makes the Rig Vedic people also descendants of Manu, the son of Tvashtar.

In the Rig Veda, Tvashtar appears as the father of Indra, who fashions his thunderbolt (vajra) for him (RV X.48.3). Yet Indra is sometimes at odds with Tvashtar because is compelled to surpass him (RV III.48.3-4). Elsewhere Tvashtar’s son is Vishvarupa or Vritra, whom Indra kills, cutting off his three heads (RV X.8.8-9), (TS II.4.12, II.5.1). Indra slays the dragon, Vritra, who lays at the foot of the mountain withholding the waters, and releases the seven rivers to flow into the sea. In several instances, Vritra is called Danava, the son of the Goddess Danu who is connected to the sea (RV I.32.9; II.11.10; III.30.8; V.30.4; V.32).

In the Brahmanas Vishvarupa/Vritra is the son of Danu and Danayu, the names of his mother and father (SB I.6.3.1, 8, 9). Clearly Vritra is Vishvarupa, the son of the God Tvashtar and the Goddess Danu. Danava also means a serpent or a dragon (RV V.32.1-2), which is not only a symbol of wisdom but of power and both Vedic and ancient European lore have their good and bad dragons or serpents.

In this curious story both Indra and Vritra appear ultimately as brothers because both are sons of Tvashtar. We must also note that Tvashtar fashions the thunderbolt for Indra to slay Vritra (RV I.88.5). Indra and Vritra represent the forces of expansion and contraction or the dualities inherent in each one of us. They are both inherent in Tvashtar and represent the two sides of the Creator or of creation as knowledge and ignorance. As Vritra is also the son of Tvashtar and Danu, Indra must ultimately be a son of Danu as well. Both the Vedic Aryans and the Proto-European Aryans are sons of Tvashtar, who was sometimes not the supreme God but a demiurge that they must go beyond.

The Danavas in the Puranas (VaP II.7) are the sons of the Rishi Kashyapa, who there assumes the role of Tvashtar as the main father creator. Kashyapa is a great rishi connected to the Himalayas. He is the eighth or central Aditya (Sun God) that does not leave Mount Meru (Taittiriya Aranyaka I.7.20), the fabled world mountain. Kashyapa is associated with Kashmir (Kashyapa Mira or Kashyapa’s lake) and other Himalayan regions (the Vedic lands of Sharyanavat and Arjika, RV IX.113.1-2), which connects the Danavas to the northwest. The Caspian Sea may be named after him as well. The Proto-Europeans, therefore, are the sons of Tvashtar or Kashyapa and Danu, through their son Manu. They are both Manavas and Danavas, as also Aryas.

In the Rig Veda, Danu like Dasyu refers to inimical people and is generally a term of denigration (RV I.32.9; III.30.8; V.30.4; V.32.1, 4, 7; X.120.6). The Danavas or descendants of Danu are generally enemies of the Vedic people and their Gods. Therefore, just as the Deva-Asura or Arya-Dasyu split is reflected in the split between the Vedic Hindus and the Persians, one can propose that the Deva-Danava split reflects another division in the Vedic people, including that between the Proto-Indian Aryans and the Proto-European Aryans. In this process the term Danu was adopted by the Proto-Europeans and became denigrated by later Vedic people.

We should also remember that in the Puranas (VaP II.7), as in the Vedas the term Danavas refer to a broad group of peoples, many inimical, but others friendly, as well as various mythical demons. In the Rig Veda, the Danavas are called amanusha or unhuman (RV II.11.10) as opposed to human, Manusha. The Europeans had similar negative beings like the Greek Titans or Celtic Formorii who correspond more to the mythical side of the Danavas as powers of darkness, the underworld or the undersea region like the Vedic Asuras and Rakshasas. Such mythical Danavas can hardly be reduced to the Proto-European Aryans or to any single group of people.

The Celtic scholar Peter Ellis notes, “Irish epic contains many episodes of the struggle between the Children of Domnu, representing darkness and evil, and the Children of Danu, representing light and good. Moreover, the Children of Domnu are never completely overcome or eradicated from the world. Symbolically, they are the world. The conflict is between the ‘waters of heaven’ and the ‘world.’” The same thing could be said of the Vedic wars of Devas and Danavas or the Puranic/Brahmana wars of Devas and Asuras.

The Good Danavas (Sudanavas)

The Maruts in the Puranas (VaP II.6.90-135) are called the sons of Diti, a wife of Kashyapa, who is sometimes equated with Danu. Her children are called the Daityas which term we have found also connected to the Persians, as the name of the river in their original homeland (Vendidad Fargard I.3). While meant to be enemies of Indra, the Maruts came to be his companions and were great Gods in their own right, often referring to the Vedic rishis and yogis. As wind Gods they had control of Prana and other siddhis (occult powers). They are also the sons of Rudra-Shiva called Rudras, much like the Shaivite Yogis of later times. They were great sages (RV VI.49.11), men (manava) with tongues of fire and eyes of the Sun (RV I.89.7). They were free to travel all over the world and were not obstructed by mountains, rivers or seas (RV V.54.9; V.55.9).

The Rig Veda contains many instances where Danu has a positive meaning indicating abundance or even standing for divine in general. Danucitra, meaning the richness of light, occurs a few times (RV I.174.7; V.59.8). The Maruts are called Jira-danu or plural Jira-danava or quick to give or perhaps fast Danus or fast Gods (RV V.54.9). This term Jiradanu occurs elsewhere as the gift of the Maruts in the last line of most of the hymns of Agastya (RV I.165-169, 171-178, 180-186, 189, 190). Mitra and Varuna are said to be Sripra-danu or easy to give and their many gifts, danuni, are praised (RV VIII.25.5-6). The Ashvins are called lords of Danuna, Danunaspati (RV VIII.8.16). Soma is also called Danuda and Danupinva, giving Danu or overflowing with Danu (RV IX.97.23), connecting Danu with water or with rivers.

The Maruts are typically called Sudanavas, good to give or good (Su) Danus (RV I.85.10; I.172.1-3; II.34.8; V.41.16; V.52.5; V.53.6; VI.66.5; VIII.20.18, 23). Similarly, the Vishvedevas or universal gods are called Sudanavas (RV VIII.83.6, 8, 9), as are the Adityas (RV VIII.67.16), the Ashvins (RV I.117.10, 24) and Vishnu (RV VIII.24.12). The term also occurs in a hymn to Sarasavati (RV VII.96.4), where Sarasvati is called the friend or companion of the Maruts (Marutsakha; RV 96.2). Most importantly, there is a Goddess called Sudanu Devi (RV V.41.18), which is probably another name for the mother of the Maruts. The Maruts in particular or the Gods in general would therefore be the sons of Sudanu or Sudanavas. This suggests that perhaps Danu, like Asura, was earlier a positive word and meant divine. There was not only a bad Danu but a good or Sudanu. In the Rig Veda the references to the Sudanavas are much more than those to Danava as an inimical term.

The Maruts are called Sumaya (RV I.88.1), having a good (Su) or divine power of Maya, which stands for magical power, or Mayina (RV V.58.2), possessed of Maya power. Danu is probably, in some respects, a synonym of Maya, a power of abundance but also of illusion. Like the root Ma, the root Da means “to divide” or “to measure”. Maya is the power of the Danavas (RV II.11.10). The Danavas, particularly Ahi-Vritra, are portrayed as serpents (RV V.32.8), particularly the serpent who dwells at the foot of the mountain holding back the heavenly waters, whom Indra must slay in order to release the waters. Maya itself is the serpent power.

The Maruts as wind gods are powers of lightning, which in Vedic as in most ancient thought was considered to be a serpent or a dragon. The Maruts are the good serpents, shining bright like serpents (RV I.171.2). The Maruts help Indra in slaying Vritra and are his main friends and companions. Indra is called Marutvan, or possessed of the Maruts. Their leader is Vishnu (RV V.87), who is called Evaya-Marut. With Rudra (Shiva) as their father and Prishni (Shakti) as their mother, they reflect all the Gods of later Hinduism. As Shiva’s sons they are connected with Skanda, Ganesha and Hanuman.

Perhaps these Sudanavas or good Danus are the Maruts, who in their travels guided and led many peoples including the Celts and other European followers of Danu. As the sons of Rudra, we note various Rudra like figures such as Cernunos among the Celts, who like Rudra is the lord of the animals and is portrayed in a yoga posture, as on the Gundestrop Cauldron. If the Maruts were responsible for spreading Vedic culture, as I have proposed, they could have called their children, the children of Danu, in a positive sense. We could also argue that the Sudanavas were the Maruts, Druids and other Rishi classes, while the peoples they ruled over, particularly the unruly Kshatriyas or warrior classes could become Danavas in the negative sense when they refused to accept spiritual guidance.

We know from both Celtic and Vedic texts that the early Aryans, like other ancient people, were always fighting with each other in various local conflicts, particularly for supremacy in their particular region. This led to various divisions and migrations through the centuries, which we cannot always take in a major way, just as the warring princes of India or Ireland remained part of the same culture and continued to intermarry with one another. Therefore, whatever early conflict might have existed between the Proto-European Aryans and those in the interior of India, was just part of various clashes between the different princely families that occurred within these same groups as well. It was forgotten over time.

The European Aryans had Gods like Zeus, Thor and Jupiter that serve as the counterparts of Indra as the God of heaven, the God of the rains, the thunderbolt and the lightning. Therefore, we cannot read the divide between the Rig Vedic Aryans and the Danavas as a rejection of the God Indra by the Proto-Europeans. In addition, the Proto-European Aryans continue to use the term Deva as divine as in Latin Deus and Greek Theos, unlike the Persians who make Asura mean divine and Deva mean demon. They also know Manu, which the Persians seem to have forgotten and only mention Yima (Yama). Unlike the Persians, who developed an aniconic (anti-image) and almost monotheistic tradition, the Proto-European Aryans maintained a pluralistic tradition, using images, and worshipping many Gods and Goddesses, like the Vedic. This suggests that their division from the Rig Vedic people occurred long before that of the Persians or Iranians, and that they took a larger and older form of the Vedic religion with them.

Migrations Out of India or Central Asia

We have noted Danu or Danava as a term for an inimical people or even an anti-god, like Deva and Asura, probably reflects some split in the Aryan peoples. This could be the conflict the Purus, the main Rig Vedic people located on the Sarasvati river near Delhi, and the Druhyus, who were located in the northwest by Afganistan, who fought quite early in the Rig Vedic period.

Certainly we can only equate the Proto-Europeans with the northwest of India or greater India that extends into Afghanistan and Central Asia. If they can be connected to any group among the five Vedic peoples it must be the Druhyus.

However, we do find Druhyu kingdoms continuing for some time in India and giving names to regions like Gandhara (Afghanistan) and Aratta (Panjab) connected more with Iranian or Scythian people. Yet, we do note a connection between the Scythians and the Celts, whose Druid priests connect themselves with the Scythians at an early period. The Scythians also maintained a trade from India to Europe that continued for many centuries. In this regard the Proto-Europeans could have been a derivation of Aryan India by migration, cultural diffusion, or what is more likely, a combination of both.

Though the Druhyus and Proto-Europeans may be connected, it is difficult to confirm, particularly as the Europeans were a very different ethnic type (Nordic and Alpine) than most of the Indians and Iranians, who were of the Mediterranean branch of the Caucasian race.

However, it is possible that European ethnic types were living in ancient Afghanistan or Central Asia, even Kashmir, where we do find some of these types even today. The evidence of the Tokharians suggests this. The Tokharians (Tusharas) were a people speaking an Indo-European language closer to the European (a kentum-based language), and also demonstrate Nordic or Alpine, blond and red-haired ethnic traits. They lived in the Tarim Basin of western China that dominated the region to the Muslim invasion up to the eighth century AD, by which time they had become Buddhists. They may be related to the European featured mummies found in that area dating back to 1500 BCE. They were also present in Western China around Langchou in the early centuries BCE. The Tokharian language is possibly related to the Celtic and Italic branches, just as their physical features resemble northern Europeans. The Tarim Basin region was later regarded as the land of the Uttara Kurus and as a land of the gods. So such groups were not always censured as barbarians at the borders but were sometimes honored as highly advanced and spiritual.

The evidence does not show an Aryan invasion/migration into India in ancient times, certainly not after the Harappan era (c. 3000 BCE) and probably not before. No genetic or skeletal or other hard evidence has been found to prove this. Similarly, we do not find evidence of migration of interior Indic peoples West, the dark-skinned people that were prominent on the subcontinent to the northwest. But if the same ethnic types as the Europeans were present in Western China, Afghanistan or in northwest Iran, like the Fergana Valley (Sogdia), such a migration west would be possible, particularly given their familiarity with horses. In this case the commonality of Indo-European languages would not rest upon a common ethnicity with the interior Indo-Aryans but on a common ethnicity with peripheral Aryans on the northwest of India.

It is also possible that the European people derived their Aryan culture from the influence of Vedic peoples, probably mainly Druhyus but also Scythians (who might themselves be Druhyus), who migrated to Central Asia and brought their culture to larger groups of Europeans already living in Europe and Central Asia. The Europeans could have picked up an Aryan influence indirectly from the contact with various rishis, princes or merchants, without any significant genetic or familial linkage with Indic peoples. Or some combination may have existed. Such peoples with more Vedic cultures like the Celts could derive mainly from migration, while those others like the Germans might derive mainly from cultural diffusion. In any case, various means of Aryanization existed that can explain the spread of Vedic culture from the Himalayas to Europe, of which actual migration of people from the interior of India need not be the only or even primary factor.

We do note the names of rivers like the Don, Dneiper, Dneister, Donets and Danube to the north of the Black are largely cognate with Danu. This could reflect such a movement of peoples from West or Central Asia, including migrants originally from regions of greater India and Iran. At the end of the Ice Age, as Europe became warmer, it became a suitable land for agriculture. This would have made it a desirable place of migration for people from the east and the south, which were flooded or became jungles.

European and Iranian Peoples of Central Asia and Europe: Sycthians and Turanians

The northern Iranian peoples, called Turanians or Scythians, dominated the steppes of Central Asia from Mongolia to Eastern Europe. By the early centuries BC they had set up kingdoms from the Danube in the West to the Altai Mountains in the East. They were the main enemies of the Persians. Unlike the Persians, their religions had more Devic elements and affinities to the Vedic with a greater emphasis on Devas, Sun worship, drinking of Soma and a greater variety of deities like the Vedic. We could call these Turanians or Scythians the main Proto-European Aryans. Some would identify them with the original Slavic peoples as well, who were likely always the largest and dominant Indo-European group in Europe.

Curiously in the early centuries AD we find the Scythians entering into north India and creating some kingdoms there, with both Hindu and Buddhist influence. It is possible that such contacts with India were transmitted to Central Asia and West, much as from previous Vedic eras.

It is probable that the Danavas, Scythians and Turanians were largely the same group of people with Vedic affinities and connections to Vedic culture through various kings, rishis, traders and movements of both people and cultures. Later the Turks came into Central Asia and displaced the Scythian peoples driving them south and west.

Western Indo-European scholarship is obsessed with these eastern Scythian and other possible European elements. Some like Parpola even see the Vedic peoples of the Rig Veda as a migration of the Scythians into India. However, these Central Asian Vedic people were just one branch of a greater Vedic people that included several branches within India itse.f

Much of the search for a Proto-Indo-European language or PIE could be more correctly regarded as a search for the proto-European people. What has been reconstructed through it is more the homeland of the Danava-Druhyu branch of the Vedic people after their dispersal from India rather than all the Indo-European speakers. It is at best only a recontruction of the western branch of the Vedic peoples and even that in a limited and distorted manner.


Therefore, we need not stop short with reconstructing Scythian and Central Asian Aryan culture, we must take it into India itself, where other Vedic branches existed using many of the same cultural forms like Fire worship, Sun worship, the sacred plant or Soma cult, the cult of the sacred cow and horse, symbols like the sacred tree and swastika, worship of rivers as Goddesses. The philosophical, medical and astronomical knowledge that we find in European peoples like the Celts and the Greeks also mirrors that of India such as we find in the Upanishads, Ayurvedic medicine and Vedic astrology.

Link

Some good points and pointers.

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Re: Out-of-India - From Theory to Truth

Postby Prem Kumar » 04 Nov 2012 10:18

Indus Valley 2,000 years older than thought

The opening line displays ignorance though

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Re: Out-of-India - From Theory to Truth

Postby Arjun » 04 Nov 2012 10:45


Was not aware that there are sites in India older than the traditional current-day Pakistan sites.

“On the basis of radio-metric dates from Bhirrana (Haryana), the cultural remains of the pre-early Harappan horizon go back to 7380 BC to 6201 BC.”

This would put Bhirrana older than Mehrgarh.

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Re: Out-of-India - From Theory to Truth

Postby Rupesh » 04 Nov 2012 15:55

OIT is beautifully explained in The Krishna Key

chaanakya
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Re: Out-of-India - From Theory to Truth

Postby chaanakya » 04 Nov 2012 18:18

^^

Based on their research, BR Mani, ASI joint director general, and KN Dikshit, former ASI joint director general, said in a presentation: “The preliminary results of the data from early sites of the Indo-Pak subcontinent suggest that the Indian civilisation emerged in the 8th millennium BC in the Ghaggar-Hakra and Baluchistan area.”


I thought it was always called Indian Subcontinent. Well ASI discovers something in India (Haryana) and it prompts them to change the nomenclature of this subcontinent at an International Conference held in India,

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Re: Out-of-India - From Theory to Truth

Postby ramana » 06 Nov 2012 00:53

Somebody should write to them to ask when did the term Indo-Pakistan subcontinent come about?

Morons.


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Re: Out-of-India - From Theory to Truth

Postby member_23629 » 06 Nov 2012 16:22

ramana wrote:Somebody should write to them to ask when did the term Indo-Pakistan subcontinent come about?

Morons.


These dudes are just academic archeologists with no clue about the geo-political implications of anything. These are innocent Indian lambs as usual, while the shrewd Paki momins won't believe their luck and immediately latch on to the term. I remember the earlier post elsewhere about Indians lacking analytical skills beyond their narrow area of expertise -- these archeologist dudes are a proof of the truth of this maxim.

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Re: Out-of-India - From Theory to Truth

Postby Virendra » 06 Nov 2012 20:26

Arjun wrote:

Was not aware that there are sites in India older than the traditional current-day Pakistan sites.

“On the basis of radio-metric dates from Bhirrana (Haryana), the cultural remains of the pre-early Harappan horizon go back to 7380 BC to 6201 BC.”

This would put Bhirrana older than Mehrgarh.

Doesn't it strengthen an east to west migration to some extent?

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Re: Out-of-India - From Theory to Truth

Postby RajeshA » 07 Nov 2012 15:20



Image

Can anybody recognize this three-headed unicorn (or other animal) in the upper-right corner?

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Re: Out-of-India - From Theory to Truth

Postby Klaus » 07 Nov 2012 15:39

RajeshA wrote:
Can anybody recognize this three-headed unicorn (or other animal) in the upper-right corner?


A composite seal representing Krsna as Trikakuta. Varaha (the boar, tilling the black soil), Ekashringa (one horned- represents a shared geography and influence zone with Shaivism of that period) and Vrishaba (Indra and/or the bull/male bovine).

Interestingly, Krsna's humbling of Indra (Govardhana incident) is thought to be a mode of keeping asuratva at bay (an alternative to Mahishasura mardan), something which got coded into a literal story and merged into Bhakti and Krishna-leela streams later.
Last edited by Klaus on 07 Nov 2012 15:42, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Out-of-India - From Theory to Truth

Postby ArmenT » 07 Nov 2012 15:40

RajeshA wrote:Can anybody recognize this three-headed unicorn (or other animal) in the upper-right corner?


Looks like a herd of Okapi. Europeans had heard legends about a so-called "African Unicorn" for centuries from the locals, but it was only in the early 1900s that a non-African saw a live one.

Another possibility is the Bongo which was also thought to be a legend by Europeans and first viewed by non-Africans in the 1900s.

The one on the right bottom looks like a Kudu

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Re: Out-of-India - From Theory to Truth

Postby RajeshA » 07 Nov 2012 16:19

Klaus ji,

thank you for that hint on Trikakuta. Googling around, I found an old article.


Published on December 10, 2000
By M.R. Mallya
The Indus Script and Horse Sense: Organiser

The attack on Rajaram and the scholars, who asserted the autochthonousness of the Aryans in the Saraswati-Sindhu belt, has been well marshalled by Frontline (24-11-2000). By publishing Rajaram's letter and interviewing him, the ground was prepared to confound him further on minor issues, particularly the 'horse' that was but a footnote to the larger question of the Indus script. The five-fold attack on Rajaram had eminent persons like Asko Parpola and Iravatham Mahadevan giving their views. Sukumar Muralidharan questioned the assertions of the Harappan civilization, openly and obliquely. The climax came with Michael Witzel and Steve Farmer flogging a dead horse to bring out flaws in Rajaram's interviewed remarks. They ended up with abuses unbecoming of scholarly disagreements. Their "main thrust" is that "what makes Rajaram's effort worth close analysis is not its scholarly merit-because it has none-but the element of duplicity in his work and the ugly politics underlying it. This was the real subject of our article which focused on the enormous abyss between Hindutva 'revisions' of history and any sane view of the past". Fortunately, I. Mahadevan says, "I agree with Rajaram that it is time we put this 'horse business' behind us and look at the decipherment itself".

That is the real crux. According to him the direction of reading (left to right) adopted by the authors (Jha & Rajaram) is wrong as "demonstrated" by Witzel and Farmer, to whom, "so for as the scholarly world goes, nothing is left of Rajaram's Hindutva revisions of history than ... a dead horse". Witzel and Farmer assert the traditional history with only minor modifications, such as preponing the date of Aryan invasion to, say 2000 BC, and reassert the primarily Dravidian origins of the Harappan civilization with a later Aryan superimposition. Whoever opposes their view is a Hindutva fanatic, and his arguments are a fabrication. By condemning Rajaram they feel they have silenced all other writers. This is one of their major flaws. Neither Dravidian nor Vedic literature speak of any migration into India in spite of all attempts at manipulating history. This has been confirmed even by Ambedkar and Pargiter. In his latest book, Rig Veda, A Historical Analysis (2000), Talageri has highlighted at least two battles, by Mandhata and later by Sudas, driving out Aryan tribes (Drhuyus, Dasas, Anus, Alinas) west of Indus into Afghanistan. The Aryans in Rig Veda were on the banks of the Saraswati which is east of the Sindhu.

They were aware of cows, elephants, buffaloes and lions in the early Rig Vedic era, while they came to know the camel, sheep and horses later during the period of Mandala VIII, IX and X. Full reference to Rig Vedic hymns have been given by Talageri. (How then could they be the invasionists?) Talageri has taken care to answer scholars who attempted to manipulate and misinterpret the Rig Veda. He has exposed Witzel's poor knowledge of Indology and his Eurocentric bias. K. Elst in his Update of Aryan Invasion Debate (1999) has confirmed this. His index reads: "Witzel Michael dismisses Talageri without reading Talageri, 55; on wild goose chase 164-7; faulty Vedic chronology of, 171". There is no archaeological evidence to prove the Aryan invasion of India or that the Dravidians were the people of the Harappan civilization. If Parapola is "inclined to think" otherwise on the basis of "new archaeological evidence" he must spell it out. He cannot ignore Talageri's evidence on the Rig Veda and K. Elst's "Update", as generally done by these "eminent" people. Surprisingly for Witzel and Freeman, it was N. Jha who first intuited the Indus script after looking at three animal seals none of which was a horse. The incident of "horse play" has little to do with his substantial decipherment. Jha was puzzled by the seals of a bull, a unicorn and another unicorn with three body parts, reminding him of three shlokas in the Shanti Parva of Mahabharata:

1. Viddhi mam vrishamuttamam (Know me therefore as the magnificent bull)

2. Ekasranga... divyadarshana (One horned, divine apparition)

3. Trikakuta tena vikhyata (... renowned with three body parts)


Deciphering an ancient script is a unique experience where the romance and truth of the past fall into place at the right moment. Some dry and arid historians have no intuition, nor zest for truth to understand these eventful stages. But let us not digress. Much is being made that the script is from "left to right" while it ought to be "right to left". Jha and Rajaram discovered it to be both left to right and sometimes right to left and even top to bottom! Right to left decipherment has been given by them. It is not clear why Mahadevan makes much ado about it. If 1500 seals have been deciphered and their methodology and meaning have been given, is that not in itself a basic proof that left to right reading is correct? It is strange that none of these eminent critics can throw any light on the decipherment.

Yet, like proverbial crabs in a basket, they are eager to pull down the valiant efforts of Jha and Rajaram which have spelt out the methodology and attempted the decipherment. The manner in which the decipherment has been graphically illustrated makes it easy for the reader to understand these and to progress further to Vedic terms. Names like Yaska, Rama and Sudas have come to light. But none from the Mahabharata, thereby proving that these were prior to the Mahabharata era. This transitional script was mainly pictographic, then slowly transformed to syllabic, leading on to the Brahmi script. The two scripts have 11 letters in common and many similarities whose importance is not yet appreciated by historians. The evolution of the script and comparing it with Brahmi have been well explained. In spite of a clear methodology and 1500 decipherments it is possible that some, say 10 per cent, has not been correctly deciphered. Some letters have more than one sign. (Even where known ancient scripts have been deciphered, there are disputable readings). Sometimes though deciphered, the meaning and its context are obscure. One also wonders why there are only a few relating to commercial transactions, while many refer to Vedic names. Is there too much dependence on Yaska's Nirukta? Such issues require to be pondered over before passing sweeping judgements.

It certainly is no reason to dismiss the script just because Jha is a "school master" and Rajaram, an "expatriate writer" (Witzel). One has to delve deeper into the ancient past when the major aspects of human relations were based on oral traditions, particularly in India where the Vedas themselves were memorised. Perhaps some Indus seals were earmarked as "reference points" containing few words. So were the later Sulba sutras whose terse comments composed vast knowledge. In short, the pioneering research of Jha & Rajaram has to be carefully studied as a stepping stone to further progress on the path of history (what we need is constructive criticism not destructive decimation). Above all, the decipherment has for the first time, opened up the Harappa civilization as a close sister to Vedic culture. Progress of such studies will enrich both Indology and Harappan culture.

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Re: Out-of-India - From Theory to Truth

Postby Klaus » 07 Nov 2012 16:35

RajeshA ji,

Perhaps we could also be looking into ArmenT's assertion on African (Nubian, Ethiopian and Sub-Saharan) links with Sindhu-Saraswathi civilization. After all, the widespread desertification of the Sahara and Sub-Sahara would've paralleled the Sindhu's course shift and aridification of the Rajasthan area.

What I mean is that trade could have existed between Red Sea ports and the hinterlands of Lothal before the climate and geological shifts took place (causing the drying of Saraswathi), hence these animals could have formed part of a cattle trade. Wild boars do exist across Africa and we all know the fact of the migration of the Zebu Cow across Eurasia.

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Re: Out-of-India - From Theory to Truth

Postby RajeshA » 07 Nov 2012 16:41

By Dr. David Frawley
Krishna and the Unicorn of the Indus Seals: Archaeology Online

The article is a part of a new book of the author on the Indus Seals. The seal Krishna and the Unicorn of the Indus Seals s come from Sasravati Epigraphs of S. Kalyanaraman. The numbering of verses from the Mahabharata is from the Gita Press edition, translations by the author.

Image

The Indus seals constitute the written records of the 'Indus Valley' or 'Harappan civilization', India's oldest civilization. The Indus civilization was contemporary with the great civilizations of the ancient Near East in Egypt and Mesopotamia. Though not always made as important in history books, it was the largest urban civilization that existed in the ancient world in the third millennium BC, dwarfing the Near Eastern civilizations in size and in the uniformity and continuity of its remains.

The Indus civilization has also been called the 'Indus-Sarasvati civilization' because the great majority of its sites were located on the now dried banks of the Sarasvati River, a once great river that flowed east of the Indus and whose termination around 1900 BCE appears to correspond to the last phase of this great civilization. Sometimes it is called the 'Harappan civilization', after the name of Harappa, one of its first large sites discovered (though to date there are at least five larger sites found over the years).

There is so far no generally agreed upon decipherment of the Indus script, though several attempts have been made along the lines of Sanskritic and Dravidian languages. However, the Indus seals feature a number of important and dramatic Krishna and the Unicorn of the Indus Seals s that may provide the key to the people and the ideas behind the culture, and which have not been given adequate attention. The purpose of this article is to look at the Krishna and the Unicorn of the Indus Seals s themselves and what they tell us.

The Harappan Krishna and the Unicorn of the Indus Seals s actually reflect the main Krishna and the Unicorn of the Indus Seals s of later Indian art with figures in seated meditation, sacred bulls, pipal leaf designs and even swastikas. While there has been some doubt cast as to the continuity of Indus civilization into later India, the Harappan Krishna and the Unicorn of the Indus Seals s are distinctly Indian already.

Yet curiously, the most common Krishna and the Unicorn of the Indus Seals by far on the Indus seals, is that of a unicorn, a purely symbolic animal, which largely disappeared from the iconography of later India. Other mythical and multiheaded animals abound on the seals, as well as many wild animals, but few domestic creatures are found. Even the human figures that do rarely occur are of deities or yogis in meditation poses and may have multiple heads or animal heads. Clearly the Indus seal Krishna and the Unicorn of the Indus Seals s reflect mainly a spiritual concern and cannot be simply looked upon for a portrayal of the actual animals or the daily life of the Harappan people. Many local animals of India, which were common even then, do not appear on them at all, including dogs, onagers, monkeys and peacocks.

The Indus or Harappan unicorn always has a strange device like a cauldron always placed to its front, associating it with some sacrificial ritual. This device has been interpreted as an incense burner, fire altar or Soma filter. The seal is obviously primarily of religious value, not simply an artistic Krishna and the Unicorn of the Indus Seals much less a zoological representation.

Image Image Image Image Image Image

The inscriptions found along with the Krishna and the Unicorn of the Indus Seals vary greatly, suggesting that the Krishna and the Unicorn of the Indus Seals was more of overall symbolic value than directly related to the message of the script in each instance. This is also suggested by the frequency with which the Krishna and the Unicorn of the Indus Seals occurs.

More notably, the head of the animal varies quite a bit in its presentation and may be broad or narrow, full or crimped. The neck also may be shorter or longer.

The body may be shorter or longer as well. Sometimes the animal appears more like a young creature, other times as mature.

These variations appear not just as differences in artistic approach but a rather different idea of the actual form of the animal, which does not seem to reflect any single species. The Harappan unicorn almost appears like an all-in-one animal, or a singular animal that represents a number of primary sacred animals. However, the stance of the animal and the cauldron like vessel in front of it remain remarkably uniform. Note further variations on the unicorn Krishna and the Unicorn of the Indus Seals s presented here, which demonstrate such differencesin the animal itself as well as the inscriptions above it.

The question arises as to what this strange unicorn indicates and whether it has any counterpart in the ancient literature and traditions of India, particularly in the Vedas and Puranas that contain the oldest records of the spiritual life of the Indian people. In this article we will look into these literary connections, which are quite extensive.

Though not easy to find, there are references to a very prominent unicorn animal in the Mahabharata, the great epic which centers on the life of Krishna. In fact the unicorn called Ekashringa or one (eka) horned (shringa) apppears as the highest animal Krishna and the Unicorn of the Indus Seals of the Divine. It appears as a prime symbol of Vishnu-Krishna and the Vedic and Yogic knowledge he taught. The unicorn connected to the Varaha avatara or boar incarnation of Lord Vishnu, with which Krishna is also aligned, but which in the Mahabharata is connected to the bull as well as the boar.

The Mahabharata Shanti Parva contains a section that seems to be quite old and which recounts the main names and forms of Vishnu-Krishna, which it connects with the ancient Nirukta or etymology of terms. It is also the main section in the epic that deals with the unicorn. It is taught by Krishna (Vasudeva) himself as a revelation of his own most important names, attributes and associations.

We must thank noted Vedic scholar Natwar Jha for drawing attention to this important section of the text and N.S. Rajaram for highlighting it. Let us examine it further to the Krishna and the Unicorn of the Indus Seals of the unicorn.

Mahabharata, Shanti Parva 342

6-7: Arjuna asks, "Your names that are praised by the seers, in the Vedas and in the Puranas, and which are secret by their actions. I want you to declare their meaning (niruktam). There is no one else like you who can relate the meaning of your names."
8.-10. Krishna replies: "In the Rigveda, Yajurveda, Atharvaveda, Samaveda, Puranas, Upanishads, in astrology, in Samkhya, Yoga and Ayurveda, many are my names that are praised by the seers. Some of these names are by attributes and others by actions. The meaning (nirukta) of those born of action, listen with attention."

Clearly these names are very important, very ancient and cover all branches of Vedic knowledge.

Mahabharata, Shanti Parva 343

A specific explication (niruktam) of Krishna's names begins with verse 67 and includes Govinda (verse 70). We will go over a few relevant portions leading up to the unicorn.

71. "Shipivishta is the name of he who has no hair. By that I enter into whatever there is and am known as Shipivishta."
72. "The great rishi Yaska lauded me as such in many sacrifices. For this reason I came to bear this secret name."
73. "Lauding me as Shipivishta, Yaska the Rishi of high mind, from my grace, received the lost Nirukta."

These verses relate to the Nirukta of Yaska, the famous text for determining the meaning of the Vedic mantras. The meaning here is that there was an earlier Nirukta that was lost, which Yaska recovered at least in part. Shipivishta is a name of Indra and Varuna from the Rig Veda, VII.99 and 100, among the hymns of the great rishi Vasishta. The statement about Yaska indicates that this section of the Mahabharata is a kind of condensed Nirukta or explanation of Vedic mantras and that it contains some very important lost ancient secrets.

79. "I till the earth, having become like great like a mass of hard iron. From that is my black color. Thus I am Krishna."

Even the name Krishna is explained in this section. It relates to agriculture as the root ‘krish' for Krishna also refers to tilling the ground. The boar is the only hoofed animal that digs the ground. Hence it has a possible symbolic connection with agriculture as well. Now we will go forward to the main names that connect Krishna-Vishnu with the unicorn.

88. "Vrisha (the Bull or Male) is Bhagavan Dharma, famous in the worlds. In the Nighantuka (ancient lexicon), know me as the supreme Bull or male (vrisha uttamam)."
89. "The Kapi (horned) Varaha (boar) is said to be the highest dharma and the bull or male (vrisha). Hence Kashyapa Prajapati calls me Vrisha Kapi."

Dharma is generally symbolized in Hindu thought by the bull, vrishabha. The related term vrisha, not only means bull but also male and strong. It need not always refer to a bovine creature, though that Krishna and the Unicorn of the Indus Seals is usually in the background as the prime Krishna and the Unicorn of the Indus Seals .

However, in this section of the Mahabharata, the highest Vrisha or supreme male is not a bull, vrishabha, but a varaha, which usually meant a boar. One could say that the boar is the supreme form of the bull or male animal. Note that it is this supreme male principle or Vrisha that is lauded as the boar or bull here, not the specific animal per se. The Varaha is not simply a boar as an animal but part of the symbolism of the supreme male principle of Dharma, the Purusha or cosmic spirit, which is Vishnu-Krishna.

This supreme male or vrisha is further connected to Vrisha Kapi of the Vedas, who is lauded as a special companion to Indra, the foremost of the Vedic Gods. Vishnu himself in the Vedas is called Upendra or associated with Indra. Vrisha Kapi is also said to be a special vrisha and a boar. Vrisha Kapi occurs in the tenth mandala of the Rig Veda (RV X.86) and is one of the later hymns. Kapi is considered here to mean a horn and Vrisha, the male principle or bull.

Indra, the supreme Vedic deity, is generally lauded as Vrisha and as a bull, Vrishabha. The bull is generally called vrisha, which means both bull and male in Sanskrit, while vrishabha only means bull.

The vrisha uttama or supreme male is not just a bull but a boar. This is because the boar is the fiercest of all animals when attacked. That is why it became part of the coat of arms for many royal dynasties, including some of ancient Persia to the last great Hindu dynasty of Vijayanagar.

90-91: "The Gods and titans have never found my beginning, middle or end. Hence I am sung as the witness of the world, the Lord, the pervader, who has no beginning, middle or end."
92. "Having previously become the Unicorn Boar (Ekashringa Varaha), who increases joy, I upheld this world. Therefore I am called the Unicorn (Ekashringa)."

Image

Here the Unicorn (Ekashringa) is specifically mentioned, primarily as a boar, though its overall connections with Vrisha, the male element, more commonly symbolized by the bull, remain from the previous verses as the supreme Vrisha. This is the boar of Dharma. It is the last and most prominent of the names of the deity mentioned in this section, suggesting a great importance for it. No doubt the single horn is a symbol of unity and supremacy of the deity.

93."Then I dwelled as the form of a boar (varaha) who has three parts (or three humps, Trikakut). By that I am known as trikakut, through the form of my body."

The Indus seals often show the unicorn as part of a three headed creature, generally with the other two heads as that of an antelope and a bull, as we examined in the last chapter and as presented below. The Mahabharata remembers this threefold form of the unicorn boar, as trikakut, having three humps or prominences!

The Varaha as a Symbol of Vedic Knowledge

After the names of Vishnu culminating in the unicorn boar, the following verses of this section of the Mahabharata (Shanti Parva 343) go on to laud the great Vedic teachings in all their details. These start with Kapila and the system of Samkhya, for which he is the originator (verse 94-95), Hiranyagarbha and the Yoga system, for which he is the originator, (verses 96), the twenty one thousand aspects of the Rig Veda (verse 97), the thousand branches of the Sama Veda (verse 97), the Aranyakas (verse 98), the Yajur Veda (verse 99), the Atharva Veda (verse 99-100). It goes on further to outline the different aspects and methods of reciting and chanting the Vedas (verse 100-104).

The glorification of the Unicorn ends up with a glorification of Vedic knowledge of the four Vedas and of Samkhya and Yoga. Previously (verses 85-86) even Ayurveda was addressed! We see the basis here of the Yajna Varaha of the Puranas, the boar that symbolizes the Vedic knowledge and ritual!

In other words, the Unicorn Boar or Ekashringa Varaha is the prime form of Vishnu-Krishna and also the symbol of Vedic knowledge. This tells us a lot about the religion of the Harappan people. That the unicorn is a common symbol on writing inscriptions makes sense as a Vedic symbol of speech and knowledge.

Shanti Parva 209: Vishnu as the Varaha

In this section of the Mahabharata, Vishnu as the Varaha defeats and destroys all the demons.

16. Then Vishnu of great power assumed the form of the boar (varaha). Entering into the Earth, he attacked the demons.
21-22.Then Vishnu as the God of Gods as the soul of Yoga and the mover of Yoga, assuming his power of Yoga, then the Lord roared with a great roar agitating the demons. By that roaring all the words and the ten directions were shaken.

The boar creates a powerful great roar or nada, a sound vibration that destroys them. This identified him with the power of mantra and more specifically with the power of the Divine Word OM, which we must remember is the origin of all the Vedas.

Some extended sections of the Mahabharata, apart from the numbered versions, further use this same section to teach the great mantras OM Namo Bhagavate Vasudevaya! and Namo Narayanaya! The Varaha is obviously here a symbol of the Vedic mantras. It shows the roar or vibration, the mantric chant of the Supreme.

Yajna Varaha: the Sacrificial Boar

Varaha among the avatars of Vishnu is the special symbol of the Yajna or the Vedic sacrifice. The Vishnu Purana I.IV.9 calls the Varaha Avatara as vedayajnamaya, "of the nature of the Vedic sacrifice," and further states I.IV.22-23: "You are the sacrifice and you are the vashat call. You are the Om chant and you are the sacred fires. You are the Vedas and you are the limbs of the Vedas. You are the Yajna Purusha, the deity of the sacrifice. "

The Varaha incarnation of Lord Vishnu is the form most connected to the Vedic sacrifice and to the preservation of the Vedas. In this regard, the western translator of the Puranas, H. H. Wilson in his notes on the Vishnu Purana (vol. 1, page 44, note 7) states, "The notion that the Varaha incarnation typifies the ritual of the Vedas, is repeated in most of the Puranas in nearly the same words."

The boar is the symbolic animal of the Vedas, not just of Vishnu. The boar symbolizes the Vedic sacrifice more so than any other animal. In fact, the boar is a symbol of Dharma in general and is said to be satyadharmamaya sriman dharma vikramasamsthitah., who has the nature of the true Dharma, the Lord of Dharma who dwells in victory, in the Vayu Purana. This is the Yajna Varaha, the sacred or sacrificial boar.

The Standard in Front of the Unicorn

The Harappan unicorn is always portrayed with a standard, cauldron or filter in front of it. This can easily be equated with Vedic sacrificial cauldrons and Soma filters. It is in any case a sacrificial implement that connects the animal to ritualistic activity. This devise is something we would expect with the boar as a symbol of the Vedic Yajna or sacrifice, which is how it is presented in the ancient literature, and confirms its meaning as such.

Govinda as the Unicorn Boar

Govinda is one of the most important names for Krishna/Vishnu that among other things means he who finds, vinda, the Earth, go. As such, it is sometimes associated with the Varaha, who saves the Earth after a great flood. Another section of the Mahabharata lauds Govinda as the boar in the same way.

Mahabharata Shanti Parva 346. 12. This earth was lost previously surrounded by water. Govinda carried it up quickly, assuming the form of a boar (Varaha).
13. Having stabilized the Earth in its own place, the Supreme Purusha, with his limbs dripping with water and mud accomplished his work for the benefit of the world.

In the Mahabharata, the varaha is the animal most associated with Krishna. The other animal avatars of Vishnu, the fish and the tortoise are hardly mentioned, but a number of long passages connected Krishna as the Varaha. Krishna is said to be Purushottma or the supreme male. Purusha is also called Vrisha. So as Vrishottama Krishna is also the unicorn.

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Some may say but is not the Harappan unicorn a unicorn bull and the Vedic unicorn a unicorn boar?

The Harappan unicorn is sometimes portrayed more like a bull, other times like a boar or even other creatures, just as it sometimes has composite heads with other creatures. We have already noted the considerable variations of the body and head of the animal. Note the boar like Krishna and the Unicorn of the Indus Seals s to the left.

In a few seals, the unicorn has the features of a Rhinoceros. Note a rhinoceros like unicorn seal and rhinoceros seal below.

Clearly the unicorn is a mythic animal, not a literal representative of a real species. When it has three heads, one is clearly a bull with two horns. As we have noted, the Vrisha is usually the bull but as the supreme vrisha it is also the boar, which suggests a possible bull-boar mixture.

The Harappan unicorn may be a composite animal in a singular form, a kind of bull and boar mix like the Vrisha term. It may include other animals like the rhinoceros.

Many other Harappan seals show animals with human heads or multiple body parts from various creatures. Note to the left a composite animal with a human face, the body of a ram, horns of a bull, trunk of an elephant, hindlegs of a tiger and an upraised serpent tail.

Then note the unicorn with a bull and a fish as his other two heads or body parts! The same Krishna and the Unicorn of the Indus Seals usually appears with the unicorn, a bull head and an antelope head. The Harappan artists were probably trying to show the unity of different animals and their powers as part of the cosmic being, not just delineate their physical characteristics.

Image Image

We also have the unicorn as a twin or dual form, with a curious Krishna and the Unicorn of the Indus Seals that features the Ashvattha leaf. The design almost looks like a bow on its side. NS Rajaram has interpreted this Krishna and the Unicorn of the Indus Seals as an OM seal, as it resembles the OM symbol but placed on the side.

The unicorn head here appears to resemble a horse like animal, suggesting the Ashvins or twin horsemen of the Vedas. This is not surprising when we consider that horse bones have been found at Indus sites, and that the onager, a horse like equine, is a common Indian animal, roaming even today in the parts of India and Pakistan where Indus sites can be found.

Rama and the Unicorn Boar

Rama, the other great avatar of Vishnu often invoked along with Krishna, is also lauded as a unicorn boar in a few instances. This occurs in the Brahmakrita Rama Stava, the ‘Hymn in Praise of Rama' by Lord Brahma. Ramayana Yuddha Khanda 117.14.

"You are Narayana, the deity, the glorious wielder of the chakra, the Lord,
You are the unicorn boar (ekashringa varaha), the destroyer of past and future enemies."

Notice that the unicorn boar is directly identified with Narayana, the supreme form of Vishnu as the wielder of the chakra. The chakra has always been a prime Vishnu symbol. There are many chakras or six-spoked wheels found on the unicorn seals as well, largely in the script itself. Note the nearby seal that shows a chakra on the very neck of the unicorn.

It seems that the martial form of Vishnu is more a boar, or the martial form of the boar may be more the one-horned form. Another verse of this same hymn speaks of the bull (Ramayana Yuddha Khanda 117.19). "You are the thousand horned great bull, the soul of the Veda, with a hundred heads." Curiously, while the boar is associated with the one-horn form, the bull is associated with the thousand horned form of what is probably the same great symbolic animal. The Rig Veda also refers to a bull with a thousand horns (RV VII.55.7).

Shiva and the Unicorn

The Varaha is not limited to Vishnu but can refer to Shiva as well, in which regard it may also be one-horned. Another verse from a nearby section of the Mahabharata (Shanti Parva 341.106) proclaims to Rudra-Shiva:

"To the one with the hair knot, to the wise, unicorn boar (ekashringa varaha). To the Sun God, to the horse's head, who ever carries four forms."

This shows the unicorn boar as Shiva and Surya (the Sun). It also connects it to the horse's head, suggesting that the unicorn's head may be related to a horse at times. Shiva or Rudra with a hair knot or kapardin is mentioned several times in the Rig Veda. It is also a common feature of the Shiva of the Indus seals.

Image

Image Image Image Image

The Rig Veda I.114.5 speaks of Shiva as "the boar of heaven (divo varaha)", which may be an indication of the same unusual or heavenly creature, and as the kapardin or with the hair tuft. The Mahabharata mentions Vrisha Kapi, which it identifies as the one-horned boar, with the forms of Rudra. Curiously, the Skanda Purana refers to Vrisha Kapi as the Shasta or scriptural form of the Shiva Linga.

So while the boar connects to Vishnu most prominently, it has its associations with Shiva as well. After all it is a prime vrisha (or bull, male) animal of the Purusha and symbolizes the Vedas overall. Of course, the two deities are commonly equated in the Mahabharata and elsewhere in many other ways.

There are also a number of Harappan seals that show a three headed deity in meditation posture surrounded by wild animals. Many scholars have identified these seals with a Proto-Shiva as Pashupati, the Lord of the animals. Pashupati is the main name of Shiva in the Mahabharata, where Shaivite Yoga, perhaps represented in these seals, is called Pashupata Yoga. So the Harappan Krishna and the Unicorn of the Indus Seals s of Shiva are of the same order as those of Vishnu and can similarly be found in the Mahabharata.

Other Vedic Symbols on the Indus Seals

There are many other Vedic symbols on the Harappan seals that confirm the Vishnu-unicorn connection. The Brahma bull, a symbol of dharma is another common Indus seal. As in the next illustration.


The Brahma bull is the main form of the bull that has endured in Indian art. The unicorn has largely disappeared, though the boar has continued, but usually portrayed with two tusks.

Yet other Indus seals show figures like the seven rishis of Vedic thought, in the seal to the left at the bottom. The rishis have special hair knots, just as in the Vedic description. There are many other such correlations that could be made.

Probably the most common design on the Indus seals is the swastika, as shown below. It occurs in dozens of seals and sometimes aligned with various animals like the elephant.

Conclusion

We see, therefore, that the Indus Seals reflect an early core of the Mahabharata and a later phase of the Vedas in terms of their primary Krishna and the Unicorn of the Indus Seals s.They suggest that the Harappan culture is not pre-Vedic or non-Vedic, as some have argued, but late Vedic.

The greater question arises is whether the Harappan Unicorn like the one-horned Varaha of the Mahabharata is an actual symbol for Lord Krishna. Or is it an Krishna and the Unicorn of the Indus Seals taken over by a later Krishna cult because of its sanctity or antiquity? Since the Varaha is also the symbol of Vedic knowledge, can we further equate the Harappan Unicorn with the Vedic compilation of Veda Vyasa that occurred at the time of Krishna?

We may not yet be in a position to definitely answer these questions from the seal Krishna and the Unicorn of the Indus Seals s along. But in any case there is nothing in the Indus Seals that goes against the idea that Krishna lived five thousand years ago, which would explain why a Krishna related Krishna and the Unicorn of the Indus Seals , the unicorn dominates the seals. Yet even if Krishna came later, the Mahabharata has at its core the dominant Krishna and the Unicorn of the Indus Seals s of the Harappan world, which if not close to Krishna would at least reflect Vishnu.

There is other corroborating evidence to consider that we have examined in other books and articles. When we remember that the main Indus and Harappan sites are on the Sarasvati River that dried up around 1900 BCE and contain fire altars, the connection to the late Vedic culture is again affirmed. The Mahabharata also recognizes the Sarasvati as a great river in decline, which was its condition in the Harappan era.

At the level of archaeo-astronomy, the Mahabharata and Brahmanas contain references to the importance of Rohini and Krititika Nakshatras, which are the stars Aldeberan and the Pleiades in the constellation of Taurus, as by turns marking the beginning of the Nakshatras. If these marked the vernal equinox, which they appear to do, this also refers to the period from before 3000 BCE to around 1500 BCE or the Harappan era.

Of course, the Mahabharata has many layers and much was added later, but its core is firmly rooted in the Harappan world. When we look at the Indus Seals, particularly the Harappan unicorn, we must wonder if it is an animal symbol for Krishna himself! Clearly the Mahabharata knows of the connection.

RajeshA
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Re: Out-of-India - From Theory to Truth

Postby RajeshA » 07 Nov 2012 16:49

ArmenT ji, Klaus ji,

we should certainly be looking at Afro-Indian connections.

ArmenT ji,

Okapis, which I have seen only in zoos, happen to be striped around the legs. On the seals however, the stripes are mostly on the upper body.

Observation: All Unicorns seals show the unicorns with the same form of "saddle" on their upper backs.


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Re: Out-of-India - From Theory to Truth

Postby RajeshA » 07 Nov 2012 18:32

By Birendra K. Jha

Part I: Unicorn’s Vedic Concept

Jha along with NS Rajaram in their important work, The Deciphered Indus Script: Methodology, Readings, Interpretations expose mysterious parts of the Mahabharat, where Krishna, reveals typical iconographies of Vishnu in the Mokshadharma – Shanti Parva chapter. Based on these descriptions several Indus seals have been carved, which details are available in Jha – Rajaram’s work.

However the three opening citations, what the Mahabharat records, are very important for understanding the iconography of Unicorn:

  1. viddhi mam vrishamuttamam (know me therefore as the magnificent bull)
  2. ekasranga..divyadarshanah (one horned, divine apparition)
  3. trikakuta tena vikhyatah ( renowned with three heads)

To understand any Vedic iconography, it requires not only detail information of the source from which iconography is just travelling, but a comprehensive idea to correlate various scattered details travelled in other literatures are also required. The Ashwa- Varaha concept is one such Vedic matter, where Semi Horse is found with Vrish (Vishnu) body. This symbolism is also one of such important iconographies, which has not yet been studied seriously.

In order to understand the symbolism of dual figure on Ashwa – Varaha, some important features are required to be understood properly

  1. The iconographies in dual form are not any representation of real animals.
  2. Sometimes dual iconographies include animal with human form.
  3. All such iconographies are related with Vedic mythical parts which have been exported to outside India particularly in the Middle East.

Some five years ago the Unicorn symbolism has been understood, simply as a mythical Vrish incorporated in the Mahabharat. Readers may refer their original work for the understanding of the Unicorn iconography. However, an attempt is made to deal with the concept of the Vedic Ashwa Varaha & its relation with the Indus Unicorn as understood very recently.

This article shall also demonstrate here that how this iconography is related with Bible’s horse Unicorn. This article shall also demonstrate here with various proofs that in what form the Unicorn has been understood in our ancient records and how this iconography is related with the concept of Varaha

Sri Veda Vyas, in his classical composition Vishnu Sahasranaama reveals thousand names of Vishnu. These names are very important for understanding the iconography of Unicorn. One such peculiar icons of Unicorn in three heads is given below:

maharsih kapilacaryah krtagyo medinipatih/
tripada- stri- dasa- dhyaksho mahashringah kritant-krit// (slokam 57)


Here the reference of tripadah and mahashringah are very important. The tripadah refers Varaha with three heads. In Vishnu Dharma ( 63.59), we come across this verse:

sattvanam upakaraya pradhanam purusham param |
darsayishy-ami lokeshu kapilam rupam asthitah ||


“For the benefit of all beings I am going to reveal the three forms viz. , pradhana, purusha and paramatma. This tripadah incarnation has been explained in his Varaha form, where he is an animal with three heads ( tri-padah - tavaivasam trika-kudo varaham-rupam-asthitah (Mahabharat / Moksha. 343.63). The Indus Unicorn in three heads is given below:

Image Varaha With Three Heads

The mahashringah refers to the horn of an animal. In Srimad Ramayana, we find verse in support of this mahashringah as ekasringo varahastvam (Yuddha. 120.14).

Which means animal with one horn. The Shanti Parva of Mahabharat explains Ekashringah as:

eka sringah tato bhutva varaho nandi vardhanah/
imam ca udhritva bhumim - ekasringah// ( Mahabharat : Moksha Dharma Parva)


In verse 81, again we find reference of Ekashringa:

tejo-vrisho dyuti -dharah sarva sastra-bhritam varah |
pragraho nigraho vyagro na - eka-sringo gadagrajah ||


Which literal meaning is that - He Who took incarnation as the one-horned Varaha.

This term has been clearly interpreted in the Mahabharat –

buddhi-yogah sarathyam anayudha grahana vyajah praptakale tad-grahanam
iti bahu-vairi-badhakam asya iti na-eka-sringah


“He is Eka sringah as He adopted several devices for bringing about the fall of the enemies, like giving sound advice, skillfully driving the chariot, pretending that he would not use a weapon but actually making use of His weapon at the opportune moment, etc”.

Sri Adi Sankaracharya refers Eka sringah of Vishnu Sahasranaama as catuh sringah na- eka sringah from following Rigvedic verse:

catvari sringa trayasya pada sirshe sapta hasta-sosya /
tridha baddho vrishbho roraviti mahadeo maryagm avivesa // (RV 4.58.3)


Nirukta explains above verse as catvari sringah iti veda va-uktah

Thus the word Ekashringah becomes clearer when this verse is cited:

eka sringah tato bhutva varaho nandi vardhanah/
imam ca udhritva bhumim - ekasringah// ( Mahabharat : Moksha Dharma Parva)


That is this Ekashring is more symbolic than representing any real animal feature.

In verse 85 we again find reference of this horned iconography :

udbhavah sundarah sundo ratna-nabhah su-locanah |
arko vaja-sanih shringi jayantah sarva-vij-jayi ||


Here Shringi represents a form with horn, which is described as Mahashringah in verse 57:

maharsih kapilacaryah kritagyo medinipatih/
tripada- stri- dasa- dhyaksho mahashringah kritant-krit//


The Vishnu Purana (1.4.36) describes this Mahashringah in lifting earth through the tip of his horn. The Mahashringah of this animal is explained in the form of Vrisha- Kapi & Kapir-Varaha. Vishnu Purana in matsya- kurma- varahashva- simha rupaatibhi describes various forms of one time incarnation of Vishnu in: 1) matsya 2) kurma 3) varahashva & 4) simha. The Varaha - Ashva particularly represents Vishnu identified as Vrish (bull) with neck to head as of horse. The event of Varaha incarnation is one single event in entire Vedic mythology. So the typical various terms used in connection with Varaha is to be understood in same form as in Varaha- Ashwa or Kapir- Varaha.

The explanation of Varaha as boer requires slight attention here. The modern commentators on Purana, particularly have confused the iconography of Varaha. These commentators identify Varaha symbolism with boer (some commentators call it sukara- avatar), which is wrong. In many latter part of the commentary this confusion prevailed and horn which has appeared actually on head have been shown growing near mouth.

The symbolism of Vrishakapi, Kapirvarah & Ashwavaraha are now very clear. The three terms are further elaborated from these two verses:

ajah sarvesvarah siddhah siddhih sarvadiracyutah/
Vrishakapirmeyatma sarvayogavinihsritah//( 11- Vishnu Sahasranaama )


kapir varahah sreshthasca dharmasca vrsha ucyate |
tasmad vrshakapim praha kasyapo mam prajapatih || (Santi Parva 330.24)


Vrishakapi in our Vedic texts has been explained with a typical form either of Shiva or Vishnu with Shakti. Jha - Rajaram explain this iconography with the help of Mahabharat verses. What these prominent verses say in the Mahabharat (343: Shanti Parva)

“O Bharata , the holy Dharma is known among all creatures by the name of Vrisha. Hence it is that I am called Uttama Vrisha in the Nighantuka Padakhyan .The word Kapi signifies the foremost of Varaha, and Dharma is associated with the name of Vrisha. It is for this reason that I am also called Vrishakapi . No body can ascertain my beginning, my middle, or my end. It is for this reason that I am sung as anadi, amadhya and ananta. In ancient time I hold, the form of a Varah ,with a single horn. O enhancer of the joys of others, I raised the submerged earth from the bottom of the ocean. For this reason am I called by the name of Ekasringah. While I assumed the form of a mighty Varah (representing anadi, amadhya & ananta) (sometimes ) I had also three heads. Indeed, in consequence of this peculiarity I am also called Trikakuda” ,

Sri Shankar explains the iconography of Vrishakapi in such a way:

kailas-thail-vinivas vrisakape he

mrityun-jaya trinayan tri-jagannivas/

narayanpriya madapah saktinath/

sansardukh-gahna-jagdeesh raksha//


"O the one Who lives on Mountain Kailas! O Vrishakapi! O Destroyer of death! O the one Who has three-eyes! O the one Who pervades in all the three worlds! O Dear to Narayan (Vishnu)!O Destroyer of pride! O Lord of Shakti (Parvati)! , O Lord of the universe! Save me from the dense miseries of this world."||7|| (Shiv Naamavali Ashtakam - Adi Shankaracharya)

Rigveda looks the iconography of Vrishakapi in detail. It has a separate episode discussing relation in between Indra –Indrani & Vrishakapi . But, sometimes it looks into this element in a form having golden horn on a mighty horse:

hiranya-sringo ayo asya pada manojava avar indra aasiit/
deva indrasya haviradya-mayan yo arvantam parthamo adyatisthat// (Rigveda 1. 163)


Thus the Kapir- Varaha & Vrisha- Kapi are to be understood as a same form. It means the Aswa-Varaha as described in the Vishnu Puran (1.4.36) is the same what is disclosed here in the form of Kapir Varah & Vrishakapi . As described earlier the incarnation of Vishnu in Varaha form is the one single event what various Purana, Mahabharat or Rigveda describe. That is the actual form of ,Varaha is a Vrish having head to neck as of horse . This verse again simplifies the mystery of composite animal in Vrish & Kapi. The iconography of Rigvedic Vrisha-Kapi gives feature of Unicorn in such a form in Indus civilization where a bull has been shown along with head to neck as of horse (as disclosed below):

Image Unicorn Symbolism ( combination of horse & bull)

Horse head to neck classification (note that head to neck differs from rest of the body & this neck is different from any regular bull's neck)

Image Image

Image Bull's neck above is different then in Unicorn

The Unicorn's figure as presented above , is composed of two animals, the neck to head portion is of horse representing Shakti (Lakshmi) and the other portion is of Vishnu in Vrish (bull). After the creation of this mythical figure an additional element of horn has been added to make it Ekashringah or Mahashringah. The iconography of Shiva – Shakti ( Shiva with Uma represents also one horn on the head of Shiva with tiger = Uma. This iconography is discussed latter) The Unicorn’s neck portion always differs from the neck portion of the two horns bull as depicted above.

In Hayagreeva Ashtotharam, ,where Varah incarnation is called Mahavishnu in the form of Hayagreeva( horse with neck only) is mentioned in such a way:

hayagreeva mahavishnu kesavo madhusudhana
govindha pundarikaksho vishnur viswamparo hari // 1//


This important composition is a master piece work on Vedic iconography. In Purana , Hayagreeva means one who has head to neck as of horse. The , Fifteen Vahinis written in Telugu by Bhagwan Sri Sathya Sai Baba, and translated in English by Kasturi explains Hayagreeva as an incarnation of Vishnu in Varah form, from head to neck as of horse. In some latter iconography the horse head has been placed on Vishnu’s human body. However, the Vedic concept of Vishnu’s body as described in the Vedas is a Vrish representing dharma. This incarnation is an important incarnation of Vishnu & is the real figure of Varahavataar . This iconography latter has been confused by commentators after the 12th Cent AD where horse head has been replaced with a boer’s head. Because Varahavataar has been described as one single event in entire Vedic literatures which corresponds with the ashwaavataar (Vishnu Puran) or Varaha with horse head as in Haygreevopanishad & Mahabharat (Mahabharat, Santi Parv : CCCXLVIII ). This iconography represents knowledge and wisdom. He is known for rescuing the Vedas from beneath the land & Asuras (corrupt name Ahura= Ahuramajda) . Now the episode of Hayagreeva becomes more clear if read with this verse:

eka sringah tato bhutva varaho nandi vardhanah/
imam ca udhritva bhumim - ekasringah// ( Mahabharat : Moksha Dharma Parva)


Both Ekashringa and Hayagreeva represent a common Varaha which recovers the lost Vedas. This Hayagreeva is presiding deity of several Srivaishnav sect. One such sect is Parakala Matham, situated in Mysore, which is one of the most ancient and an important Srivaishnava religious institutions in the country that came into being for the specific purpose of propagating Sri Ramanujam's Visishtadvaita philosophy. Sri Lakshmi Hayagreeva ( Vishnu with the horse's head up to neck along with Lakshmi) is the presiding deity for all knowledge which is remembered as - Aadhaaram sarvavidhyaanaaam hayagrivam upaasmahe. This is the principal deity of the Parakala Matham. Sri Hayagreevar Divya Mangala vigraha is also found at Sri Poundareekapuram Andavan Ashram and also greatly revered by Sri Ahobila Matham and Andavan Ashram in South India.

(B. K. Jha's input: The iconography of Hayagreeva from Parakala Matham is given below:)

Image

In Purana the colour of Hayagreeva horse is deep white (the Biblical Unicorn is also deep white) and is called Varaha-Asva. In Brahmanda Purana there is an illustration of conversation between Maheshwara & Narada . Narada describes this incarnation by praising ashva sirase namah . That is why Vishnu is called Madhusoodhanan as Hayagreeva killed asuras in saving Vedas. In the Mahabharata, Shanti parva, we see reference of hayasira upaakhyaanam ( Mahabharat, Santi Parv : CCCXLVIII). The reference goes like this:

Janamejaya said, "Tell me, O best of men, for what reason did Hari appear in that mighty form equipped with a horse-head and which Brahma, the Creator, beheld on the shores of the great northern Ocean on the occasion referred to by yourself?"
Srimad Bhagawat, describes also this Varah form .

In Vishnu Puran (H H Wilson Translation, book 2 chapter 2) we find reference of Vishnu in Varaha as hayasira (the horse headed).

(Aswa Varah form of Vishnu worship today is not seen in North India. But, during the period of Acharya Shankar & Ramanujacharya- Kashmir was an ancient seat of Hayagreeva worship. Ramanujacharya before writing commentary on Brahma Sutra, had visited Kashmir to consult the Bodhayan's original commentary on Brahma Sutra.

At that time Kashmir was great seat of Hayagreeva worship. Ramanaujacharya carried one such icon of Hayagreeva from Kashmir & returned back to Sri Ranga via Varanasi & Puri. The icon carried by Ramanujacharya is a Lakshmi Hayagriva Vigraham, which is still today at the Parakala Matam. Rajatarangini, where the history of Kashmir has been written by Kalhana in 1148-50 A.D, gives a vivid account of Sri Shankar's Kashmir visit. It is found that the Sharda Peetham, was established near Hayagreeva village( probably it is Haygreeva Matham) (now known as Hayhome). It appears that in the past Kashmir & some parts of deep Tibbet were the ancient seat of Haygreeva worship, equally worshipped by Hindus & Buddhists (Buddhists believe Hayagreeva's incarnation in Buddha). However these shrines were damaged after the mohammaddans' invasion.

The prominent Varah temple built in 12th cent AD at Pushkar (Rajasthan) with original thought of Vishnu iconography was demolished by Aurangzeb. This temple again was constructed after 500 years back by Raja Sawai Jai singh II in 1727 AD. It contains the same mistake of identifying boer as Varaha. Near Mira Bai’s temple in Mewar one similar Vishnu temple ( situated in Kumbh Shyam Temple) was destroyed by the mohammadans & the same was re erected again with an iconographical change.

This invasion also damaged the Buddhist seat of learning at Sarnath- near Varanasi, where prominent iconographies but in damaged forms were found scattered here and there some times ago . However deep south, Orissa Jagannath Temple & some remote eastern parts of the country like Assam faced a lighter intervention of mohmmaddans’ invasion. The Hajo (Assam) shrine of Hayagreeva, which is equally worshipped by Buddhist & Hindus, is a testament of that crucial phase within which Hindu survived without loosing its identity.)

Some Important Reference Of Hayagreeva:

1. In Lalitopakhyana (Brahmand Puran) a conversation between Hayagreeva & Sage Agastya has been recorded. Where, Hayagreeva establishes a harmonious relation between three deities Shiva, Vishnu and Shakti. Before migrating to Kanchi from Varanasi he was a worshipper of Vishnu in Varadraja form(Vrish ). It is told in this story that in Kanchi, Agastya discovered the importance of Haygreeva in understanding the way of liberation. (Source: Avadhoota Datta Peetham - Mysore)

2. In Brahmandda Puran: om namo vishnave deva madhussodhanate namah is found (which refers to Madhusoodhana as Hayagreeva).

3. In Valmiki Ramayan ( Bala Kaand): akshayam madhuhantaaram jaanaami tvaam surottamam (I realise that You are the Supreme God, immortal, Mahavishnu, the One who killed Madhu & Kaitapar) , is mentioned. Also in this text: dhushtaava pranadhaischaiva sirasaa madhsoodhanam (6th sarga-7th verse) is mentioned

4. In Kishkindha Kaand: I would have brought Sita back from anywhere whosesoever like Sri Hayagreeva brought the Vedas killing Madhukaitapar. (17th sarga-49th verse)

5. In the Mahabharata, Santi Parva there is a reference of Haygreeva avataar

6. Sri-Hayagreevopanishad (Atharvaveda)

7. The Kailasanatha Temple was among the 14 sculptural marvels built by the Pallava King Rajasimha-I at Gangaikonda Cholapuram (Tamil Nadu). Its inner courtyard comprises 56 "Devakulikas" (sculptural chambers) and exquisite paintings, as discovered by French scholar Jouveau-Dubreuil in the early part of this century. This temple contained three exquisite panels showing Vishnu in its mythical form & Shiva with Parvati (as tiger)

The idea of dual symbolism of Vishnu with Shakti (Horse-Lakshmi) or Shiva with Shakti (Tiger-Uma) is not new. Shakti has always been explained in our Vedic records either with horse or tiger. In one of such rare but excellent Indus seals, we find iconography of Shiva – Shakti in this way (Given below):

Image

Here Shiva in lion cloth with one single horn is combined with Uma (in tiger form). Kalidasa in Raghuvamsa, describes the old philosophical Vedic idea behind Siva - Shakti in this way:

Vagarthavivasampriktau vagarthapratipadyaye, jagatah pitaru vande parvatiparamesvarau

"The two cannot be separated, they are so mingled, so synchronized that one cannot exist without the other."

Some Shakta scriptures like Advaitabhava, Kalika, Kaula, Tripura, Arunopanishad, Tara, Bahvricopanishad & Bhavanopanishad, describe the various symbolisms of Shiva - Shakti in detail. However these symbolisms are incorporated from the Sankhya philosophy explaining Prakriti & Purusha. The Devi Shuktam of the Rigveda describes the symbolism in this way:

vishnuh Sariira-grahan-mah-meeshan eva cha/
karitaste yato-ata-stvam kah stotum shaktiman bhavet//


"You have given a body or form to Vishnu & Mahadeva, so who has an ability to pray to you".

Shankara and Ramanuja in their various classical philosophies on Prakriti & Purush elaborate the lost but the ancient Sankhya system of understanding a relation in between an inert Purusha and an active female Prakriti.

So the aspect of dual symbolism is very complex in entire Vedic philosophy. Indus iconographies being a part of the Vedas how can remain unattended to such major developments? Particularly these iconographies have placed a very impact producing results not only in India but through out the whole Middle East and latter part of the Christian philosophy.

RajeshA
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Re: Out-of-India - From Theory to Truth

Postby RajeshA » 08 Nov 2012 16:09

By Birendra K. Jha

Part II: Vedic Unicorn’s Impact On Bible


The Babylonian civilization has an inherit link with the Indian culture. This civilization is identified with the Biblical Kush who overthrown a Babylonian empire around 3600 BC and established Vedic culture at that site. The Biblical Kush, is mentioned as Cush in The Book Of Genesis - The Old Testament. This Kush on Indian record is son of Rama, who is also called among Hindus as an incarnation of Vishnu having one horn iconography. Bible mentions Ramaah (Rama) as the son of Cush (Genesis 10:7). Though Bible information is very correct in linking Kush with Indian Rama, but it should be read with slight correction that Cush is the son of Ramaah. Through Cush, Vedic iconographies established at Babylonia and for the coming generation, Biblical Ramaah, was a light post, through which physical ancestors of Jesus Christ, like Joseph of New Testament are attached. Joseph in order to associate with the lineage of Ramaah & Cush, recall his lineage with God who has single horn (Deuteronomy -33:13-17).

Before Kush’s adventure, Semetic culture by and large was guided through Ahuramajda.There is a reference in Chandogyopanishad about Semetic culture’s slow learning people trying to practice Vedic language and culture. It has highlighted use of Sanskrit in corrupt pronunciation by such people. It is natural that Babylonia had adopted gradually Vedic language and symbolisms from India, not just through the trade contact but some strong but determined cultural flow, which had constantly been flowed in this area for a very longer period then estimated. Various similarities of Indus Civilization at Babylonia are not accidental but all these had been developed through Indian rulers, which led Iran & Semetic people to adopt various Vedic thoughts. There are numerous examples where Vedic iconographies migrate to Babylonian in corrupt forms. For example, Vishnu in Matsyaavatar, is Semetic Apkallu fish, Vishnu in Narsinghaavatar becomes in Semetic Nergal, Vishnu incarnation as Parashuram is Adad (Ishkur), which is shown with Unicorn & Shakti is represented in corrupt form as Ishtar (Inanna) with trident and lion.

When Rama was ruling at Ayodhya, his territory was extended up to the Middle East. In Assyrian & Mittani list Rama appears as Rimu or Rim. In Assyrian list, he comes as eleventh king (Ilusuma - Erisum I - Ikunum - Sargon I - Puzur Assur II - Naram Sin - Erisum II - Samsi Adad I - Isme Dagan I - Mut Askur- Rimu = Rama) & on the Mitnani clay list he is the seventh king (Ashur Shaduni. –Ashur Rabi – Ashur Nadin AhheI – Enlil Nasir II. – Ashur Nirari II. – Ashur Bel Nisheshu -- Ashur Rim = Rimu = Rama (title Ashur with Rama denotes respect and dignity in Ahurmajda culture, just like symbolism Arya (not to be confused with Maxmullers’ idea) used with Rama to denote respect and dignity in the Indian literature )– Ashur Nadin Ahhe II ). It is natural that during the Indian control many Vedic iconographies had been adopted & accepted by the Middle East people.

In between post , Cush Babylonians’ period & particularly in India the symbolism of Rama was identified with Vishnu (Unicorn) as an incarnation, where as in the Middle East it appears to have been known as a clan. The concept of Unicorn and its relation with Cush’s clan become such a strong element in Semetic culture that, Joseph of The Old Testament shows his relation with a popular clan having one horn, as called Reem in Hebrew. Even at the time of Kings James Version of Old Testament the term Reem kept a team of 70 translators wondering actually what it means in Hebrew. The first to translate the Hebrew Old Testament into Greek definitely was known to this fact that the word Reem is depicted as one-horned God - so they translated it as monoceros (one horn) God.

As said earlier the word Reem is associated with the King Rimu mentioned in Mittani & Assyrian clay list . This Rimu is Ayodhyapati Rama, which in our Vedic record is a Vishnu incarnation. (at the time of Mahabharat Indian borders have extended up to Kamboja (present Iran) Mahabharata verse Kamboja-Bahlika term in 6/75/17 testifies to this fact. It connects Kamboja with Bahlika or Bacteria as a joint term . At the time of Mahabharata war the king of Kamboj was allied with the Pandavas. It shows much before the appearance of Hebrew Rimu, the people of Middle East and Iran have good concept on the Vedic thought of One horned Vishnu, iconography & how Vishnu corelates with Rama. In Indian record after Rama, Krishna carried the concept of Unicorn as found in Mahabharat (see verse: buddhi-yogah sarathyam anayudha… ). Iran though in deep Rigvedic age was copying the entire concept of Vedic thought, except that in principle it was not believing in iconography or idol worship. In spite of such heavy resistance it allowed the iconography of Unicorn. The Yasna 42 (Avesta) describes the popular concept of Unicorn as followed in Middle East. This verse has been translated by L. H. Mills (From Sacred Books of the East, American Edition, 1898.) in such a way:

“And we worship the Good Mind (in the living) and the spirits of the saints. And we sacrifice to the fish of fifty-fins, and to that sacred beast the Unicorn which stands in Vouru-kasha, and we sacrifice to that sea of Vouru-kasha where he stands”

The symbolism of sacred beast Unicorn as in Semetic (Avesta), Middle East or Mesopotamia is a, Vedic thought and exactly corresponds with the Vedic Unicorn. The Middle East Unicorn has been found at Mesopotamia, which is preserved in British Museum as Cylinder seal of Mesopotamia No. 89538 (given below)

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The Physiologus, which survived in the literatures of Eastern Europe was written in the eleventh century by a certain Theobaldus, and printed by Morris in An Old English Miscellany (1872). This book is full of mythical iconography on the symbolism of medieval ecclesiastical art. This literature was edited by Dahlerup in 1889 with a title Bestiaires of Philippe De Thaun, a metrical Old-French version, edited by Thomas Wright in Popular Treatises On Science Written During The Middle Ages. This book discloses the concept of Biblical Unicorn again in an hearsay model. The Physiologus points very clearly the legend of Unicorn imported from India. This Biblical Unicorn is found in one such church tapestries devoted to the 1500 AD saint St. Stephen’s Martyrdom. The visual represents movement of St. Stephen’s soul from human body to Unicorn body. St. Stephen dies looking and remembering Unicorn. The visual goes like this:

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The above visual is an exact replica of Srimad Bhagwad Gita, where Krishna says:
At the time of death who remembers me doesn't trap again in the misery of rebirth or cycle of birth and death, as he intermingles his soul in me.

This legend of Biblical Unicorn has a deep connection with the Indian thought. It appears that the Christian religious base has accepted in principle the theory of Hindu thought of Vishnu's incarnation. It confirms that Jesus Christ in his time was well aware with the Hindu incarnation principle and the relevance of Vishnu as Unicorn. However after the death of Jesus Christ, Christians' religious behaviour accepted in principle the Unicorn as representation of Jesus Christ.

The presence of Biblical Unicorn shows an attachment of the people of Middle East on Vedic philosophy. But, if we compare from some events recorded in the deep Rigvedic era, we see Vedic and Semetic people fighting with each other. The popular instance of Haygreeva is very interesting, which deals a popular rescue operation on our knowledge right. For material prosperity Asuras had been constantly hunting for Vedic records. As Indians through the ages have developed wonderful science particularly on metallurgy, medicine and alchemy (science of ancient Hindu chemistry where numerous aspects are discussed in detail. One such aspect was conversion of ordinary metals into gold with the help of mercury). These subjects were a part of the Vedas, which were of material importance for clever Asuras. A reference is found in the Haygreevopanishad that Asuras had once stolen Vedic records. These were recovered by Haygreeva after killing Asuras like Madhukaitabha.

Up to this point one thing is very clear that the iconography of Indian Unicorn has been well understood by the Babylonian culture, through which it transmits the thought of Unicorn to the Bible. The colour of Haygreeva is still here deep white. After the end of this civilization, there remained a long cultural gap. In between these vacuum periods many mythical thoughts prior to the period of this civilization, particularly on Noah’s stories, were also even attached with the Unicorn. In these stories semi horse white Hayagreeva from head to neck having horn on its head now extends into a full bodied white horse. Some prominent mythical stories are associated with following characters:

  1. Unicorn with Adam and Eve in paradise
  2. Unicorn with Noah during great deluge.
  3. The Old Testament’s Prophet, Daniel, and his association with Unicorn in his dream
  4. David’s, whose descendant is Jesus Christ, experience with Unicorn at first hand ( Psalm 22:20-22).

The symbolic presence of Unicorn with the word Reem, which appears seven times in the Old Testament proves that it is borrowing relevant information of Vishnu’s Unicorn iconography from Indian sources. The Hebrew Unicorn has no any dispute with its authenticity in singular form, but, in the KJV’s New Testament single iconography of Vishnu as Unicorn has been converted into plural Unicorns, this is a challenging mistake of the KJV version of New Testament.

The exact word used in the Hebrew for Unicorn is Reem. This has been translated in various languages, including Greek as monoceros, unicornis, unicorn, einhorn and eenhorn, all of which mean ‘one horn’. However, the word Reem in Hebrew though identifies it with Unicorn, but through this symbolism a mighty king is denoted as per Mittani or Assyrian clay tablets. Because for ox and he goat ram, Hebrew has different words. So Reem in particular is an iconography of a king, which is symbolically described as an incarnation of Vishnu as Ekashringa in Indian record. Many Jewish translations simply left Reem untranslated, because they were not sure which symbolism was being referred to.

In Deuteronomy (33:13-17) of the Kings James Version of New Testament, Joseph is associated with God who has single horn. King David also continued this practice and called himself from the clan of one horn from which Joseph belongs to. (Joseph is also called the direct physical ancestor of Jesus Christ). It has been explained earlier that Joseph identifies himself with the lineage of one horn God as denoted by Biblical Raamah & Cush. This lineage is particularly what Hebrew denotes as one horn clan as Reem.

This Reem clan is further elaborated in The Book of Chronicles I:8, which is a book in The Old Testament. But in the Septuagint (LXX), the book appears in two parts, and in the fifteenth century, it began appearing in two parts in Hebrew Bible, which disclose some aspect of Kush (Biblical Cush & son of Ayodhyapati Rama). Though other informations mentioned in this book have little relevancy on historical aspect, if texts are cross checked with the Indian sources. It mentiones about Cush of whom the writer is not aware with various facts & sometimes he mixes up detail with one another. Whatever be, the Biblical Cush attacked and overthrown the Babylonian empire & conquered the kingdom. After the fall of this empire Vedic culture established at Babylonia for a very longer time. The Cush’s Babylonia had remained a source of inspiration for Hebrew Bible. The Biblical Reem particularly shows an impact of Cush or post Cush’s Babylonia, where the lineage & control of Rama has been authenticated by one of his mighty sons.

The presence of Unicorn in Bible, is such a strong element that the whole foundation of Bible collapses if Unicorn is removed from there. In parallel religious story, which is very strong in Christians, Jesus Christ is symbolised as Unicorn. The Biblical iconography of Unicorn is more cultural, reliable & traditionally correct then information passed through Cteasis, who wrote Indica much before Bible was written. This Greek medicinal practisioner and historian who authored this book mentions Unicorn. The basis of his information is just hearsay what he learnt from king Darius (who called himself from the lineage of an Indian king). So the cultural thoughts of Unicorn as in practice among Christians are very deeply developed even before Cteasis. Only difference is that this belief is partially correct as it had been developed on a hearsay model after the end of Semetic civilization, from a semi horse concept into a full bodied horse in mythical stories. In parallel Christian story deep white Unicorn comes before Mary, with a request to bear in her womb its incarnation which shall be named as Jesus Christ. Particularly this story is again a replica of Vishnu's various forms of incarnation including Rama and Krishna. The colour of Unicorn which appears before Mary is still very deep white like Haygreeva and still retaining the appearence of Indian Unicorn form head to neck as of horse.

Image Unicorn's pray to Mary to give space of her womb for Its arrival as Jesus Christ: In Christian parallel story

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Re: Out-of-India - From Theory to Truth

Postby RajeshA » 08 Nov 2012 17:32

By N.S. Rajaram
PROFILE : Life and work of Natwar Jha (1939 – 2006)

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He is the author of "Vedic Glossary of Indus Seals (1996)" and "The Deciphered Indus Script (2000)".

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Re: Out-of-India - From Theory to Truth

Postby RajeshA » 08 Nov 2012 23:49

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As explained earlier, Ekashringah represents Vishnu.

Here is more info on the Ekashringah - The Unicorn.

According to an interpretation of seals carved with an animal which resembles a bull (and which may in fact be a way of depicting bulls in profile), it has been claimed that the unicorn was a common symbol during the Indus Valley civilization, appearing on many seals. It may have symbolized a powerful group.

An animal called the re'em is mentioned in several places in the Bible, often as a metaphor representing strength; in the King James translation (and some other translations), this word is translated as "unicorn", producing phrases such as "His strength is as the strength of a unicorn". It is thought by many biblical scholars that this word actually refers to an aurochs, and that the translation as "unicorn" came about because this animal was often depicted with only one horn visible in ancient Mesopotamian art.

The unicorn does not appear in early Greek mythology, but in Greek natural history, for Greek writers on natural history were convinced of the reality of the unicorn, which they located in India, a distant and fabulous realm for them. The Encyclopædia Britannica collects classical references to unicorns: the earliest description is from Ctesias, who described in Indica white wild asses, fleet of foot, having on the forehead a horn a cubit and a half in length, colored white, red and black; from the horn were made drinking cups which were a preventive of poisoning. Aristotle must be following Ctesias when he mentions two one-horned animals, the oryx, a kind of antelope, and the so-called "Indian ass" (in (Historia anim. ii. I and De part. anim. iii. 2). In Roman times Pliny's Natural History (viii: 30 and xl: 106) mentions the oryx and an Indian ox (the rhinoceros, perhaps) as one-horned beasts, as well as the Indian ass, "a very ferocious beast, similar in the rest of its body to a horse, with the head of a deer, the feet of an elephant, the tail of a boar, a deep, bellowing voice, and a single black horn, two cubits in length, standing out in the middle of its forehead." Pliny adds that "it cannot be taken alive." Aelian (De natura. anim. iii. 41; iv. 52), quoting Ctesias, adds that India produces also a one-horned horse, and says (xvi. 20) that the "monoceros" was sometimes called carcazonon, which may be a form of the Arabic "carcadn", meaning "rhinoceros". Strabo (book xv) says that in India there were one-horned horses with stag-like heads.

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Ctesias of Cnidus writes in Indica in §45:

In India there are wild asses [rhinoceroses] as large as horses, or even larger. Their body is white, their head dark red, their eyes bluish, and they have a horn in their forehead about a cubit in length. The lower part of the horn, for about two palms distance from the forehead, is quite white, the middle is black, the upper part, which terminates in a point, is a very flaming red. Those who drink out of cups made from it are proof against convulsions, epilepsy, and even poison, provided that before or after having taken it they drink some wine or water or other liquid out of these cups. The domestic and wild asses of other countries and all other solid-hoofed animals have neither huckle-bones nor gall-bladder, whereas the Indian asses have both. Their huckle-bone is the most beautiful that I have seen, like that of the ox in size and appearance; it is as heavy as lead and of the color of cinnabar all through. These animals are very strong and swift; neither the horse nor any other animal can overtake them. At first they run slowly, but the longer they run their pace increases wonderfully, and becomes faster and faster. There is only one way of catching them. When they take their young to feed, if they are surrounded by a large number of horsemen, being unwilling to abandon their foals, they show fight, butt with their horns, kick, bite, and kill many men and horses. They are at last taken, after they have been pierced with arrows and spears; for it is impossible to capture them alive. Their flesh is too bitter to eat, and they are only hunted for the sake of the horns and huckle-bones.

_________

Though Ctesias really had a wild imagination, especially in regard to India.

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Re: Out-of-India - From Theory to Truth

Postby RajeshA » 09 Nov 2012 00:22

On the Trail of Ekashringah - The Unicorn

Unicornucopia: The Unicorn as Collected Object
By Deirdre Pontbriand

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Publication Date: Sep 01, 1999
Author: Lise Gotfredsen
The Unicorn [Google] [Amazon]

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Re: Out-of-India - From Theory to Truth

Postby RajeshA » 09 Nov 2012 02:07

Cities were all over India. Somewhat old news, but there are still structures standing from the old days.

Published on Feb 11, 2008
By Minati Singha
2,500 years ago, a city bigger than Athens in Orissa: Times of India

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Experts say Sishupalgarh is the 'most visible standing architectural monument' discovered in India (TOI Photo)

BHUBANESWAR: From under the ruins of an ancient fort on the outskirts of Bhubaneswar, archaeologists have dug out the remains of a 2,500-year-old city which they believe was bigger than classical Athens.

Eighteen pillars were found among the remnants of the grand city at Sishupalgarh, a ruined fortification first discovered 60 years ago. The findings include debris of household pottery and terracotta ornaments, pointing to an advanced lifestyle led by the people who lived there. The polished potteries even have ownership marks on them.

Monica L Smith, head archaeologist from the University of California, who was part of the 12-member team that conducted the excavation, said the site is the "most visible standing architectural monument" discovered in India so far. "It's a huge city that existed about 2,500 years ago."

"The city had four gateways and could have housed up to 25,000 people. Even classical Athens had only 10,000 people," said R K Mohanty from Deccan College, Pune, who was part of the excavation team which also had members from the Archaeological Survey of India and University of California.

"It was a very important city with well-built walls and a big expanse. The pillars we found were part of a gigantic structure, probably used for public gatherings," added Mohanty. Sishupalgarh was once ruled by the Kalinga kings.

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Published in Man and Environment Volume 34, Issue 1, 2009: pp. 47-56

Excavations at Sisupalgarh, 2008
Authors: R.K. Mohanty¹ and Monica L. Smith²

¹ Department of Archaeology, Deccan College, Pune 411 006, India
² Costen Institute of Archaeology, University of California, Los Angeles CA 90095-1533, USA


Abstract
The Early Historic urban site of Sisupalgarh is a large settlement that preserves many patterns of domestic and monumental architecture. Research in 2008 was focused on two areas of monumental architecture: the rampart that surrounds the urban core and encloses an area over one square km in size, and the central pillar mound where the portions excavated exposed an additional 18 previously-unknown monolithic pillars of laterite that formed what may have been a large apsidal structure. These activities are indicative of centralized control of large public structures, in contrast to the domestic structures which varied in their orientation, layout, size, and construction materials.

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Re: Out-of-India - From Theory to Truth

Postby johneeG » 10 Nov 2012 09:31

An interesting idiom: Swan song.

"Swan song" is a metaphorical phrase for a final gesture, effort, or performance given just before death or retirement. The phrase refers to an ancient belief that the Mute Swan (Cygnus olor) is completely silent during its lifetime until the moment just before death, when it sings one beautiful song. The belief, now known to be incorrect, had become proverbial in Ancient Greece by the 3rd century BC, and was reiterated many times in later Western poetry and art.

The earliest known reference to the idea that swans sing one beautiful song before dying first appears in Aeschylus' Agamemnon from 458 BC. In the play, Clytemnestra compares the dead Cassandra to a swan who has "sung her last final lament". Plato's Phaedo records Socrates saying that, although swans sing in early life, they do not do so as beautifully as before they die. By the third century BC the belief had become a proverb.[1] The English phrase "swan song" or "swan-song" dates to the 19th century, and entered the language from the German Schwanen(ge)sang and Schwanenlied.[2]

In reality, Mute Swans are not actually mute during life – they hiss – and they do not sing as they die. This folktale has been contested ever since antiquity: in 77 AD, Pliny the Elder provides the first surviving refutation in Natural History (book 10, chapter xxxii: olorum morte narratur flebilis cantus, falso, ut arbitror, aliquot experimentis), stating: "observation shows that the story that the dying swan sings is false." Peterson et al. note that Cygnus olor is "not mute but lacks bugling call, merely honking, grunting, and hissing on occasion."[3]



Socrates, according to Plato, said that swans sing in early life as well, but their last song is most beautiful. So, it is a misunderstanding of some greeks to think that Swans were supposed to sing only before their death. Or there is another explanation...

Is there any possibility of Indian origin of this idiom?
Hamsa Gita...

Hamsa Gita (Sanskrit) (also referred to as Uddhava Gita) consists of Krishna's final discourse to Uddhava before Krishna draws his worldly 'descent' (Sanskrit: avatar) and 'pastimes' (Sanskrit: lila) to completion...

....Hamsa Gita (Sanskrit) (also referred to as Uddhava Gita) where the hamsa is a metaphor for the Paramahamsa as well as a natural teacher of grace evident in Nature. The Hamsa (हंस, in Sanskrit and often written hansa) is a swan or goose, often considered to be the Mute Swan (Cygnus olor), but is really the Bar-headed Goose (Anser indicus).[citation needed] It is used in Indian culture as a symbol and a decorative element. The term '[b]gītā' (literally "song" in Sanskrit; Devanagari: गीता).[/b]



Swan Song == Hamsa Gita.

Notice that the Indian version has lot more depth and rationale than the Greek one(which in its literal sense is incorrect also). Also, are swans important in Greek culture? Also notice that there is no origin tale associated with this idiom in Greece. So, the origin is unknown unless it is accepted that the idiom has roots in India.

There are two plausible explanations:
a) the Greeks were ignorant idiots who did not know that Swans are not mute, they can hiss.
b) Greek idiom of Swan Song originated in India.

(a) can be ruled out based on the statements of Pliny, the elder and Socrates(according to Plato).

----
Another interesting idiom: Southpaw.

It generally refers to a left-handed person.

It is supposed to have started with use in Boxing and Baseball.

Southpaw is a boxing term that designates the stance where the boxer has his right hand and right foot forward, leading with right jabs, and following with a left cross right hook. Southpaw is the normal stance for a left-handed boxer.


The origin:
The oft-repeated popular version is:
southpaw - lefthander, 1885, originally baseball slang, of pitchers, often said to have been coined by Finley Peter Dunne ("Mr. Dooley"), Chicago sports journalist and humorist, in the days when baseball diamonds were regularly oriented with home plate to the west. But south paw "a person's left hand" is attested from 1848 in the slang of pugilism.


There are some contrived explanations to why a lefthander can be called Southpaw. It supposedly has something to do with orientation of the pitch(east-west).

To minimize the handicap of having to squint into the sun, most baseball diamonds were laid out with the direction of pitcher to batter (note to UK: bowler to batsman) east to west. A left-handed pitcher, therefore had his throwing arm on the south side. Slangy newspaper writers shortened that to southpaw.


But, there seems to be earlier reference to left-handers as Southpaw in Boxing.
The expression "southpaw" is well-known in the UK too, but almost exclusively used in the world of boxing.


"Southpaw" is of obscure origin. A popular theory holds that it comes from the onetime position of ballparks in relation to the sun. Supposedly, late 19th-century ballparks were laid out so that the pitcher looked in a westerly direction when facing the batter. The throwing arm of a left-handed pitcher would then be to the south -- hence the name "southpaw." This theory of its origin is undermined, however, by the fact that the original use of "southpaw" does not involve baseball at all.

Rather, the term was used as early as 1848 to describe, simply, the left hand or a punch or blow given with the left hand. Today, we often use "southpaw" as a good-natured term for a left-handed person, but the word is sometimes viewed as stigmatizing by left-handed people.

Link

However, the Oxford English Dictionary lists a non-baseball citation for "south paw", meaning a punch with the left hand, as early as 1848[14], just three years after the first organized baseball game.

In boxing (not just in the United States) someone who boxes left-handed is usually referred to as southpaw. They are often considered trickier opponents than the more common right-hander.


In short, Southpaw is a boxing/fighting term which was used as early as 1848. 1848 is too early for Baseball to evolve new terms and make them popular. Obviously, baseball must have imported the term from Boxing.

But, the important point is why call a left-hander's stance as southpaw in Boxing?

Below is a picture showing a boxer in southpaw stance
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Southpaw is a boxing term that designates the stance where the boxer has his right hand and right foot forward, leading with right jabs, and following with a left cross right hook. Southpaw is the normal stance for a left-handed boxer.


In short, it is right hand and right foot that are forward. And he starts with right jabs.

The origin of the term itself is unknown and open to speculation.

Now, I notice that this word South-paw has a Sanskrit equivalent. :D Yep, a sanskrit equivalent.

In sanskrit,
South translates as Dakshina.
Paw can be translated as Pada(foot/leg) or Hasta(Hand/palm).

So, in Sanskrit, South-paw's literal translation would be Dakshina-Pada or Dakshina-Hasta.

But, in Sanskrit,
Right is also called Dakshina. So, in Sanskrit,
Dakshina-Pada would mean Right-Foot and
Dakshina-Hasta would mean Right-Hand.

So, Dakshina has two meanings in Sanskrit South and Right.

This solves the mystery. South-paw stance is called that because in that stance one keeps the right-foot and right-hand forward and leads with right-handed jabs. 'South' is simply a pun, Sanskrit pun on 'right'.

Notice that, in Sanskrit, Left is not called Uttara(North). Similarly, there is no corresponding 'Northpaw' stance in boxing or elsewhere.


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