The IAF History Thread

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Postby Jagan » 13 May 2007 23:41

url

When the sturdy Canberra saved its crew despite a missile hit
May 13, 2007 - 11:45:38 AM

It performed stellar service during the liberation of Goa in 1961, during the 1965 and 1971 wars against Pakistan, and also during the 1999 Kargil conflict. The Canberra also served with India's UN peacekeeping contingent in the Congo in the 1960s.


By Prashant K. Nanda, IANS, [RxPG] Agra, May 13 - It was 9 a.m. on May 21, 1999. A Canberra bomber was flying on reconnaissance duty over a hill in Kargil when a Pakistani Stinger missile slammed into it, damaging the engine and portions of the plane. But the sturdy aircraft did not fail its crew, it carried them back to the base.

'We all are alive,' said crewmembers of the warrior plane, profusely thanking the Canberra, which was phased out of the Indian Air Force Friday.

'The Kargil - operation was on full swing. We took off from Ambala air base on a photo reconnaissance duty and were assigned to photograph the exact positioning of our enemy in seven different locations northeast of a hill in Kargil when we experienced a violent jolt,' said Wing Commander Uday Kant Jha, who was navigator of the aircraft.

'For a moment, we were thrown completely out of our senses. Our first reaction was - we may not live beyond a few minutes,' Jha told IANS, almost eight years after the Kargil conflict.

'The US-made Stinger missile, fired by Pakistani soldiers, damaged our starboard - engine. At least two meters of the jet pipe was damaged and there were some holes in other places as well,' he said, narrating his experience.

The IAF escort aircraft reported seeing a bright flash along with debris flying off and smoke emanating from the Canberra's right engine.

Jha said that initially he and his pilot A. Perumal decided to eject out of the hit plane but decided otherwise after realising that the fuel tank was intact.

'I salute the plane and its unchallenged valour. We are alive today because of the Canberra and its reliability,' said Perumal, recounting the eventful day when he was in the cockpit.

Besides the crew's skill and efficiency it was the fighter aircraft that supported them ably in their return to the Srinagar air base.

'We returned safe within 30 minutes of the missile hit and that too with the photographs intact, which helped us in our further operation,' he said.

Wing Commander Jha said it was only after they reached Srinagar air base that they were able to gauge the magnitude of the damage to the craft. 'We simply thanked the aircraft for not falling apart in the sky.'

'Though I got the 'Vayu Sena Medal' and Group Captain Perumal received the Shaurya Chakra, yet we believe that a lot of credit goes to the warrior bird,' Jha said.

Canberra, the only bomber of the IAF until the late 1970s, was inducted into the Air Force in May 1957. The bomber was phased out Friday after serving the nation for 50 long years.

The British-origin twin-engine jet bomber has been a force to reckon with in the then prevailing war scenario in the Indian subcontinent. Cruising at four-fifths the speed of sound at 40,000 feet, Canberra was the right weapons carrier then. It could carry the war well beyond the frontiers, deep into the enemy territory.

It performed stellar service during the liberation of Goa in 1961, during the 1965 and 1971 wars against Pakistan, and also during the 1999 Kargil conflict. The Canberra also served with India's UN peacekeeping contingent in the Congo in the 1960s.

Hailing its contribution, IAF chief, Air Chief Marshal Fali Major, termed the fighter plane as the 'eye of the nation' and said: 'No other aircraft ever has served that long and as gloriously as the Canberra.'

---------------------------------------------------- ------- -------------
http://www.newkerala.com/news5.php?acti ... s&id=28197

'Eyes Of the Nation' Canberra bids adieu from IAF

By Sudhakar Jagdish, Agra, May 11: The jet bomber that destroyed adversaries since 1957 and continued its run till the 1999 Kargil War today finally bid adieu from the Indian Air Force, completing a historic 50 years of service.

The moment was 'nostalgic' for many war veterans who had assembled here to see the aircraft that had helped them to achieve many gallantry awards. And for a few, the aircraft brought back memories of martyred soldiers.

"I have just come to touch it for the last time," said Retired Group Captain J P Gupta, who had flown the bomber during the 1965 Indo-Pak War and bombed enemy's bunkers across the border.

"This is a proud moment for me, I flourished with this on battlegrounds, and now to say goodbye is a sad moment also," he added.

However, Shaurya Chakra winner Group Captain A Perumal, who had successfully managed to land the bomber at the Srinagar airfield, in spite of being hit by a missile during 1999 operation "Safed Sagar" in Kargil, was in no mood to say the final good-bye to the most 'user-friendly' aircraft.

"This aircraft can still go on for next twenty years. It has been the most user-friendly aircraft that I have ever seen in my life," he said.

Introduced into the Indian Air Force in 1957, the British origin twin-engine jet bomber was first used for reconnaissance and well as bombing purpose in December 1961 when it had to launch an operation against the Portuguese stationed on the Dabolim airfield in Goa.

"The operation was a completely one sided one and I would not say it as a major test for the bombers," said Group Captain (Retired) Gupta.

The wars of 1965 and 1971 against Pakistan showed the bomber's reliability and precision, when it devastated numerous targets like the Karachi Oil Complex.

The 1962 Sino-India War was the biggest omission in the career of Canberra bombers in India where the entire IAF was not pressed into service.

"We urged the political establishment to use the air force, but they did not relent," said Wing Commander (Retired) J Nath, the oldest living person awarded the Mahavir Chakra Bar.

"I had flown fifty feet above the Aksai Chin during 1962 for air reconnaissance and I guarantee you if we had used the Canberra bombers the result would have been quite different," he added.

During the 1962 war against China, India suffered serious setbacks and the Chinese forces occupied a large part of Aksai Chin.

Though the phasing out of the Canberra has left a few officials 'perturbed' as according to them this aircraft can still be used in some of the operations.

Chief Of Air Staff, Air Chief Marshal Fali Homi Major, who witnessed the final flypast today, justified the phasing out, saying," It is a sad moment, but it has to go".

"There has been difficulty in acquiring spare parts for the aircraft and new technologies have arrived, " Air Chief Marshal Major added.

As the aircraft that was designed in World War II era made an exit thereby bringing curtain down on its resplendent glory, it is likely to enter the school campus where the young generation can feel the might and the strength of this bomber that helped India achieve some of its greatest victories.

--- ANI

-----------------------------------------------------------
http://www.hindu.com/2007/05/12/stories ... 062000.htm

The Canberra's tale of valour
Sandeep Dikshit

The Indian Air Force's longest-serving aircraft type calls it a day IAF aircraft type phased out

— Photo: AFP

INTO HISTORY: A Canberra bomber at the Air Force Station in Agra on Friday.

AGRA: The saga of the Indian Air Force's (IAF) longest-serving aircraft came to an end here on Friday.

The pilot of the Canberra handed over the documents to the Chief of the Air Staff, Air Chief Marshal F. Homi Major. Former pilots and navigators who had conducted bombing runs in them were present.

Also at hand was Wing Commander Perumal who flew Canberra sorties over Kargil in 1999 to confirm Pakistani intrusions. With one of the engines incapacitated by a Stinger missile, he managed to glide back to the Srinagar air base.

Innovative use


The Canberra, with its primary task of bombing, was already obsolete when the IAF first placed orders for 80 of them in 1957. It had served wonderfully during the Second World War, but by that point it had to contend with speedier fighters. But the IAF made innovative use of it, first to conduct low-level bombing missions and then to cruise high to take photographs of enemy targets and movements on the eastern and western flanks.

Its pilots and crew had several narrow escapes. In 1959 the Canberra became the first aircraft to be shot down by the Pakistan Air Force (PAF). That incident also showcased the IAF's gallantry.

With the automatic ejection mode available only for the pilot in that Canberra version, the pilot asked his navigator, seated deep inside the cockpit, to bale out first; only then did he press the eject button.

Since then, says Wg. Cmdr Perumal, it has been a tradition for IAF pilots to keep the safety pin of the ejection seat in the locked position. "The idea is to tell my crew that if we are going to go down, we go together. And if we bale out, you go first."

By the time the first Canberra was interdicted by PAF fighters, its counterparts in other countries had become instruments of spying during the Cold War.

The Soviet Union shot down two such planes and China took at least two more from Taiwan that were seeking to look deep into China. The Canberra was at risk each time it flew over hostile territory.

However, the IAF reshaped strategy and tactics to utilise them optimally. Its personnel went into bombing runs during the civil war in Congo and the Goa Liberation Struggle in 1961.

Wars with Pakistan



The aircraft took part in the 1965 and 1971 wars with Pakistan. While some did not return from sorties, having been caught out by PAF fighters or anti-aircraft fire, many did so.

They told their tales: of the destruction of the Karachi oil terminal, the bombing of Peshawar near the Afghan border and the destruction of a vital PAF signals hub.

The closure of the assembly line has finally ended the decades-long vigil kept by the Canberras along India's borders.

-----------------------------------------------------------
http://www.indianexpress.com/story/30679.html

Canberra retires after 50 yrs of service

Manu Pubby
AGRA, MAY 11: When it avoided gunfire over Aksai Chin in 1962 to collect the first evidence of Chinese intrusions, few would have thought that the hardy Canberra aircraft would carry on to serve till the end of the century and even return with a Stinger missile embedded in its fuselage during operations in Kargil.

After 50 years of service and participation in all post-Independence conflicts, the British Electric Canberra aircraft of the Indian Air Force (IAF) retired from service on Friday. India was the last country to have the aircraft in an operational role.

Summing up the mood in an emotional phasing out ceremony at the Agra Air Force Station, Air Chief Marshal F H Major observed that the aircraft had been “the eyes of the nationâ€

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Postby Jagan » 13 May 2007 23:46

Harry,

For Jasjit Singh's book , contact Knowledge World .

Knowledge World, 5A/4A, Ansari Road, Daryaganj, New Delhi 110 002

I think the brochure circulated earlier also had their email address / website. I think I posted that on ACIG As well.

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Postby A Sharma » 16 May 2007 07:50


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Postby vivek_ahuja » 16 May 2007 20:00

Jagan,

I managed to get my hands on an old copy of entire set of Jane’s “all the world’s aircraftâ€

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Postby vivek_ahuja » 20 May 2007 22:59

Image

Jagan,

i just added this photograph to my collection recently and was wondering if you might want it too (Minus the grandiose 'watermark' of course :) ). It's kind of a poor photograph but i have the original itself, so i can give you the resolution you need.

Thing is, i was told by some people that the photograph would not come out proper at 600 DPI resolution. it kind of breaks up on screen. This itself is at 200 DPI. Hence, if you want, i can probably send you the photograph itself so that perhaps you can modify it. Please let me know what you think.

Vivek Ahuja

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Postby Jagan » 21 May 2007 00:16

Vivek, ofcourse! do email it whenever you can.

Scan it at 300dpi, it might come out well. reading the serials can be done if it is at 600dpi. but it all depends on the quality of the Black and white photo.

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Postby Airavat » 21 May 2007 05:40

Image

Apologies if the window size increases.

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Postby vivek_ahuja » 27 May 2007 13:09

Image

Image

Not from my collection, but they deserve to be here, I think.

Is it just me or do these just light up a feeling of awe in you? I certainly would have sold my soul to have been there for real. In any case, nice contemporary photographs taken by George Gayuski and originally posted on Airliners.net.

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Postby SSridhar » 11 Jun 2007 10:04

Rann of Kutch and the IAF in 1965
Has this issue been discussed before ?
Now about the call by Air Marshal Asghar Khan to AM Arjun Singh and its ramifications: it’s a blatant inference that Asghar Khan was removed owing to this call. He had completed eight magnificent years to create a formidable air force and had refused further extension when asked by Ayub in 1964. Nur Khan has personally assured me of both facts repeatedly.

Gohar Ayub’s letter reflects sheer ignorance about air operations and his peer, Gen. Musa. The area of conflict, Bier Bet, in Kutch, was in easy operational reach of the IAF bases in the vicinity; particularly Bhuj air base with several fighter squadrons was less than 10 minutes from the battle front.

Far from the land battle area, our fighters would take 35 minutes to react and on the fringe of operational radius, without fuel for air combat. The Indian troops were well dug-in and difficult to locate and attack. Our fearless troops, cavalry men and personnel carriers were on the move and exposed dangerously to enemy air attack.

Besides the fighter base at Bhuj, Jamnagar, fighter bases at Uterlai and Jaisalmir were about 18-25 minutes away. Had the Indians committed their air force in support of their army, our troops would have been mowed down from the air and destroyed with impunity, bringing our land operation to a halt.

History of the Rann skirmish would have been written differently had AM Asghar Khan not taken a unique initiative to keep the air forces out of the battle. Even though his action was somewhat utopian under the circumstances, his guarded warning to ACM Arjun Singh worked like a charm.

Asghar Khan suggested to AM Arjun Singh that he should try to influence their political leaders to hold back the air force in order to avoid escalation, with an undertone that if the Indian air force was committed into action, the PAF may opt to hit targets anywhere it chose, not restricted to the Rann sands and swamps.

Luckily Arjun Singh resisted the order of his defence minister Kaul to attack our troops using some pretext which was accepted; but his wisdom lay in heeding to Asghar Khan’s guarded warning. If Gen Musa had the moral strength, he would have written and thanked Asghar Khan for his astuteness and saving lives of our gallant fighting men instead of bickereing and whimpering to Ayub Khan about Asghar calling Arjun Singh without informing him or even the president; both had a poor soldiering history and could not have comprehended the air chief’s sagacity.

SAJAD HAIDER
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Postby negi » 11 Jun 2007 11:03

vivek_ahuja wrote:Image

Image

Not from my collection, but they deserve to be here, I think.

Is it just me or do these just light up a feeling of awe in you? I certainly would have sold my soul to have been there for real. In any case, nice contemporary photographs taken by George Gayuski and originally posted on Airliners.net.

Vivek ji is that pic from the Dabolim airfield (INS Hansa),iirc the aircraft (forgot the name :shock:) in the picture resembles the one parked towards Hansa beach end.

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Postby Abhi K Rao » 07 Sep 2007 04:27

Just picked up the War bird series technical volume on the Mig-21. It is written by Yefim Gordon and Peter Davison and has some very interesting sections regarding the Mig-21 in IAF service. The book also offers technical details on India’s Mig-21 upgrade.

During the 1965 war, 8 Mig-21f-13s saw service but did not offer conclusive results; however, the IAF learned a great deal about operating the type. They put the plane to good use during the next war. In 71, the Mig-21fl was operated by Nos.1, 4, 8, 28, 29, 30, 45 and 47 squadrons.

The first kill was achieved by Flight Lt. S V Shah, while escorting HF-24 Maruts. On the morning of December 6th, HF-24s were on a ground attack mission in the Rajasthan/Sind sector. The bogey was a ground hugging Mig-19 and was destroyed by a GP-9 gun pod at 600 meters from a very steep angle. The Mig-21’s first kill was another Mig.

On the night of December 4th, 10 F-104 Star fighters of the Royal Jordanian AF were flown to Masrur, Karachi and came under temporary PAF command. Two of these aircraft were used to strafe targets on the south coast of the Rann of Kutch. Flt Lts Soni and Saigal were scrambled to respond to the bogeys and one was shot down at low level (by Soni). One of the bogeys escaped but Lt Soni followed the other one in a 360 degree turn. The maneuver involved full afterburner and was at a very low level. Soni closed in on his target and hit the F-104 at 900 meters, while traveling almost 1200km/h.

On the last day of the war, 17th of December, the 29 squadron (Black scorpions), claimed four f-104s to no losses. While escorting Maruts, Sqn Ldr I S Bindra was advised of a lone f-104 that was approaching at high speed. He got on the tail of the bogey and fired a k-13, which missed. Shortly after, he fired another K-13 that exploded near the cockpit and continued to pour 23mm fire at the enemy- the F-104 crashed into the sand hills.

Flt Lts N Kukreya and A. Datta were also flying escort when they noticed two hostiles that were approaching. One of the f-104s launched a sidewinder, which missed. A short dogfight ensued at about 500 meters. Datta got on the tail of the F-104 and launched a K-13 which destroyed the target. Kukreya dispatched the other F-104, after cutting a corner and closing from 5km to 2km. A K-13 detonated in proximity of the other bandit and the F-104 spiraled into the ground. The entire action lasted 2 minutes.

On the eastern front, the Mig-21fl operated in both air-superiority and close air support roles. Weapons included the K-13a, GP-9, FAB-500m62 500kg bomb, napalm, UB-16-57 rocket launcher, and S-24 240mm rockets. The S-24s had the advantage of being able to be launched, while out of range of light AA fire. On the first attack mission, 2 ac equipped with K-13s escorted 4 Mig-21s with 500kg bombs. These made deep craters in Tejagon airbase runways. Also, hundreds of 57mm rockets were launched at various targets. Apparently, Newsweek recorded that A.A Malik, the governor of East Pakistan, was in a “state of shockâ€

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Postby Jagan » 07 Sep 2007 04:58

There is no doubt that the authors must have depended on Mr. Pushpindar singh's excellent article from Air Enthusiast (or was it Air International) on te MiG-21 in Indian Air Force service.

An abridged version appeared in the 1982 "Aircraft of the Indian Air Force" book as well.

The correct date for Samar shah is not Dec 6. Its Dec 15th . So the Supersonic Combat on DEc 12 is the first kill.

Prior to this the MiGs claimed a Sabre in the Eastern Sector as a kill but it is not a confirmed kill and most likely just a claim.

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Postby Kartman » 07 Sep 2007 14:30

negi wrote:Vivek ji is that pic from the Dabolim airfield (INS Hansa),iirc the aircraft (forgot the name :shock:) in the picture resembles the one parked towards Hansa beach end.


Lockheed Super Constellation... really awe-inspiring as Vivek-ji says :)

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Postby Sree » 07 Sep 2007 21:18

Abhi K Rao wrote:

...

On the night of December 4th, 10 F-104 Star fighters of the Royal Jordanian AF were flown to Masrur, Karachi and came under temporary PAF command. [On 12 Dec] Two of these aircraft were used to strafe targets on the south coast of the Rann of Kutch. Flt Lts Soni and Saigal were scrambled to respond to the bogeys and one was shot down at low level (by Soni). One of the bogeys escaped but Lt Soni followed the other one in a 360 degree turn. The maneuver involved full afterburner and was at a very low level. Soni closed in on his target and hit the F-104 at 900 meters, while traveling almost 1200km/h.

...



Abhi, as Jagan says, the summary you have posted reads very much like an abridged version of Pushpindar Singh's original article on the combat record of the MiG-21 in IAF service. This info has been reproduced in a few other books about the MiG-21, and about air combat generally.

One additional snippet, which was not in Pushpindar Singh's original article (and has therefore not been as widely reproduced), is that the pilot of the F-104 shot down by Flt Lt Soni is believed to have been Wing Commander Middlecoat, a highly-distinguished and much-decorated PAF pilot who had previously commanded their elite No 9 Sqn, and had emerged with credit from ACM exercises with the RAF the previous year.

Regards

Sree

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Postby Abhi K Rao » 07 Sep 2007 23:38

Thanks for the clarification Jagan-

According to PAF sources(not sure how reliable they are)-

They lost a F-6 on Dec. 7th to triple A. Also, an F-6 was lost on Dec 8th to “possible fratricideâ€

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Postby Abhi K Rao » 08 Sep 2007 04:30

Some other interesting sections-

A simplified version of the Mig-21PFM was prepared for license production at HAL, in India. Whereas the Indian Air force had used the Mig-21F-13, all these had been imported from the Soviet Union.Organizing production of the fighter in India, under an agreement in 1962, was a colossal task involving a new group of factories at Koraput (engines), Hyderabad (avionics and instruments), and Nasik (airframe, final assembly and flight test). The initial version (designated Mig-21FL, type 77) featured the RD-11F-300 engine, simpler R-2L radar, and greater fuel capacity of 2,900 liters (637.9 gallons). Initial aircraft, followed by CKD kits for Indian assembly, were produced in Moscow in 1965-68 for production in 1966-73.

Production of the Mig-21PFM for the VVS began at Gorkiy in late 1964. At the 15th aircraft a new design of seat became available. This outstanding seat, the KM-1, still could not be used at below 130km/h (81 mph) but could be fired at up to 1200 km/h (745 mph) indicated airspeed and at any height. It proved to be very reliable, and the canopy was redesigned with a strong fixed windscreen and a separate main canopy hinged to open sideways to the right. The Znamya Truda factory produced export versions between 1966-68.

The export version of the Mig-21S was designated the Mig-21M. It retained the RD-11F2S-300 engine and introduced several new features. These included radar, gun, sight, and for exports- the offset PVD. The radar was the RP-21MA, coupled to the improved ASP-PFD sight. The greatest advance was the installation of the gun. The original gun was a GSh-23 stuffed into a bulky GP-9 external pack; this version had a GSh-23L mounted on a platform that was flush with the underside.

This platform could be lowered for reloading and servicing, but caused little drag. The magazine lay between frame Nos.13 and 14, with a belt of 200 (maximum 220) rounds. A steel blast panel was added to the fuselage skin ahead of the muzzles. In the course of production of both this and the Mig-21SM, it was discovered that blasts from the muzzles could blow open the auxiliary engine inlets and cause violent compressor stalls at high AoA and low airspeed; therefore, a small deflector plate was added below each of these inlets. These plates also prevented the ingestion of dirt and stones during takeoffs at rough and unprepared airstrips.

In 1971 the Indian government was licensed to build the Type 96. The first aircraft was built at Nasik at the end of January 1973 and delivered on Feb 14th. For frontal aviation, the Russians developed the Mig-21SM and included the afterburning R-13-300. The Mig-21SM resembled the Mig-21M apart from having the latest avionics, including the RP-22 radar and a number of improved cockpit instruments. The next logical step, in Mig-21 development, would have been a more powerful engine. This was known as the Mig-21MF. An exception was made in the very similar HAL built version, known as the Mig-21M Izdelieye 88. Navaids were integrated into a kompleks called PNK Pilot-OI, while automatic flight-control was provided by a kompleks designated SBU-23Yesn
I

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Postby Jagan » 08 Sep 2007 05:17

[quote="Abhi K Rao"]They lost a F-6 on Dec. 7th to triple A. Also, an F-6 was lost on Dec 8th to “possible fratricideâ€

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Postby Abhi K Rao » 08 Sep 2007 08:57

Jagan,

It would be interesting to find out what really happened- regarding Shah's kill. Thanks again for the link, I will probably end up buying that volume.

Let me know if I am just wasting thread space- but found some interesting stats on the Mig-21MF:


Weights and Loading:

Weights empty - 5843kg (12,882 lbs)

Take off Weight:


With 4 k-13As - 8200kgs (18,070lbs)
With two k-13As and two 490liter tanks - 8950kgs (19,730 lbs)
With two K-13As and three drop tanks- 9400kgs (20,725lbs)
Max take off weight- 9,800kgs (21,605 lbs)
Max wing Loading- 426.0kg/m2(87.5 lbs/sq ft)
Max power loading- 151.4kg/kN(1.48lbs/lb st)

Combat Radius (hi-lo-hi)

4 250kg bombs + internal fuel- 200 n miles (370km; 230 miles)
2 250kg bombs and drop tanks - 400 n miles (740 km; 460 miles)
Range; internal fuel only- 593 n miles (1100km; 893 miles)
Ferry range. with three external tanks - 971 n miles (1800km; 1118 miles)

Performance:

Max level speed; above 11,000m - 2175km/h, 1353 mph
At low altitude- 1300km/h, 807mph
Landing speed- 270km/h, 168 mph)
Design Ceiling- 18,000m (59,050ft)
Practical ceiling- 15,250m (50,000 ft)
Take off runway at normal AUW- 800m (2625 ft)
Landing run- 550m (1805 ft)


Performance (MIG-21 US, Clean)


Max speed above 12,200m (40,000ft) - 2150km/h 1335mph
@ Sea Level- 1300km/h 807mph
Max rate of climb at sea level- 6400m(21,000ft)/min
Rate of climb at 11,000 m (36,000ft) - 3050m (10,000ft)/ min
Time to 1500m (4920ft) - 20 seconds

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Postby Abhi K Rao » 09 Sep 2007 01:58

RD-11F-300 Engine Specs:

Type 37F two shaft turbo jet with afterburner.
Maximum dry rating of 3880kgs (8554lbs)
Maximum afterburner of 5,740kgs (12,654 lbs)

Featured an LP spool with three stages of axial blades driven by a single-stage LP turbine with solid shrouded blades. The first compressor stage overhung ahead of the front bearing with no preceding inlet guide vanes and with transonic airflow over blades at full power. The HP spool had 5 stages of axial blades and was driven by a single-stage HP turbine with 96 solid shrouded blades. It had no variable stators, a max airflow of 63.7kg (140.4 lbs) per second and an overall pressure ratio of 8.0. A can-annular combustion chamber with two chambers was modified to house high-energy discharge igniters

The afterburner had three spray rings and a multi-flap variable nozzle. The engine used a single-start button electric starting cycle and a single lever throttle. A primary fuel pump with a precise electro-mechanical regulator maintained constant RPM, the thrust being varied by fuel flow. An afterburner fuel pump was scheduled to permit augmentation light up at low flow rate to give an almost imperceptible cut in of afterburner, thereafter rising with smooth variation of thrust to very high flow rate at takeoff. The nozzle was controlled by an electrically signaled hydraulic system with three rams driving actuation ring. The auxiliary supply of both fuel and bottled gaseous oxygen facilitated relight at extreme altitudes and low forward speeds.

The weight of the equipped engine was 1182kgs (2606lbs)

Fuel Grades:

Fuel grades were Kerosene T-1, T-2, or TS-1. Mig-21F and Mig-21F13 from series numbers 74210701 to 74210814 were provided with 6 flexible protected cells in the fuselage with capacities of 235/720/265/200/240/240 liters, plus two rear integral wing tanks 190/190 liters for a total of 2280 liters (501.5 imp gallons)

Mig-21F-13 from 74210815 was as before but with four integral wing tanks 175/175/110/110 – giving a total of 2470 liters (543 gallons) of which 2340 liters (515 gallons) was usable without the onset of stability problems. The centerline cruciform-finned aluminum drop tank held 490 liters (108 gallons) but was only usable up to Mach 1.

Equipment:

Basic avionics include R-802V (RSIU-5V) VHF communications radio; ARK-10 auto radio compass under nose with GIK gonimeter blisters each side of the fin; MRP-56P marker beacon receiver, RV-UM or RV-3 low-range radio altimeter (indicating 0-600 meters), with dipole antenna under right wing tip (in the Mig-21F-13 – under both wing tips); SOD-57M air traffic control decimetric transponder, SRO-2 Khrom IFF, with triple rod antennas under nose and above fin; Sirena-D radar warning receiver, with antenna looking backwards from top of fin, ASP-5ND gun sight with target range measured by SRD-5 simple radar in nose cone, AKS-5 combat camera in upper strut carrying inlet center-body; PVD air data boom with yaw vanes hinged under nose a small stand-by pressure and total temperature sensor above right side of nose; and ARU-3V artificial feel system with it’s own ram inlet on left side of dorsal fin.

Armament:

Internal armament is two NR-30 cannons, each firing 30mm rounds (avg. mass 410 grams or 1lb) at a cyclic rate of 900 rounds per minute and a muzzle velocity of 780m (2559 ft) per second. Guns were fed by a short 30 round belt in the magazine between the engine air-duct and outer skin above wing. The spent links were collected and empty cases ejected through a slot beside the tank pylon.

Under each wing two threaded bosses enabled various interface pylons to be attached to carry: DZ-57 latches for bombs from FAB-50(kg) to FAB-500 size. Same carriers are used for UB-16-57U launchers for 16 spin stabilized air-air rockets of type S-5M, ARS-57M, or 16 air-ground rockets of type S-5K, KARS-57- same carriers also for single ARS-240 or S-24 air-ground rockets of 240mm. Two PLAB napalm tanks or (1960 onwards) APU-13 rails for K-13 or improved K-13a(R-3S) infra-red homing missiles with an effective range of 7km (0.62-4.35 miles)


Accommodation:

The cockpit extended from frame Nos.6 to 11. It was pressured and air conditioned (3.6lb/in2 and kept at 15 plus or minus 5 degrees Celsius). Main panel was vertical and very deep. Metal armor rested behind the seat and on the headrest, providing further protection from the thick structural wall planks.

There was a fixed transparent fairing downstream of canopy. The main canopy was made of blown acrylic, incorporating a multi-ply, bullet proof windscreen 62mm thick and an electric heater layer. This was all in a single light alloy frame hinged at the front and raised to 50 degrees by a pneumatic ram. When closed, the canopy locked by side latches, with the rear arched frame resting on lugs on each side at top of SK cartridge fired seat. This was usable above altitude of 110m (361 ft) and up to an indicated airspeed of 1100km/h. At moderate airspeeds, the pilot could choose to use sequenced ejection, in which the canopy is jettisoned separately and the seat fired .25 seconds later. The usual procedure is to fire the seat with face blind, the lugs taking the rear end of the canopy with it. The rotation of the canopy automatically unlatched the front attachments and freed the canopy, thus providing windbreak around the pilot. The pilot’s head was protected by a pivoted arm at top of seat headrest, which before each flight was preset and locked according to pilot’ respective height.


G-Limit:

The airframe was designed to an ultimate load factor of 7g. Ruling material was D-16-T aluminum alloy, with almost all joints beings made of rivets or precision bolts, flush on the outer skin. Spar booms were high strength V-65-1 or V-25. The skins above and below wing integral tanks were V-95 allot, highly stressed joints 30KhGSA (chromasil) or 30KhGSN21 steel, with ML5-T4 or M25-T4 at other stress concentrations. There were no integrally stiffened machine parts, but the entire structure of the main wing box was chemically milled.

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Postby Sree » 10 Sep 2007 19:56

Abhi K Rao wrote: ...

Sree,

Do you know where I could find Mr.Singh's original article through open source or on the web?

...


Abhi:

The most detailed version of the article that I saw was actually in a special issue of Vayuyan, which I believe was the predecessor to Vayu, published by Pushpindar Singh's own Society for Aerospace Studies. No idea where it can be found - except by writing to the Society!

There was a slightly shorter, but still detailed, version in the Ducimus Books book on the IAF that Jagan refers to, which came out during I think the IAF's Golden Jubilee year, 1982. That book can occasionally be found on eBay and abebooks. Good luck looking for it!

Regards

Sree

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Postby Abhi K Rao » 11 Sep 2007 05:16

Sree,

Much gratitude for the input. My dad recently left to India on a busn trip and I sent along a list of books for him to keep an eye out for. I will also keep a look out on Ebay or might end up getting the volume(s) that Jagan referred.

Also found an old book from my childhood- it’s called “1971 War in picturesâ€

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Postby Jagan » 11 Sep 2007 06:17

[quote="Abhi K Rao"]
Also found an old book from my childhood- it’s called “1971 War in picturesâ€

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Postby Abhi K Rao » 11 Sep 2007 10:32

What a coincidence! Although I was very little, I vividly remember the archeological museum. It had some great exhibits on Jambias and Nizam muskets. Upstairs, there was a Penny Farthing style bike and an open terrace. Outside, there were many stone cannons and a huge 4 wheeled chariot. Also, there were a lot of other artifacts and amazing paintings. The store had some great finds- as you said the book was priced very reasonably. I also picked up a small handbook on Indian army history at the same store.

Another book with great Images is The Indian Navy: Photo Essay by rear admiral Raja Menon. I don’t know if I picked this album up at the publications division shop or at the bookstore in Abids. Either way, I should have my ebay account back up soon – if not, I’ll have my rents or a buddy bid for the Ducimus book.

Regards,

Abhi

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Postby shiv » 11 Sep 2007 16:08

Jagan wrote:REg the Ducimus Book that Sree referred to, one of them is right now on sale on Ebay - though a tad expensive at 22$ - once in a while it turns up at around 11-12$. Eitherway its a great buy.


Just saw this msg. I have the book.

I used the cover for a pic in my old (long time no update) geocities page

http://www.geocities.com/HotSprings/2839/mig-jag.html

The horizontal lines in the pic are from the handheld scanner I used to have in the 1990s

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Postby Jagan » 13 Sep 2007 07:24

http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/IAF/Histo ... berra.html

A Canberra veteran writes about the 71 war

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Postby Abhi K Rao » 28 Sep 2007 09:02

Jagan,

Great work on the updates and the Canberra article. Keep it up :)

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Postby ramana » 22 Oct 2007 21:14

Pardon if already posted elsewhere

How the IAF saved J&K twice!


How the IAF saved J&K twice!

By Col (retd) Anil Athale
Thursday, 11 October , 2007, 23:05
Col. (retd) Anil A Athale is a Fellow at the Centre for Armed Forces Historical Research. A former Joint Director (History Division) and infantryman, he has been running an NGO, Peace and Disarmament, based in Pune for the past 10 years. As a military historian he specialises in insurgency and peace process.

On October 8, the Indian Air Force completed 75 years of glorious service to the nation. The great deeds of our airmen were recounted again.

Among them, the role of the Air Force in transporting troops to J&K in October 1947 is well known. But for this feat, the Kashmir Valley may well have become a part of Pakistan. The prompt action by outdated Vampire jets in 1965 in the Chhamb sector similarly saved Jammu. The total domination of the air over Bangladesh in 1971 that enabled the army to capture Dacca or the vital role of air power in the battle of Longewala in Rajasthan in 1971, is also well known.

However, the crucial role that the Air Force fighters like the Spitfires and the Tempests played in 1947 and how the transport fleet saved Ladakh in 1962 are tales of valour that aren't as well known. This article is an attempt to give due recognition to those valiant men in blue.

Saviours Of Srinagar: October 1947

Contrary to popular perception fostered by vested interests, India faced its first armed conflict less than three months after we attained freedom on August 15, 1947.

As the Maharaja of Kashmir dithered over joining India, on October 20, 1947, a 3,000 strong force of well-armed tribals led by Pakistani army personnel ‘on leave’ attacked the thinly spread state forces across the border, and quickly captured Muzaffarabad. The tribals moved in nearly 300 civil trucks and were well supplied with arms and ammunition.

Moving swiftly, the raiders captured the town of Baramulla on October 26. The same day, the Maharaja finally made up his mind and signed the instrument of accession, and J&K became part of India.

Responding to the threat to Srinagar proper, the first Indian troops were flown in on October 27, with the raiders within striking distance of the Srinagar airfield. The valiant action of the First Sikh battalion and First Kumaon battalion are well known, and need no repetition.

The troops that were airlifted had only small arms and at the most infantry mortars but no artillery. But this lack of firepower was compensated by basing fighter aircraft at Srinagar airfield. A few Spitfires and Harvard fighter aircraft were moved there and operated against the raiders. On October 28, the IAF fighters strafed the trucks that were carrying the raiders. Deprived of the transport, the raiders’ march to Srinagar slowed down. This gave time to the army to build nearly a brigade strength in Srinagar (three battalions) by October 29-30.

The air attacks also caused panic and confusion amongst the raiders. On October 29, two Tempest aircrafts took off from Ambala and launched fierce attacks on raiders who were concentrated near Pattan. In the afternoon, Spitfires from Srinagar continued the attacks. On October 30, the IAF launched deeper attacks and destroyed a bridge at Kohala inside Pakistan, disrupting the supply lines of the raiders.

In addition, the fighter aircraft acted as the ‘eyes’ of ground commanders by flying over the battlefield and giving timely and accurate information about the enemy strength and weaknesses as well as their direction of movement. The Indian army finally cleared the valley of infiltrators by November 11 without a huge loss of life. The fighters of the IAF had a major role in this success.

By modern or even Second World War standards, the air action in Kashmir valley was puny. The IAF was also lucky that it operated under conditions of total air superiority since the Pakistani air force was yet to come into existence. But that does not minimise the important role that air power played in saving Kashmir valley. The Air Force could have been even more effective and could have saved army casualties if there had been no restriction on the use of bombs.

Bizarre as it may appear today, our then Prime Minister was horrified at the thought of bombing, and personally ordered the restriction. (This was told to the author by a pilot who took part in those operations.)

It has to be appreciated that the Air Force operated out of Srinagar under primitive conditions. There was no fuel dump and the fighter aircraft were re-fuelled by draining the Dakotas and using buckets!

True to the style, the Indian Audit Bureaucracy had raised ‘Audit Objection’ for ‘improper use’ of fuel!




How our transport pilots saved Ladakh in 1962

In the Air Force as well as in public perception, the Air Force is synonymous with fighters and bombers. The transport fleet is unglamorous and its contributions are generally ignored or taken for granted.

But in the 1962 border war with China, the credit for saving Ladakh goes to the transport fleet of the IAF.

The Sino-Indian conflict had its origins in Chinese claims and occupation of Aksai Chin area, North West of Leh. While the fighting in Arunachal Pradesh received more publicity due to the Indian army’s spectacular debacle there, the fighting on the Ladakh front was hard and brutal. In fact, right till August 1962, Ladakh had no road link with the rest of the country. Not only the army, but even the civil population was dependent on supply by air. With mountain ranges as high as 21,000 feet, this effort was severely restricted as the bulk of IAF fleet consisted of Dakota aircraft, which could not fly higher than 15000 feet.

So perforce the aircraft were restricted to flying along the valleys through a long and circuitous route. Here the bad weather often intervened. It was under these conditions that India under Nehru embarked on a disastrous ‘Forward Policy’ and provoked a Chinese response. China on the other hand had good road network in Tibet right up to the frontier posts.

On October 20, 1962, the Chinese launched a co-ordinated attack all along a 1800 km front from Ladakh to Arunachal and quickly brushed aside the feeble resistance put up by the politically sited ‘forward posts’.

The scale and co-ordination of the attack gives a lie to the oft-repeated charge that it was India that was at fault, made by Maoist Neville Maxwell and Indian Communists. By October, the Chinese had occupied the entire Aksai Chin area and were threatening the airfield at Chushul. The defences at Chushul were the only obstacle between the Chinese and Leh city, the capital of Ladakh.

It was here that the AN-12 aircraft of the 44 Squadron saved the day. After working day and night to solve the problem of loading tanks in a fragile aircraft, on October 25, the AN-12s carried a troop of AMX-13 light tanks to Chushul. The unloading had to be done in 15 minutes and aircraft had to keep their engines running.


All this meant that the pilots had to take grave risks in flying with reduced fuel. Flying over the Himalayas in such condition is not just a calculated risk but close to suicide. But the transport pilots of the 44 Squadron took that risk and delivered not just the tanks, but two batteries of 25 pounder field guns the next day.

The tanks and guns at Chushul restored the military balance some what and in the end with bravery of the soldiers of Gorkha and Kumaon, Chushul was saved. The Chinese had to be satisfied with Aksai Chin and could not march on to Leh.

But if the guns and tanks had not reached Chushul in time, Ladakh would have been a part of China..

The biggest ‘mystery’ of 1962 is the non-use of offensive air power by India. The whole conflict was being run as a personal show by General Brij Mohan Kaul and there was very little co-ordination with the Air Force. At that time the Chinese had barely two airfields in Tibet and their fighter aircraft were decidedly inferior to the Indian British made Hunters. The IAF was guaranteed a virtual air superiority on the battlefield.

With air power on its side, India could have overcome the tactical disadvantage of lack of artillery in Ladakh and could have intercepted the foot and mule columns of the Chinese in Tawang area (like it did during the Kargil conflict in 1999).

But such was the irrational fear of Chinese retaliation against Indian cities that India did not use its air power. This fear of danger to cities actually caused panic in Calcutta. The only long-range aircraft the Chinese had at that time was the Ilyushin 24, operating at the extreme range. The Indian Air Force with its network of airfields in the East (thanks to the Second World War ) was well capable of dealing with it.

Right till the end, Defence Minister Krishna Menon was in favour of use of air power, but was overruled by a leadership that had lost its nerve. Use of offensive air power could have tilted the balance on ground and boosted the morale of our troops. The morale factor is of great importance as essentially even the Sela disaster was due to loss of morale.

Be that as it may, in the Platinum Jubilee year of the Indian Air Force, we salute the known and unknown heroes of the battles of 1947 and 1962. The nation owes a debt of gratitude to them.



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Postby Aditya G » 19 Nov 2007 23:05

http://www.hindunet.com/forum/showflat. ... Main=60051

(Exploits of an IAF officer) Behind enemy lines, 1962 War,
Pioneer Op-Ed, 8 Dec 2005

Abhijit C Chandra recounts the exploits of an IAF officer who flew across the Tibetan territory just before the 1962 war

Every November, a grateful nation recalls the indomitable courage of Indian soldiers, such as Major Shaitan Singh (13 Kumaon), while observing anniversaries of the military engagements that became an indelible part of history during the Sino-Indian conflict of 1962.

Though the Indian Air Force (IAF) played a very minor role after commencement of hostilities, in the years preceding the war an IAF officer posted in the Western Command used a Dakota plane and his personal camera to undertake a photo-reconnaissance sortie across Tibetan territory to film the secretive construction, by the Chinese, of the strategic Aksai Chin road.

"Well before the war, I revealed the Aksai Chin intrusion to central intelligence," Air Vice-Marshal (Retd) Surendra Nath Goyal, who affectionately addresses me as 'Abhi', said during one of our interactions almost coinciding with the November 21 anniversary of the Red Army's unilateral ceasefire.

In 1958-59, questions were being asked in Parliament, for some months, about the construction of the road. At that time, Mr Goyal was posted as the independent liaison Air Officer in Simla. "When I heard of these parliamentary queries, I informed the Command's Lt-General Kulwant Singh of my idea of a quiet recce on my own initiative," Mr Goyal reminisced.

The zonal intelligence officer at Hussainiwala failed to join him and Mr Goyal took shots of the road that was almost ready at the edge of the border. "The Chinese offered no obstruction and the Dak sortie was accomplished satisfactorily. The coveted photographs were duly processed and forwarded to Delhi through the Command intelligence," Mr Goyal recalled. He also added that these incidents had a direct bearing on the conflict but were probably not recorded officially.

When I mentioned about a general perception that there was a political and diplomatic failure to control the aggression, Mr Goyal - who was Commandant, National Defence Academy, between 1966-68 - merely said, "The answer will unnecessarily expose political and intelligence defaults." One of the many things that awe me about the ripe-old Goyal is that he was the sole Indian officer to have received the commission chevrons and wings personally from a monarch - King George VI - at the Royal Air Force College, Cranwell, way back in 1938.

A pre-war pioneer of the IAF, he is credited with initiatives for which he had ample opportunities during the independent commands that he held over half of his 30-year-long career. He was also one of the Indian pilots to have been selected for the Groves Flying Trophy at the RAF College. Mr Goyal retired in 1968 after "having turned out half of the IAF" during his decade-long tenure as the Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Training Command.

Among other works, Goyal authored The Patriot of Patriots: Netaji. Besides, he is the founder president of All-India Netaji Forum. Responding to his appeal, issued on February 15,1997, United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan reportedly assured that the world body would never use the expression 'war criminal' in the context of the Indian freedom fighter.

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Postby Jagan » 03 Dec 2007 00:23

The IT Group's Mail Today paper did a story on "Thyagarajan" and how we on BR helped in that quest.



Image

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Postby Aditya G » 05 Dec 2007 20:00

http://www.indiandefencereview.com/?p=70

C I Operations in the Northeast
By Brig SP Sinha
Issue: Vol 21.2

The employment of Air Power

The use of air power against own people, even though they are hostiles, has always been a debatable choice. It also went against the established principle of minimum force. The Air Force was used in Nagaland for dropping supplies to beleaguered garrisons under threat from hostiles, but its use for strafing was quite another matter. In Nagaland and Mizoram air power was used defensively, even though for strafing rebel positions, in desperate situations as a last resort to save garrisons from being overrun by rebel forces. Air strafing was resorted to in Nagaland at Purr and in Mizoram at Aizwal and Lungleigh to save the Assam Rifles posts from being run over by insurgents. Since 1960s, helicopters have been used extensively for movement of troops, casualty evacuation and reconnaissance as integral part of counter-insurgency operations, but the offensive use of air power has seldom been seriously considered.

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Postby Aditya G » 07 Dec 2007 06:44

Recommened reading ....

http://www.ciaonet.org/olj/sa/sa_jul03/ ... sur01.html

The 1962 India-China War and Kargil 1999: Restrictions on the Use of Air Power
R. Sukumaran *



Abstract

The paper examines the utilisation of air power in the 1962 India-China war and in the 1999 Kargil conflict. The study reveals a certain continuity in the attitudes to the use of offensive air power in limited conflicts. Both in 1962 and in 1999, the use of air power was hedged about with various restrictions. Underlying these appears to be the belief that the use of offensive air power is fundamentally escalatory. Hence there is a hesitation to commit offensive air power assets.

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Postby Jagan » 16 Dec 2007 11:05

http://www.mailtoday.in/epaperimages/16 ... 561608.JPG

From Mail Today

The Indian Air Force in the Longewala Battle - nice work done on the snippets from the veterans involved!

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Postby vivek_ahuja » 21 Dec 2007 13:21

Well, Jagan Saar, I followed your advice on the library thing and went looking for stuff. Also went to the History Department and did some digging. It took some time but I found a whole bunch of useful stuff. I am posting some of the images I found:

Image

In this image, check out the AN-12 taking off in the background. Also note the varied camouflage patterns on the MIG-21s seen here.

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Postby vivek_ahuja » 21 Dec 2007 13:28

Image

This is one of the more beautiful images I have seen of the Indian MIG-21s in Black and white. Check out the background in the photograph!

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Postby vivek_ahuja » 21 Dec 2007 13:55

Image

An example of the HAL assembled MIG-21bis sporting an Air Superiority Grey.

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Postby vivek_ahuja » 21 Dec 2007 14:15

Image

The second photograph here is in fact the best black-white photo I have seen for the indian MIG-21s. They look positively deadly in such a pose, don't they?

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Postby vivek_ahuja » 21 Dec 2007 14:21

Image

A poor quality photograph of an Indian Hunter is not sufficient to ruin the beautiful and graceful lines of the aircraft.

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Postby Jagan » 21 Dec 2007 17:16

Hey Vivek, you seem to have hit the gold mine! great pictures of the MiGs.

Note the battle axes logo on the line up of migs with the An-12 taking off - from no.7 Squadron.

Search that book for a neat HUD shot of an Air to Air with another MiG-21

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Postby Rakesh » 21 Dec 2007 18:02

Vivek, these are truly beautiful and rare shots of the MiG-21. I have seen that Hunter image somewhere before. Is it possible if you can kindly scan them to a bigger size and hand them over to Jagan? These pics need to be in BR's IAF gallery, with due credit of course.

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Postby vivek_ahuja » 21 Dec 2007 22:34

a neat HUD shot of an Air to Air with another MiG-21


Jagan,

I didn't quite follow the question above. Here are you looking for an Indian Mig-21 or any Mig-21 will do? I am asking this because I found a few HUD shots showing the MIG-21 as a target!! Surely not what you are looking for? :D

anyway, I am posting the small size images for these shots below. let me know if those are helpful or if there is something else you are looking for.

Is it possible if you can kindly scan them to a bigger size and hand them over to Jagan? These pics need to be in BR's IAF gallery...


Absolutely sir. I am already working on it.


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