Sensor capabilities of IAF aircraft

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Sensor capabilities of IAF aircraft

Postby bhart » 16 Nov 2002 21:28

I think a new thread should be started specifically to discuss the capabilites of IAF aircraft as far as their sensors are concerned.
I am listing the radar systems of the various aircraft, as I know them

MiG 21bis: Sapfir 21/RP-22, Search range 30km, trackrange 15 km(16m^2 target)

MiG 23:Sapfir 23, search range 45km(MiG 21 sized target),tracking range 35 km

MiG 29: N019, N019M, for N019,Range (3 m^2 target)75-85km in lookup mode, 65km lookdown head-on, 35km in lookdown pursuit. TWS mode-detection of 10 targets, selection of the most dangerous one of them, attack out to 60-65km.

Mirage 2000H:?

Sukhoi 30MKI: N011, range 140-160 km(track for F 16 sized target)

Jaguar IM: ?

Also, what have been the experiences as far as reliability of these systems goes and what are their acknowledged weaknesses? And, of course, upgrades?

Admin: I don't think we have ever discussed the avionics of aircraft specifically, at least not in recent times. So please don't delete this thread.

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Re: Sensor capabilities of IAF aircraft

Postby Rudra » 16 Nov 2002 21:48

the Mig29S models among IAF has capacity to attack two targets I think. the older ones dont know if they have been upgraded.

btw why is the tailchase range less ? because of lower RCS from back ?

N011M - 4 simulataneous attacks ? of marginal use in tackling fighters..useful for attacking 2 or 4 ship mirage formations heading for a target I suppose.

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Re: Sensor capabilities of IAF aircraft

Postby bhart » 16 Nov 2002 21:53

Tailchase range should be less because of lower RCS. In head on engagement the RCS is more because of the fan blades and all of the engines(they increase it considerably). So this should be reason for lower range in pursuit.

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Re: Sensor capabilities of IAF aircraft

Postby fanne » 16 Nov 2002 23:19

Mind you,
In head on the doopler shift is very high (since both plane are going in opposite direction, relative velocity is very high) but in follow on pursuit, the doppler shift is very less (and can be zero if both plane had the same velocity), therfore this range of tracking is always less.

Thanks,
fanne

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Re: Sensor capabilities of IAF aircraft

Postby Rudra » 16 Nov 2002 23:42

fanne, in 'beaming' to break lock by doppler radar (like Mig29), is the F16/F7 supposed to turn perpendicular to Mig29 or turn away like the tail chase above ?

is a phased array radar vulnerable to such tricks . i believe N011M is a mechanically scanned phased array?

The F16A/B radar doesnt have a high azimuth ( less than 180 degree), so if they turn perpendicular wont be able to use radar guided AAMs (mid course guidance). will still be able to fire IR AAMs hot off the rail though and turn.

we also got to plan for whole IAF fleet to face better radars (super grifo++) and PL12 coz its just a matter of time.

Better ECM kits, dedicated standoff prowlers & growlers, SEAD is a must.

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Re: Sensor capabilities of IAF aircraft

Postby NRao » 17 Nov 2002 01:42

In a slide show presented in Aug, 01, Dr. Carlo Kopp of Australia had this to say about the NIIP N-011M Phased Array (for the MKI)

The NIIP N-011M is currently in advanced development for use on the Indian Su-30MKI. It is a passive phase shifter technology phased array, with an aperture of close to 1 metre. Tecgnologically it is nearest to the RBE2 radar carried by the French Rafale, but it is larger and longer ranging. It will provide the Sukhoi with a robust capability to target the ramjet R-77M missile
And, this from Vayu-Sena:

Radar
The forward facing Phazotron NO11M Bars is a powerful integrated radar sighting system. The N011M is a digital multi-mode dual frequency band radar (X and L Band, NATO D and I). Antenna diameter is 1m, antenna gain 36dB, the main sidelobe level is -25dB, average sideobe level is -48dB, beamwidth is 2.4 deg with 12 distinct beam shapes. The antenna weighs 100kg.

The N011M radar has been under flight testing since 1993, fitted to Su-27M (Su-35) prototype '712'. It employs the same level of technology as the now abandoned N014 radar which was to have equipped Mikoyan's MFI "fifth-generation" fighter and was initiated by Tamerlan Bekirbayev. The nose of the Su-30MKI was modified (compared the Su-27) to accommodate the fixed antenna array and more avionics boxes.

Note that the N011 is different from the N011M: the N011 is mechanical scanning while the later is features a phased array antenna and is much more capable.

The N011M can function both in air-to-air and air-to-land/sea mode simultaneusly while being tied into a high-precision laser-inertial / GPS navigation system. It is equipped with a modern digital weapons control system as well as anti-jamming features. The aircraft has an opto-electronic surveillance and targeting system which consists of a IR direction finder, laser rangefinder and helmet mounted sight system. The HMS allows the pilot to turn his head in a 90º field of view, lock on to a target and launch the much-feared R-73RDM2 missile.

In preliminary long range aiming, the targets (co-ordinates of which enter the navigation system) are locked on automatically, and the onboard locator is disengaged. The aircraft flies radio silent to the targets, and at a range close to the maximum one required for launching the weapons, the threat updating aids are engaged and the weapon is fired. In doing so, the attack time is minimal and the low-observable target approach increases the success of a mission greatly. The Su-30MKI can be fitted with an imaging IR navigation and attack equipment pod to provide night attacks against small-size ground targets.

For aircraft N011M has a 350 km search range and a 200 km tracking range. The radar can track and engage 20 air targets and engage the 8 most threatening targets simultaneously. The forward hemisphere is ±90º in azimuth and ±55º in elevation. These targets can include cruise/ballistic missiles and even motionless helicopters. A MiG-21 for instance can be detected at a distance of up to 135 km. Design maximum search range for an F-16 target was 140-160km. A Bars' earlier variant, fitted with a five-kilowatt transmitter, proved to be capable of acquiring Su-27 fighters at a range of over 330 km. In comparison, the advanced Kopyo radar found in the latest MiG-21UPG can detect small drone targets at a range of 50 km. It can withstand up to 5 percent transceiver loss without significant degredation in performance. Additionally the Su-30MKI can function as a 'mimi-AWACS' and can act as a director or command post for other aircraft. The target co-ordinates can be transferred automatically to atleast 4 other aircraft. This feature was first seen in the MiG-31 Foxhound, which is equipped with a Zaslon radar.

Russian designers have stated that they believe that the key to dogfight supremacy rests in the pilot's ability to engage the enemy in any position relative to their own aircraft. While TVC permits post-stall maneuvering and pointing which are impossible in conventional aircraft, they are convinced that a rearward facing radar and missiles that can be fired in the aft-quadrant all join to make an unbeatable integrated weapons system.

Ground surveillance modes include mapping (with Doppler beam sharpening), search & track of moving targets, synthetic aperture radar and terrain avoidance. To penetrate enemy defenses, the aircraft can fly at low altitudes using the terrain following and obstacle avoidance feature. It enables the pilot to independently find his position without help from external sources (satellite navigation, etc.); detect ground targets and their AD systems; choose the best approach route to a target with continuous updates fed to the aircraft navigation systems; and provide onboard systems and armament with targeting data.

According to Sukhoi EDB the Su-30MKI is capable of performing all tactical tasks of the Su-24 Fencer deep interdiction tactical bomber and the Su-27 Flanker A/B/C air superiority fighter while having around twice the combat range and atleast 2.5 times the combat effectiveness.

The N011M offers a quantum leap in technology over the earlier Russian radars. For example, the MiG-29, Su-27 and other fighters can be provided with a ground strike capability only if their radars can operate in the down-looking mode which generates a map of ground surface on a cockpit display (this mode is called the mapping mode). Small ground targets, like tanks, can be detected out to 40-50 km.

N011M ensures a 20 m resolution detection of large sea targets at a distance up to 400 km, and of small size ones - at a distance of 120 km. Coupled with the air-launched Brahmos-A AShM, the Su-30MKI will become an unchallanged platform for Anti-Ship duties. The Brahmos is a result of a joint collaboration between India and Russia and is a variant of the Yakhont AShM (which has not entered service).

The Su-30MKI also has a NO12 rearward facing radar which is housed at the end of the center section spine or sting and alerts a pilot to the approach of an enemy aircraft on his tail. This radar has a range of 50km for a 3 sqm RCS target and 100 km for large ones. It features a surveillance area of ±60º in azimuth and elevation. It enables the pilot to fire the R-73RDM2 missile without turning to get a positive lock on the enemy aircraft. The missile will be launched as usual and will then flip 180º to intercept the aircraft.


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Re: Sensor capabilities of IAF aircraft

Postby Aditya_M » 17 Nov 2002 14:17

I dont think there is anything such as a "mechanically scanned phased array", phased arrays are either active or passive, but always electronically scanned.

One of the major advantages is that you can create null spots in the field of scanning - if a known radar reciver is in a particular direction, the radar can be instructed to just "switch off" while scanning that particular sector, while scanning all other areas...

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Re: Sensor capabilities of IAF aircraft

Postby Roop » 18 Nov 2002 00:09

A radar antenna can be mechanically scanned in one plane (e.g. horizontal) and electronically scanned in another plane (e.g. vertical).

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Re: Sensor capabilities of IAF aircraft

Postby Harry » 18 Nov 2002 18:16

The Mirage-2000 uses the RDI radar with a range of around 100 km for fighter sized targets.
It also has the Antilope-3 Terrain following radar.The earlier export variants were thought to have had the inferior RDM but it's well known that the RDM is'nt compatible with the Super-530D.
The Mirage-2000 also has a Thompson-CSF Serval B RWR.

The Jaguar-IS has the Ferranti LRMTS in the nose.No radar.

The Jaguar-IM(unupgraded) has the Agave maritime radar or the Elta-EL/M-2032 multimode radar.Both have the ARI.18223 RWR.

TSPAF's F-16A has the APG-66.In the primary air-to-air mode ie Downlook mode,it can detect fighter sized targets at 56 km.It has 13 other modes including Dogfight,RadarCursor,Designate and return to search.This radar is claimed to be inferior to the Grifo.

The old Su-7s had SRD-5M range only radar.

It must be noted that the N-011(not -M) bars,transmitting at 5 kW,managed to detect an Su-27 at 330 km.

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Re: Sensor capabilities of IAF aircraft

Postby JCage » 18 Nov 2002 18:50

Harry,
M2K..RDM.The RDM for ours was specifically outfitted with a continuous wave illuminator and made 530D compatible.
Not the RDI but a pretty good radar from all accounts.

The Dragons have the Elta radar with a SAvionique MFD to use the same.A few other tweaks too.HAL has released pics of the same.

Disclaimer:All this is open source.

PS:Got a source for the No11 thing?Is it from the Russian Avionics webpage?

Regards,
Nitin

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Re: Sensor capabilities of IAF aircraft

Postby Div » 18 Nov 2002 21:32

There is likely a lot more information in the BRF archives.

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Re: Sensor capabilities of IAF aircraft

Postby Rudra » 18 Nov 2002 21:36

I dont think we have any M2K with Antilope TFR. am I right ? was this kit on the 2K-D/N for lo-lo-lo supersonic ASMP delivery?

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Re: Sensor capabilities of IAF aircraft

Postby Aditya_M » 18 Nov 2002 22:34

roger that on the Antilope - on the N,D and possibly the -5 versions of the 2k. its down to 300 ft and 600 kts.

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Re: Sensor capabilities of IAF aircraft

Postby Rudra » 18 Nov 2002 22:41

Aditya.M == Aditya Manjrekar?

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Re: Sensor capabilities of IAF aircraft

Postby Aditya_M » 19 Nov 2002 01:17

Mandrekar :)

no I was Aditya M earlier.

AdityaM is Mahajan... I have no idea who Aditya.M is.

At last count there were four Adityas on this board :eek:

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Re: Sensor capabilities of IAF aircraft

Postby Rudra » 19 Nov 2002 01:44

thanks and sorry for the misspell. there's also Advitya if more confusion is desired.

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Re: Sensor capabilities of IAF aircraft

Postby Harry » 19 Nov 2002 02:19

The Dragons have the Elta radar with a SAvionique MFD to use the same.A few other tweaks too.HAL has released pics of the same.
Yes,I have those pics.But till today,we are'nt sure of the upgrade status.Also,there are 16-17 Jaguar-IM and only 6 EL/M-2032 sets have been ordered.BTW the Sextant MFD-66 is elemental to all Jaguar upgrades,not just the -IM.

For the N-011M,there are two sources,one of them is the open source Russian avionics page by aerospacetech.

As for the TFR.IAF Mirages do have the Antilope TFR and this was mentioned by the IAF itself during a public ceremony.TFRs are known to be very small sets and it's possible to have both the RDM and Antilope like the Tornado IDS's set contains both the TI attack radar and a much smaller TFR below it.Very small ~250kg LANTIRN pods containing TFRs are also easily carried by western jets.Some sources are inclined to believe that the Antilope is a completely different self contained and external set,in which case,a limited number of mirages have them instead of the RDM.

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Re: Sensor capabilities of IAF aircraft

Postby JCage » 19 Nov 2002 08:51

Harry been done.Otherwise that fancy radar gets to waste,with only hud. :)
Yes,it-c/p upg will be continued for the entire fleet upg,
I thought,from SIPRI,the no. of Elta radars was 10.
Damn good one.Has a wonderful slew of air to air modes too.

Regards,
Nitin

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Re: Sensor capabilities of IAF aircraft

Postby NRao » 19 Nov 2002 10:24

Just as a FYI. The latest issue of AWST has a nice, but short, article on netwroking sensors for real-time sharing of info among various participants in a war.

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Re: Sensor capabilities of IAF aircraft

Postby Jagan » 19 Nov 2002 14:32

Originally posted by Harry:
are'nt sure of the upgrade status.Also,there are 16-17 Jaguar-IM and only 6 EL/M-2032 sets have been ordered.
There are only 11 IMs in the inventory. rest of the aircraft with No.6 being ITs I think 2 of them.

original numbers of IMs were JM251-JM262 - One of them pranged at Lohegaon thus leaving Eleven. Its quite possible that the crashed aircraft was replaced or was an IS in which case we come back to the original figure of 12.

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Re: Sensor capabilities of IAF aircraft

Postby Harry » 19 Nov 2002 23:46

Nitin,the radar disp/info can be put up on the HUD or the COMED.Remember that the upgrade to EL/M-2032 is supposed to be a part of the main 'Jag' upgrade.The first Jags to receive these upgrades will be/are the first 35 NAVWASS equipped Jaguar-S and the Dragons will probably come next.

About the number of sets ordered,10 is correct.

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Re: Sensor capabilities of IAF aircraft

Postby JCage » 20 Nov 2002 01:34

Harry the COMED is,in asense, a very limited display!All it has is one frame of reference and can only display one map ata time,in a limited manner.Hence the move to dedicated map display generators for both the 27 and The Jag.Good thing for us is,that the LCA ones might again be used.
Anyway,COMED,Its a good system,but the need/usage of a MFD has always been felt.

Ditto HUD.Using the HUD for radar display again reverts pilot to look down mode.With the dragons(for that matter all jags) being ground skimmers,this counts for a lot.

Simon Watson ,iirc,took a nice pic of an IM cockpit in Janes All the World A/C about a yr or so back.It has the MDF 66 square in the middle.I migt have it.

The Elta 2032/M wasnt ever part of the main force upgrade!There is a lot of misleading literature on this topic,which ignores the fact that the IAF was never exactly pleased with the Agave on the IM.It had certain obvious limitations.The IAF wanted to give the IM's better reach for quite some time but fund restrictions hit the acqusition till the mid-late 90's.Of course,we became pals with Israel in abig way too.

The usage of podded radar in A-A mode is contemplated,for the time being,for only the Mig27's in the NE(Komar).This because ,with the retirement of the FL's,the NE AD cover will be understrength.

The sequence of upgrades may be thought of this way:
The original Jags-Uk with Darin1 predecessor upg with new Nav attack systems and brought in line.
Then the main force upgarde begins.

As a beginning some Jags have already been "enhanced".Eqpt for the same has also been contracted for and inducted.

Regards,
Nitin

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Re: Sensor capabilities of IAF aircraft

Postby tingudu » 20 Nov 2002 17:25

Hi,
Nitin,
Pal :) the Jag M HUD pic, please mail it to me at the rediff address.

Thanks,

Regards,

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Re: Sensor capabilities of IAF aircraft

Postby Arun A » 20 Nov 2002 19:36

Admins..i dont know if this is the right thread.

Tactics employed by the Yugoslav army to limit NATO air strikes effectiveness

An overview of tactics employed by the Yugoslav army to limit the effectiveness of the NATO (news - web sites) air strikes:



_Yugoslav air defenses tracked U.S. stealth aircraft by using old Russian radars operating on long wavelengths. This, combined with the loss of stealth characteristics when the jets got wet or opened their bomb bays, "made them shine like flying buses" on radar screens.

_Radars confounded precision-guided HARM and ALARM missiles by reflecting their electromagnetic beams off heavy farm machinery, such as plows or old tractors placed around the sites. This cluttered the missiles' guidance systems which were unable to pinpoint the emitters.

_Scout helicopters would land on flatbed trucks and rev their engines before being towed to camouflaged revetments several hundred meters away. Heat-seeking missiles from NATO jets would then locate and go after the residual heat on the landing sites.

_Yugoslav troops used cheap heat-emitting decoys such as small gas furnaces to simulate nonexistent positions on Kosovo mountainsides. B-52 bombers, employing advanced infrared sensors, repeatedly blasted the empty hills.

_The army drew up plans for covert placement of heat and microwave emitters on territory NATO troops were expected to occupy in a ground war. This was intended to trick the B-52s into carpet-bombing their own forces.

_Dozens of dummy objectives, including fake bridges and airfields, were constructed. Many of the decoy planes were so good that NATO claimed that the Yugoslav air force had been decimated. After the war, it turned out most of its planes had survived unscathed.

_Fake tanks were built using plastic sheeting, old tires and logs. To mimic heat emissions, cans were filled with sand and fuel and set alight. Hundreds of these makeshift decoys were bombed, leading to wildly inflated destruction claims.

_Bridges and other strategic targets were defended from missiles with laser guidance systems by bonfires made of old tires and wet hay, which emit dense smoke filled with laser-reflecting particles.

_U.S. bombs equipped with GPS guidance proved vulnerable to old electronic jammers that blocked their links with satellites. JDAMs?

_Despite NATO's total air supremacy, Yugoslav jets flew combat missions over Kosovo at extremely low levels, using terrain masking to remain undetected by AWACS flying radars.

_Weapons that performed well in Afghanistan (news - web sites) — Predator drones, Apache attack choppers and C-130 Hercules gunships — proved ineffective in Kosovo. Drones were easy targets for 1940s-era Hispano-Suisa anti-aircraft cannons, and C-130s and Apaches were considered too vulnerable to be deployed.

Life is not the Discovery channel.

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Re: Sensor capabilities of IAF aircraft

Postby member_201 » 20 Nov 2002 19:55

I have updated the Su-30MKI Specs page, based on the info Rudra has posted:

http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/IAF/Info/Aircraft/Su-30.html

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Re: Sensor capabilities of IAF aircraft

Postby Harry » 20 Nov 2002 21:19

Nitin,IIRC the COMED 2045 has upto 20 different modes and functions.Definetely limited capabilties compared to the MFD-66,but not useless.The MFD-66 is also for its' display of digital moving map imagery,FLIR and video imagery and terminal approach plates.

The Agave radar,again,is'nt that bad either and does feature air-to-air modes and has seen wide use in Super etendards(until very recently when they were replaced by the Anemone radar),TSPAF maritime Mirage-Vs and Skyhawks.As for the -IM and it's radar,it's true that the Agave's replacement was contemplated much before the 'Ultimate upgrade' of all Jaguars in inventory.However,AFAIK,the 'ultimate upgrade' had taken off before the delivery of the 10 sets on order and the 35 NAVWASS equipped Jags(JS101-JS135)were/are being upgraded.These will not/did not receive DARIN systems but instead,all the new RLG INS w/ GPS,MFD-66,Tarang,Digital map generator,OSAMC computer etc etc,thus bringing them upto 'ultimate standard'.

Jaguar-IMs differ from the ISs only in having their Ferranti ARI 12321/3 LRMTS replaced with Agave radar,thus they'll also recieve the main force upgrade,naturally only after the first 35 upgrades and obviously also includes the EL/M-2032.If you saw an MFD-66 in a Jaguar-IM(Are you sure 'IM',no.6 sqn etc were mentioned?coz there's no other way to make sure it's an -IM you saw),that indicates that the main force upgrade to the first 35 Jags(and atleast to some IMs)has been completed.

BTW Do you have more (online)info on the Jag wing's relation to the Do-228 production?

Back to the original,topic,

The Mig-25R has a large SLAR,which can reportedly record surface detail upto 200 km.Other details are completely unknown.

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Re: Sensor capabilities of IAF aircraft

Postby JCage » 20 Nov 2002 21:57

Agave radar isnt bad,agreed.But as usual,the IAF wanted more.The MFD 66 was definitely on the IM bird/s.The pic was labeled for the same.
[Tingudu,give me a week or so. :) ]
What we can infer is that *some* Jags,namely the IM's,have had a few tweaks. :)
I dount the Jag/wing info is online.It hasnt been reported in any mag afaik and only one aviation weekly had a very breif rundown of it.I'll get you the details if you wish,though.

Regards,
Nitin

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Re: Sensor capabilities of IAF aircraft

Postby Amitabh » 20 Nov 2002 22:02

Originally posted by Harry:
(Are you sure 'IM',no.6 sqn etc were mentioned?coz there's no other way to make sure it's an -IM you saw)
Sure you can. The nose of the maritime Jaguar is completely different from that of the regular version. Contrast this Jaguar with these maritime Jags.

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Re: Sensor capabilities of IAF aircraft

Postby member_201 » 20 Nov 2002 22:13

In addition to what Amitabh has said, ALL IMs have their serial nos. starting with JM-XXX. So you can know that is surely a IM variant. The IS variant have their serial nos. starting with JS-XXX, while the IB variant have their serial nos. starting with JB-XXX (i think).

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Re: Sensor capabilities of IAF aircraft

Postby Harry » 21 Nov 2002 01:34

Sure you can. The nose of the maritime Jaguar is completely different from that of the regular version. Contrast this Jaguar with these maritime Jags.
Aaargh,I'm not that stupid.I'm talking about when there's a pic of the cockpit alone!When you're looking into the cockpit and cannot see the rest of the plane!!! :p

PS It's not JBXXX.It's JTXXX.

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Re: Sensor capabilities of IAF aircraft

Postby member_201 » 21 Nov 2002 05:10

Harry....your post is misleading. That is why Amitabh and I decided to correct you. Be more clear next time :)

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Re: Sensor capabilities of IAF aircraft

Postby Aditya_M » 21 Nov 2002 18:35

Life is not the Discovery channel.
Amen. (though yeterday's episode on the thunderbirds was awesome :p

Anyway, this is not the first time I've heard of GPS being jammer susceptive - it seems you need only small "hockey-puck sized" devices to jam all GPS signals in a significant area.... What SatNav do we use?

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Re: Sensor capabilities of IAF aircraft

Postby bhart » 21 Nov 2002 20:50

Just one correction in the first post, the MiG 21 bis radar seems to be an Almaz one, not Sapfir, with a stated performance less than that of what I said about sapfir. But, the sapfir,is fitted on to the MiG 21M. Does anybody know where(if) am I going wrong, and what are the trues capabilities of the MiG 21bis & MiG 21M :o .

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Re: Sensor capabilities of IAF aircraft

Postby Aditya_M » 22 Nov 2002 21:05

The MiG-21PF had the Sapfir-21. The FL was the one that had a down spec radar. The MF carries the RP-22.

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Re: Sensor capabilities of IAF aircraft

Postby bhart » 23 Nov 2002 09:45

Thanks, Aditya. Do you know the cpapbilities of the RP 22?

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Re: Sensor capabilities of IAF aircraft

Postby bhart » 23 Nov 2002 10:06

More on the MiG 29,
1) IRST - KOLS, fitted to the basic version of the MiG 29. All aspect device. Can acquire targets independently, or with data input from the radar. Capable of detecting a non-afterburning fighter at a range of 12-18km(don't know whether it is head on or pursuit, though I have heard that the MiG 23's IRST can detect an aircraft at 15km in pursuit). Laser can provide ranging data from 200-6500m(accurate to 3m). The computer can also compensate for weather conditions, by using radar.

2)Datalink-Lazur

It seems, that the plane also has a cooperation mode, in which the IRST and the radar can operate simultaneously, in scanning mode.

A question,Does the Mirage 2000 have an IRST. I read somewhere, that it is possible to use an aircraft's IR missiles as IRSTs. Is it true?

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Re: Sensor capabilities of IAF aircraft

Postby Aditya_M » 23 Nov 2002 11:21

http://www.topedge.com/panels/aircraft/sites/kraft/radar.htm

The working principle of the RP-21 relies on a continuously transmitting antenna that is move mechanically in horizontal lines +/-30 degrees from the centerline as well as vertically +/- 10 degrees. The antenna is gyro-stabilized between +/-60 degrees of bank and +/- 40 degrees of pitch. The maximum detection range is 20 km with a maximum of 10 km for locking on. Real world data against a target of the size of a MiG-21 are rather lower, i.e. 13 km and 7 km respectively. The dead range is below 900 m due to the relatively low frequency. Both, the narrow detection sector as well as the range made MiG-21 pilots rely on ground based radar guidance. Minimum target altitude was around 1200 m. Even with the antenna raised to +1.5 degrees above the horizon and reduced sensitivity (decreasing range further) ground clutter usually makes a detection of low flying targets very difficult.
http://strony.wp.pl/wp/keshels.aviation.page/mig21/21avionics.htm

In the PF variant the RP-21 radar was mounted. It could detect a bomber-sized target from 20km, and track it from 11km. For a fighter-sized target these values were 13 and 7km. The radar’s antenna scans in +/- 40deg in azimuth and +/- 10deg in elevation. The radar’s minimum altitude is around 1000m AGL and it has no lookdown-shootdown capability. It is able to pick out only a single target.

The third generation MiG-21s introduced the RP-22 “Sapfir 21” radar, which could detect a bomber-sized target from 25km and track it from 17km. Fighter-sized targets should be detected from 16km and tracked from 10km. Rest of the values remain the same.

(Come to think of it, I know the author of that page... think he's the same guy I meet on another forum.)

The M2k doesnt have an IRST as far as I remember, at least I don't think ours do.

Also I'm not sure if you can use an IR seeker from a missile as an IRST - it would require a bit of hardware to convert, transmit and display the IR image from missile to cockpit.

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Re: Sensor capabilities of IAF aircraft

Postby Aditya_M » 23 Nov 2002 11:27

Slightly aside of topic, but from one of the above two sites - http://www.topedge.com/panels/aircraft/sites/kraft/rp21.jpg

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Re: Sensor capabilities of IAF aircraft

Postby Harry » 24 Nov 2002 20:04

Which a/c in the IAF have the DRDO CATCH SIGINT system installed aboard?

The tempest seems to be an internal jammer.Which a/c have it installed?

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Re: Sensor capabilities of IAF aircraft

Postby Badar » 25 Nov 2002 02:05

Hi,

In case anyone is interested...

The Su-30MKI will carry NIIP's N011M X/L-band Passed Aray Radar with 140km max detection range. It can detect 15 targets, track six of them and engage four. Some of the major radar modes available are Air2Air: RWS, TWS, LD/SD, CC; Air2Ground: GTD, GTT, GMTI, DBS, PF; Navigation: TA, TF.

It might be interesting to compare it with PLAAF Su-30MKK. It has NIIR's N010M Zhuk-MS X-band Slotted Array radar capable of detecting upto 20 targets to 140km, tracking four of them and engaging two. In addition to all the radar modes available to the IAF Su-30MKI, the MKK has as an extra, Raid Assement and Synthetic Aperture Radar modes.

Added Later:
RWS = Range While Scan
TWS = Track While Scan
LD/SD = Look Down/Shoot Down
RA = Raid Assesment
CC = Close Combat
GTD = Ground Target Detection
GTT = Ground Target Tracking
GTI = Ground Moving Target Indication
DBS = Doppler Beam Sharpening
SAR = Synthetic Aperture Radar
PF = Picture Freeze
TA = Terrain Avoidance
TF = Terrain Following


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