Technolgies useful for Indian problems

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Sanjay M
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Youth-selective Crowd Dispersal Device

Postby Sanjay M » 30 Nov 2005 09:50

Are rioting car-burning youths getting you down? Then check out this latest crowd-control solution, The Mosquito:

http://www.iht.com/articles/2005/11/29/ ... ournal.php

Gives new meaning to the phrase "bug off" ;P

Just be sure not bring the police dogs or housepets into its vicinity!

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Cam Distinguishes Real People from Fakes

Postby Sanjay M » 30 Nov 2005 10:59

The Cyclops Cam apparently differentiates between humans and dummies:

http://news.scotsman.com/scitech.cfm?id=2319702005

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New Anti-Virus Solution

Postby Sanjay M » 02 Dec 2005 07:05

The "honeypot network" has been shown to be the most effective solution against internet computer virus infections:

http://www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id=dn8403

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Nissan's Anti-Scratch Paint

Postby Sanjay M » 03 Dec 2005 12:56

Nissan has developed an automotive paint that is resistant to scratches and even reverses them:

http://www.physorg.com/news8675.html

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Carbon Fuel Cell Converts Waste to Energy

Postby Sanjay M » 04 Dec 2005 05:53

Direct carbon fuel cell technology will allow direct conversion of carbon-containing waste into energy:

http://www.wired.com/news/planet/0,2782,69713,00.html

I wonder if this could be a powerful approach to waste treatment, as ever-expanding heaps of garbage are a problem facing the world as well.

Sanjay M
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Prefabricated Housing

Postby Sanjay M » 04 Dec 2005 16:17

Interesting ideas in prefabricated housing, mixing aluminum and wood

http://www.modularhousingsystem.com/

This American venture seems to have some China-based local partners, which might reduce their manufacturing costs.

Take a look at their slideshow presentation:

http://www.modularhousingsystem.com/mhs ... /index.htm

And an article in Time - different design, similar approach:

http://www.time.com/time/magazine/artic ... 88,00.html

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"Near-space" ship

Postby Sanjay M » 05 Dec 2005 02:18

The HiSentinel, an airship with composite hull, was flown to an altitude of 74,000 ft carrying a small 60-lb payload. Besides the obvious military applications of observation and airborne early warning, consider what this kind of "poor man's satellite" could do for wireless broadband coverage, especially for rural and remote areas.

http://www.flightinternational.com/Arti ... +test.html

http://www.gizmag.com/go/4901/

http://www.spaceref.com/news/viewpr.html?pid=18343

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Ammonia Salt stores Hydrogen

Postby Sanjay M » 05 Dec 2005 05:24

I keep reading about this Ammonia Salt approach to storing Ammonia, which is itself a source of hydrogen:

http://www.dtu.dk/English/About_DTU/News.aspx?guid={E6FF7D39-1EDD-41A4-BC9A-20455C2CF1A7}

It sounds interesting, but I'd like to know what its downside is, to see where it comes up short. Ammonia itself is toxic in significant quantities, but the claims are that the salt form is quite stable. Nonetheless, it might be better to do the refuelling outdoors, and even keep such cars parked outside of house garages or parking structures.

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Thermoelectrics Recycle Waste Heat

Postby Sanjay M » 06 Dec 2005 05:50

Here's an idea for making automobiles more efficient by using thermoelectric elements to capture waste heat for re-use:

http://www.techreview.com/NanoTech-Devi ... 03,p1.html

Could be a useful way to improve energy efficiency and gas mileage, especially in connection with hybrid-electric vehicles.

Now that I think about it, perhaps it could also be used to mask thermal IR signature. Especially these newly-conceived quantum-engineered nano-materials which only conduct heat on certain restricted quantum bands.
Last edited by Sanjay M on 07 Dec 2005 12:51, edited 1 time in total.

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Hummingbird UAV

Postby Sanjay M » 07 Dec 2005 12:48

US Tests Hummingbird UAV Helicopter

http://www.gizmag.com/go/4911/

Longer loiter time, higher operational ceiling

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Solar Energy Capture from Topsoil

Postby Sanjay M » 07 Dec 2005 18:37

I suppose one might loosely call this 'geothermal' energy, but it's of a completely different variety, since it's heat drawn from merely the first few feet of your soil:


http://www.iceenergyscotland.co.uk/surfacesoil.htm

Actually, rather than think of this as geothermal energy, perhaps it's more appropriate to think of this as solar energy, because really it's about drawing off heat from soil which has been warmed by the sun's rays. It's a clever idea already in use in Sweden, and would even work in any remote or rural area. It requires the use of few hundred square meters of land, under which a circulating hose must be buried. A special heat-absorbing liquid is circulated through the hose to draw off the heat from the soil, and then that heat is drained off by pumps and radiators back inside the house. This heat can then be used to provide your hot water.

It then really enables your whole yard to be used as a large solar panel, provided you can lay the hose under the whole thing. Fairly clever idea, don't you think?

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Better Body Armour from Boron Carbide

Postby Sanjay M » 08 Dec 2005 19:30

Boron carbide is apparently a natural choice for body armour due to its high hardness relative to weight. Researchers have developed a new process for improving its hardness and allowing more latitude on shapeforms:

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/ ... 120505.php

Sanjay M
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Aerogel for Skylights, Windows

Postby Sanjay M » 08 Dec 2005 19:37

GE has unveiled a new type of insulation that can also be used for skylights and translucent panes. I read that competitor 3M is also going to be announcing similar products.

http://www.gizmag.com/go/4919/
http://renewableenergyaccess.com/rea/ne ... y?id=40121

Aerogel is a nano-porous foam which is considered to be the insulation of the future. With a weight only several times heavier than air, it's the world's lightest solid, and the best known insulating material.

This material would likely offer value addition for housing in the future because of the following features:

1)it's lightweight, which perhaps aids in porting it to a site after pre-assembly elsewhere
2)its translucency can let in light without totally destroying your privacy
3)a nano-porous foam would have the highest heat insulation characteristics theoretically possible out of any known material
4)it also offers noise insulation, which is also very important

I think I once read somewhere that a windowpane made out of aerogel offers insulation equivalent to 35 glass windowpanes. One of the key reasons it hasn't yet emerged as a rival to glass despite its weight and insulation advantages, is that it has a hazy bluishness to it, and isn't perfectly clear. This is due to unevenness in the nano-pores which causes light-scattering in the upper part of the visible light spectrum. The only aerogels which are perfectly clear like glass are those which have been manufactured in zero-gravity conditions.

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Inorganic Fullerene Armour

Postby Sanjay M » 11 Dec 2005 03:11

An Israeli firm has developed Inorganic Fullerene (IF) materials so strong that they can withstand the equivalent impact force of 4 locomotives being dropped onto a fingernail:

http://blogs.zdnet.com/emergingtech/?p=102

http://www.physorg.com/news8947.html

If this is the ultimate armor, then it would be interesting to see how well it stands up to kinetic penetrators which themselves can be made of tungsten or DU.

I wonder though why the Tungsten would be stronger than the sp2 carbon bonds of organic fullerenes? Is it because there's less chemical reactivity with oxygen?
Last edited by Sanjay M on 17 Dec 2005 22:28, edited 1 time in total.

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Postby Karthi » 11 Dec 2005 03:29

SaiK wrote:
MT Singha wrote:Foks is there a cheap and simple way to get rid of arsenic in ground water ?

there is a layer of arsenic between the deep acquifier and the ground level under bangladesh and parts of NE and people are suffering badly. surface water is there in plenty but is contaminated by organic matter and again no cheap way to purify it in villages.

maybe boiling surface water after passing it through a sand , gravel and charcoal tank is better than drinking tube well water ?


http://www.cnn.com/EARTH/9803/19/arsenic/


Following might also be of interest:
http://web.mit.edu/murcott/www/arsenic/
http://web.mit.edu/watsan/

Sanjay M
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arsenic, brake fern plant

Postby Sanjay M » 11 Dec 2005 15:18

I remember seeing various articles on the discovery that a plant called the Brake Fern can absorb lots of arsenic from the groundsoil into its leaves. This type of phytoremediation would be excellent for India. Plants are easier to spread around and maintain than man-made filters.

Are there any organizations pursuing this?

Sanjay M
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Silicon-on-Plastic Transistors

Postby Sanjay M » 13 Dec 2005 13:58

Silicon-on-Plastic transistor technology could lead to large-sized roll-up screens, or even large roll-up phased array antennas:

http://www.techreview.com/InfoTech-Hard ... 94,p1.html

Sanjay M
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Custom Metal Lattices from Selective Laser Melting

Postby Sanjay M » 14 Dec 2005 08:01

A new technique has been developed to manufacture fine metal lattices by laser. The resulting lattice-networked part can offer the same strength with less than half the weight of regular bulk metal material. Sounds good for aerospace, and perhaps even automotive.

http://www.physorg.com/news8974.html

I found the technology to be incredible, and had also posted it to the "Indian Manufacturing" thread. Read more:

http://blogs.zdnet.com/emergingtech/index.php?p=104

If Indian manufacturing can get into things like this, then our cheaper engineering pool would leverage this to great advantage in manufacturing sector. It can allegedly be used for rapidly manufactured output.

Obviously honeycomb and lattice-block materials like this are mainly advantageous for stiffness and compressive load situations. But imagine if you made steel girders out of this. Imagine how much weight savings you could achieve, and how much higher you could make the building. Consider how much you could reduce cost of transportation of building materials, if you could save 90% of the weight. Consider how such lattice type structures would reduce heat energy losses and even transmission of noise/sound. Perhaps polymer foam could even be injected in between for further load-bearing enhancement.

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Re: Silicon-on-Plastic Transistors

Postby Sudhir » 15 Dec 2005 00:21

Sanjay M wrote:Silicon-on-Plastic transistor technology could lead to large-sized roll-up screens, or even large roll-up phased array antennas:

http://www.techreview.com/InfoTech-Hard ... 94,p1.html


My wife (materials eng) was involved in that field last year when she was completing her PhD. Her department got a contract from DARPA and a tie up with a well known company.

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Postby Tilak » 18 Dec 2005 21:28

NANO-ARMOR: PROTECTING THE SOLDIERS OF TOMORROW

An Israeli company[ApNano] has recently tested one of the most shock-resistant materials known to man. Five times stronger than steel and at least twice as strong as any impact-resistant material currently in use as protective gear, the new nano-based material is on its way to becoming the armor of the future.

more ...

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Postby Kakkaji » 20 Dec 2005 08:59

Empowering the hand-pulled rickshaw, with some help from IIT

http://www.indianexpress.com/full_story ... t_id=84328

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Quantum Computing from Ion Traps

Postby Sanjay M » 20 Dec 2005 08:59

A new design for an ion-trap chip could allow mass-production for quantum computing:

http://www.techreview.com/InfoTech-Hard ... 94,p1.html

This would certainly be a powerful technology, not just for quantum cryptography and cryptanalysis, but also for solving problems dealing with quantum systems, such as molecular modeling in drug design, materials design, biomolecular simulation, etc.

Even some types of business operations research problems can be solved much more easily using the quantum computing approach.

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Postby Kakkaji » 20 Dec 2005 09:02

Fattening lobsters for foreign plates

http://www.telegraphindia.com/1051220/a ... 622579.asp

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Re: Quantum Computing from Ion Traps

Postby AJay » 21 Dec 2005 06:41

Sanjay M wrote:Even some types of business operations research problems can be solved much more easily using the quantum computing approach.


Many Combinatorial Optimization problems are NP complete. Couple with that the widely held belief that P != NP, we are talking of huge computers - exceeding the number of particles in the universe - to solve even reasonably sized (approx. 100 city TSP) hard OR problems exactly. For some problems, even approximation algorithms are in NP.

The correct way to model real life NP hard problems is for the modeler to get rudimentary knowledge of Compuational Complexity and avoid those models that require solutions to NP-hard problems - not some parallel hardware that solves the problem in a brute force way. Usually there are several ways to skin the modelling cat. It is important to skin it in such a way that problems like exponential computational resources do not develop further down the line. The solution would have to come from maths (some of it which was considered pure a mere century ago) not from physics.

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Re: Quantum Computing from Ion Traps

Postby Sanjay M » 21 Dec 2005 07:21

AJay wrote:
Sanjay M wrote:Many Combinatorial Optimization problems are NP complete. Couple with that the widely held belief that P != NP, we are talking of huge computers - exceeding the number of particles in the universe - to solve even reasonably sized (approx. 100 city TSP) hard OR problems exactly. For some problems, even approximation algorithms are in NP.

The correct way to model real life NP hard problems is for the modeler to get rudimentary knowledge of Compuational Complexity and avoid those models that require solutions to NP-hard problems - not some parallel hardware that solves the problem in a brute force way. Usually there are several ways to skin the modelling cat. It is important to skin it in such a way that problems like exponential computational resources do not develop further down the line. The solution would have to come from maths (some of it which was considered pure a mere century ago) not from physics.


I'm not dismissing the value of math optimization, I'm simply saying that quantum processes are of a whole different order of ability for problem solving. As far as worrying about the maximum number of particles in the universe, you're forgetting that quantum physics operates on a resolution that's far higher than we can even see, and is not beholden to the number of particles in the universe, but rather the number of universes within the particle. When something is so fine that it can only be described through wave nature, then obviously it's offering you more than particle-based discrete-state problem-solving. So if you can re-phrase problems in such a way as to simplify the resolution through discrete methods then that's great, but then otherwise the brute force power of the quantum world will soon be available to tap.

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Re: Quantum Computing from Ion Traps

Postby AJay » 21 Dec 2005 10:02

Sanjay M wrote:When something is so fine that it can only be described through wave nature, then obviously it's offering you more than particle-based discrete-state problem-solving. So if you can re-phrase problems in such a way as to simplify the resolution through discrete methods then that's great, but then otherwise the brute force power of the quantum world will soon be available to tap.


Sanjay

Please consider picking up the old edition of the Automata book (not the funky new one) and read up on Turing Machines instead of believing all the physicist psycho-babble about quantum computing.

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Re: Quantum Computing from Ion Traps

Postby Alok_N » 21 Dec 2005 15:54

AJay wrote:read up on Turing Machines instead of believing all the physicist psycho-babble about quantum computing.


quantum-babble or turing-babble can be argued forever ... the solution will certainly come from engineering advances ... [insert your favorite mathematician+physicist+engineer joke here]

the q-bit on a chip is actually quite an advancement ... equivalent to where silicon was in the 50s ... however, the timeline for development may be shorter because a lot of the common problems have already been solved ...

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Re: Quantum Computing from Ion Traps

Postby AJay » 21 Dec 2005 17:42

Alok_N wrote:quantum-babble or turing-babble can be argued forever ... the solution will certainly come from engineering advances ... [insert your favorite mathematician+physicist+engineer joke here]


(Added later - if it makes any difference): I wanted to say techno-bable - not psycho-babble. Sorry 'bout that.

Alok_N

I agree with that completely.

You misunderstand me. I am not knocking Physicists at all. After all, some of the seminal ideas of Quantum Cryptography were developed by Andy Yao who initially did PhD in Physics from MIT and came to UIUC along where his wife who got started on her PhD in CS (who by the way is a well known CSist in her own right). Instead of waiting in the wings (or may be he did not like the low postgrad pay) he also started on his PhD in Theoretical CS. My contention is that CS person who did not know what was possible in Physics would not have seen the idea of quantum computation and vice versa.

von Neumann was a Chemical Engineer by training. I can almost see the connection between Cellular Automata and cehmical reactions.

What I am saying is that it is important for anybody who does Computational <your-favscience-engg-here> to have some basic knowledge of Compuational Complexity. Some familiarity will go a long way. I can show you examples papers in journals like Applied Physics Letters or Nature or thesis in Biophysics or COmputational Chemistry where the lack of this knwoledge comes through loud and clear and they clearly should not have been published without further work. Again I am not saying that it is bad science as far Physics, Biology, or Chemistry is concerned (I would not know because I am not one) but the Computational part is usually glossed over. Just knowing programming in <your-fav-language-here> , the ability to install LAPACK/BLAS/BLAST/GROMOS, or the ability to grok Mathematica/Maple/Matlab just won't cut it.

There is no reason why any of these researchers cannot master the rudimentary Computational Complexity.

Ending with an anecdote, in the late1950s when computers were just about coming into widespread usage in Physics, there was this famous Physicst at LLNL who had to write a program to do some calculations. It seems one evening he gave a deck to the operator and asked him to run the program and give him the result print-out the next mroning. The opetrator was surprised and asked the Physicist how does he know that his program is going to work. Our Physicist said that he knows that the program is going to work. To the operator's surprise, the program did work the very first time. You might know who that Physicist was.

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Postby Alok_N » 22 Dec 2005 00:00

AJay,

I am not a big fan of quantum computing as such ... but the idea of going beyond Boolean logic is exciting ...

The point of my comment was that theoretical work in quantum computing, including error correction, is decades ahead of the engineering ... hence, any advance at this point will come from new techniques for fabrication ...

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Postby Atish » 22 Dec 2005 02:38

Feynman.

Atish.

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Postby AJay » 22 Dec 2005 03:34

Atish wrote:Feynman.

Atish.


He was teaching at CalTech just before he died and spent most of his professional life there. Was he at LLNL too? I did not know that.

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Postby Alok_N » 22 Dec 2005 04:21

AJay wrote:
Atish wrote:Feynman.

Atish.


He was teaching at CalTech just before he died and spent most of his professional life there. Was he at LLNL too? I did not know that.


I wanted to say "Feynman" beause he is the owner of most legends ... but LLNL threw me off ... Feynman worked at LANL ...

and he is NOT known for flawless code ... in fact, in his book he desribes how he made an error and rather than stop the processing of the code he wrote a corretion package that took the wrong answers and fixed them :)

LLNL luminary (?) would be Ed Teller.

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Postby Atish » 22 Dec 2005 05:22

He he yes my guess was coz it is always Feynman.

Atish.

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aerogel footsoles

Postby Sanjay M » 22 Dec 2005 10:20

Since so many Indians rely purely on their feet for travel, and will likely do so for quite some time, new footsole technology could improve lives significantly:

www.gizmag.com/go/4946/

www.toastyfeet.com/

Based on aerogel nano-porous foam, such footsoles would be extremely resilient, and also offer unmatched insulation to keep feet from freezing or overheating. This might be particularly useful for troops patrolling Himalayan frontiers.

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Breathalyzer

Postby Sanjay M » 25 Dec 2005 12:01

A new breathalyzer is a billion times more sensitive than the ones police use to detect alcohol:

http://blogs.zdnet.com/emergingtech/?p=114

It can be used to detect all kinds of diseases, and even for organ donor rejection assessment.

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bees for landmine detection

Postby Sanjay M » 25 Dec 2005 12:05

On a related note, bees can be trained to detect landmines due to their high sensitivity to odours:

http://www.primidi.com/2005/08/17.html

Hmm, I wonder if this could be enhanced through genetic engineering? And along with that, give them a different colour, so that they're easily discernable from regular bees.

Ramanujan

Re: bees for landmine detection

Postby Ramanujan » 27 Dec 2005 01:18

Sanjay M wrote:On a related note, bees can be trained to detect landmines due to their high sensitivity to odours:

http://www.primidi.com/2005/08/17.html

Hmm, I wonder if this could be enhanced through genetic engineering? And along with that, give them a different colour, so that they're easily discernable from regular bees.


Sanjay, this is a really cool find. Fly genetics is well understood - but in the context of fruitfly, drosophilla melanogaster. I suspect, bees are not tooo different. Making these flies fluorescent green or red is relatively straightforward (also have them sterile so that they dont cross breed with wild type bees found in nature). I think the coolest thing that can be done with these flies is make them much more detectable by radar (increase their RCS :D) - that problem could be approached using nanotech approaches. In general, we are going to see a convergence of robotics, nanotech and biological systems - its inevitable and extremely exciting. But finding killer apps is not so easy.

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downwind

Postby Sanjay M » 27 Dec 2005 05:19

Ramanujan wrote:Sanjay, this is a really cool find. Fly genetics is well understood - but in the context of fruitfly, drosophilla melanogaster. I suspect, bees are not tooo different. Making these flies fluorescent green or red is relatively straightforward (also have them sterile so that they dont cross breed with wild type bees found in nature). I think the coolest thing that can be done with these flies is make them much more detectable by radar (increase their RCS :D) - that problem could be approached using nanotech approaches. In general, we are going to see a convergence of robotics, nanotech and biological systems - its inevitable and extremely exciting. But finding killer apps is not so easy.


Hmm, I dunno that one should arbitrarily throw in nanotechnology, and I'm not sure how radar cross-section would be useful near the ground. However I'd imagine a scenario where troops have to cross a mined area, so they release the swarms of these bees which then quickly cluster on spots where landmines are buried, thus visibly giving those locations away.

Or perhaps for detecting IEDs, or even the smuggling of explosives, and also finding storage caches of explosives. Or for border infiltration, even a commando could quietly deploy such bees to allow him to penetrate a mined area.

It would be even more useful if the bees could carry on their fuzzy bodies a "pollen" that would react with explosives to detonate them.

My understanding is that winds on the subcontinent inherently blow from West-to-East, meaning that any landmines planted on the Indo-Pak border would have their scents blowing towards India. By being downwind from Pak, we would have a unique advantage over them, for explosive detection purposes. Anyone care to comment on this?

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Re: downwind

Postby Alok_N » 27 Dec 2005 05:54

Sanjay M wrote: Anyone care to comment on this?


so glad you asked ...

let's not be so restrictive in our killer (bee) apps ...

note that the primary property of said bees is their sensitivity to odor ...

we all are well aware of the highly odiferous nature of pakis and pakiland ...

the jehadi odor surely is distinct from the RAPE odor ... mullah odor has to be distinct ... you get the drift ...

what we will need is specialized squadrans, nay battalions, of these bees bred to zero in on specialized paki odors ...

it must be easy to implant RFID chips in the bees ...

once released all over pakiland, these bees will fan out and hover over their targets ... a set of 3 satellites will then monitor them and provide a 3-D odor map in real time ...

BeeINT will be the rage ... a new meaning to "fly on the wall" ... a bee in the paki bonnet, so to speak.

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Postby SaiK » 27 Dec 2005 07:14

http://www.deccanherald.com/deccanheral ... 051226.asp

Building helipads no more a herculean task

Image
B G Prakash draws attention to an indigenous defence spin-off technology that could help build helipads and repair roads in no time.

Imagine a scenario: enemy aircraft penetrates air defence systems, fly over airfield and drop bombs on the runway. Craters are formed on the runway making it non-operational. Pilots cannot take off to defend or attack the enemy. Worthy war machines remain idle. The same runway needs to be attended to, repaired and rehabilitated at breakneck speed — usually overnight — to put it back into use.

War inventory, today, has indigenous supportive technology for such, expected contingencies. Helipads too can be built overnight. Commercially available Rapid Acting cement is used only for construction and cannot be used for runway repair. This indigenous technology is for civil use as well.

It started with a need in the armed forces felt to repair runway that gets damaged due to enemy bombing which leaves craters. Indian Air Force bought a mixer cum dispenser from a French company at an enormous cost. Since then, an alternative was looked at. In 1990 the DRDO sanctioned the concept of a Rapid Repair of Runway. Seven scientists and engineers set about making ‘Runway Rehabilitation using Quick Setting Cement’ a reality. Research and Development Establishment (Engineers) have since announced Rapigrout Cement — produced indigenously.

Rapigrout

On an average, a crater in the runway is of 12 metre diameter and is two metre deep at the deepest point. Rapigrout is of a special variety that does not need conventional reinforcement with steel mesh or rods of steel or tor-steel. The shelf life of the French Mix is one year. Which means, if left unused, the ingredients go waste. But Rapigrout is claimed to have two years shelf life.

Rapigrout does not need the typical curing period. In fact, Rajendra Kumar Gupta, the scientist at Composite Research Center at R&D E(Engrs) claims that it is a non-curing cement. It gains in strength without conventional curing. It contains a ultra rapid hardening hydraulic binder. The cement is effective in the temperature range between minus 20 degree Celsius to 50 degree Celsius with additives. Additive C is used in cold weather and additive H is used in hot weather.

Setting time

The scientists recommend use of hot water at just 28 degree C mixed with Additive L, a lime-based compound. The chemical reaction due to lime mixing with water produces heat and Rapigrout uses this indigenous heat to set rapidly.

It is well known that normal cement used in construction takes 7 days to reach normal level of curing provided it is constantly kept wet. A total of 28 days are needed for the cement concrete to set fully. Further, as authenticated by Border Roads Organization, at Himalayan heights, curing takes much longer due to sustained low temperatures.

On the other hand, Rapigrout takes just 10 minutes for initial setting and in 25 minutes, it sets finally.

Laboratory tests after 100 minutes reported results with the test blocks able to withstand 100 kilo gram per square centi metre load.

A crater of 12 m diameter and having 2 m depth at the deepest point needs about 12,000 cubic metre of slurry. Water content needed varies - in cold weather it is less than 28 per cent of the total weight of Rapigrout used; in hot weather 32 per cent water content is sufficient. Pre-packed aggregate of 47 milli metre size — a little less than two inch size — is mixed with this very finely powdered cement. Fineness of the cement particles

is better than in normal

cement. The finer it is the faster it strengthens.

Rapigrout has a shelf life of two years and can be stored at a temperature range of minus 20 degree C and plus 50 degree C in

airtight containers. Cost of Rapigrout is estimated to be five or six times the Rapid Acting cement.

R&D E does not want to give away full details and commercialisation is still some time away. A leading cement manufacturing company has signed a Memorandum of

Understanding with DRDO to facilitate research, trial and manufacture.

Building a Helipad or helicopter landing ground, using Rapigrout is yet to be tried - or, if it has been tried - is not admitted to.

The minimum area needed to land and take off with Helicopter is a circle of 15 m diameters.

Just 24 hours!

Preparing the slurry with appropriate additive will take some time, to be spread evenly on the

prepared site. The mix sets in less than two hours and is ready for operation. The whole helipad can be built in 24 hours.

Such needs arise not only in Siachen but where landslides destroy arterial mountain roads and helipads. The recent

earthquake in Kashmir destroyed mountain ways and made relief operations

impossible at several

villages.

If emergency helipads could have been constructed better relief measures could reach the needy too. Helipads can be built in 24 hours.

Mining industries in Bellary are going in a big way to buy helicopters out of compelling needs and some of them are already into building helipads without any proper monitoring apart from them being improperly specified private helipads. Before it is too late, guidelines can draw attention to flight safety.


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