Historical Battles in Ancient & Medieval Bharat

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Lalmohan
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Re: Historical Battles in Ancient & Medieval Bharat-2

Postby Lalmohan » 06 Nov 2008 19:24

International historians say that Indian historians don't review and improve the written history of India with the same critical analysis and particularly - frequency, that others do in their countries. For too long we have been lazy and gone with the established written word. It is high time for the 'historical intellectual academic complex' to get on with more original source research and analysis and write the Indian version of our past.

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Re: Historical Battles in Ancient & Medieval Bharat-2

Postby Sanku » 06 Nov 2008 19:29

Thats not true completely Lalmullah; a lot of folks have tried to revisit the history and remake it anew with newer inputs; however the efforts of the official establishment to stay true to the little led book(s) published in Nehruvian era as the complete picture of Indian history has successfully stifiled any original work.

The little new work that has been done by likes of Kak, Frawley, N S Rajaram and others has almost been a running battle with GoI with very little permissions and resources at their disposal.

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Re: Historical Battles in Ancient & Medieval Bharat-2

Postby HariC » 06 Nov 2008 19:37

A lot of work is done in the vernacular languages as well that doesnt come out in the mainstream.

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Re: Historical Battles in Ancient & Medieval Bharat-2

Postby Lalmohan » 06 Nov 2008 19:54

Sanku and HariC - I am partially aware of what you say, indeed it is a great pity that more of the vernacular work does not come out translated into English. This is where resources need to go - perhaps Ambani can fund it instead of building an extra helipad on his sky scraper? (a la Bill Gates)

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Re: Historical Battles in Ancient & Medieval Bharat-2

Postby Keshav » 07 Nov 2008 19:53

It's important to remember that our universities and libraries were all destroyed by foreigners and apparently, no one bothered to makes copies. Much like the Library of Alexandria was destroyed by Christians, Nalanda Library was destroyed by the Muslims and Taxila University sacked by the Huns.

Both people were stupid for not making copies, but historians have found that the European Renaissance was predicated on the re-discovery of Plato, Socrates and the link which were taken from Arabic and Chinese sources (along the Silk Road) and then translated in European languages.

If they had not been rediscovered, the Renaissance might not have happened.

It's no coincidence that we find more exact information about the South (we were just talking about Cholas) than we do in the North.

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Re: Historical Battles in Ancient & Medieval Bharat-2

Postby svinayak » 12 Nov 2008 05:39



http://www.google.com/archivesearch?q=i ... nav=hist10


1600
1600 - It was the imposition of a prohibitive charge for pepper, made by the Dutch, that led to the formation, in 1600, of the " Old or" London " East India Company, and it was the absurd demands of the Hon'ble East India Company and of England, in connection with the ...It was the imposition of a prohibitive charge for pepper, made by the Dutch, that led to the formation, in 1600, of the " Old or" London " East India Company, and it was the absurd demands of the Hon'ble East India Company and of England, in connection with the American supply of tea, that originated the War of Independence (l77S-?S AD) It was the difficulties of trade with China that ultimately suggested to the East India Company the desirability of ascertaining whether ... more Read more less In brief
From A Dictionary of the Economic Products of India - Related web pages
books.google.com/books?id=jvsYAAAAYAAJ&pg=RA1-PA216

1609
Sep 1609 - It was in September, 1609, that Henry Hudson, despatched from Holland by the Dutch East India Company to search for a northwest route to India and China, came sailing up the river which now bears his name, thinking surely that the long looked for ' passage ' was ...It was in September, 1609, that Henry Hudson, despatched from Holland by the Dutch East India Company to search for a northwest route to India and China, came sailing up the river which now bears his name, thinking surely that the long looked for ' passage ' was found at last. But arriving in the vicinity of where Hudson now stands ... more Read more less In brief
From Ocean to Ocean Or, Weekly Excursions to California... - Related web pages
books.google.com/books?id=Q_EMAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA23

1621
Jun 3, 1621 - On June 3, 1621, a twenty-four-year charter was awarded to the Dutch West India Company, a corporation modeled on its great East India predecessor. These two Dutch companies were the world's largest corporations, possessing at least ten times the capital of ...On June 3, 1621, a twenty-four-year charter was awarded to the Dutch West India Company, a corporation modeled on its great East India predecessor. These two Dutch companies were the world's largest corporations, possessing at least ten times the capital of Britain's Virginia Company. The primary purpose of the new enterprise was to expand trade for the Netherlands throughout the vast area between West Africa and Newfoundland. The company decided that a permanent settlement in ... more Read more less In brief
From New York City - Related web pages
books.google.com/books?id=_A1GDIGAyTQC&pg=PA4

1664
1664 - The French East India Company was established in 1664, and the merchants of that country were forwarding their speculations in India, while the British people were even more clamorous than at present for a " free trade," and against the monopoly of the East India ...The French East India Company was established in 1664, and the merchants of that country were forwarding their speculations in India, while the British people were even more clamorous than at present for a " free trade," and against the monopoly of the East India Companies ; there being at this time four distinct classes of merchants, all of whom were entitled to trade to India under certain conditions. However, this noisy and obstinate opposition at home for the maintenance of ... more Read more less In brief
From The Revenue and the Expenditure of the United... - Related web pages
books.google.com/books?id=L_hCAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA357

1757
Jun 23, 1757 - It was a battle that Britain invaded Bengal of India. On June 23, 1757, both sides started a decisive battle in Plassey, but Bengal troops were defeated. As a result of this battle, the British East Indian Company gained twenty-four tax precincts in Bengal ...On June 23, 1757, both sides started a decisive battle in Plassey, but Bengal troops were defeated. As a result of this battle, the British East Indian Company gained twenty-four tax precincts in Bengal and Britain controlled Bengal completely. The forces of other European countries were pushed out completely. Because Britain robbed Bengal of its lots of wealth and manpower, Britain defeated French easily in the tussle of India, and because Britain won the Plassey Battle ... more Read more less In brief
From 英语阅读文化背景词典 - Related web pages
books.google.com/books?id=HunryGsK53AC&pg=PA53

1765
May 1765 - Such were the circumstances under which Lord Clive sailed for the third and last time to India. In May, 1765, he reached Calcutta; and he found the whole machine of government even more fearfully disorganized than he had anticipated. Meer Jaffier, who had some ...Such were the circumstances under which Lord Clive sailed for the third and last time to India. In May, 1765, he reached Calcutta; and he found the whole machine of government even more fearfully disorganized than he had anticipated. Meer Jaffier, who had some time before lost his eldest son Meeran, had died while Clive was on his voyage out. The English functionaries at Calcutta had already received from home strict orders not to accept presents from the native princes. more Read more less In brief
From Critical, Historical, and Miscellaneous Essays - Related web pages
books.google.com/books?id=chg1AAAAMAAJ&pg=PA270

1773
May 1773 - In May, 1773, Parliament passed an act designed to save the East India Company from bankruptcy by changing the way that British tea was sold in the colonies. Under the Tea Act, certain duties paid on tea were to be returned directly to the company. Furthermore ...In May, 1773, Parliament passed an act designed to save the East India Company from bankruptcy by changing the way that British tea was sold in the colonies. Under the Tea Act, certain duties paid on tea were to be returned directly to the company. Furthermore, tea was to be sold only by designated agents, which enabled the East India Company to avoid colonial middlemen and undersell any competitors, even smugglers. The net result was cheaper tea for American consumers. The ... more Read more less In brief
From Revolutionary America, 1763-1815 - Related web pages
books.google.com/books?id=nyI9beOy1oEC&pg=PA40

1783
Dec 1, 1783 - Previously to the above deliverance, on December 1st, 1783, when Burke was Paymaster of the Forces, he had made a great speech on the measure to regulate the Government of India, known as Fox's East India Bill, but which was of course Burke's handiwork. In this ...Previously to the above deliverance, on December 1st, 1783, when Burke was Paymaster of the Forces, he had made a great speech on the measure to regulate the Government of India, known as Fox's East India Bill, but which was of course Burke's handiwork. In this oration he criticises the constitution of the East India Company, and denies its claim to defend its malpractices on the ground of the right conferred by its parliamentary charter. more Read more less In brief
From Edmund Burke, Apostle of Justice and Liberty - Related web pages
books.google.com/books?id=p1kDAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA99

1784
Aug 13, 1784 - Mr. Pitt, who was placed at the head of the new ministry, then brought in his India Bill, on 13th August, 1784. The principal Pitt's In- provisions were, (a) the appointment of dia Bill. a Board of Commissioners, composed of six members of the Privy Council ...Mr. Pitt, who was placed at the head of the new ministry, then brought in his India Bill, on 13th August, 1784. The principal Pitt's In- provisions were, (a) the appointment of dia Bill. a Board of Commissioners, composed of six members of the Privy Council, with power to control all acts, operations and concerns relating to the revenues and civil and military government of India; (6) that all letters sent to, and received from, India, be submitted to the Board, and all ... more Read more less In brief
From Outlines of Indian history - Related web pages
books.google.com/books?id=ZIwBAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA101

1793
1793 - When the East-India Company's charter was last renewed in 1793, those vast regions were given into the hands of the Board of Controul and the Directors of the East India Company ; and though other interests were attended to, those of religion were forgotten by ...When the East-India Company's charter was last renewed in 1793, those vast regions were given into the hands of the Board of Controul and the Directors of the East India Company ; and though other interests were attended to, those of religion were forgotten by the legislature ! and the few missionaries whose zeal has prompted them within these few years, unwarranted by law, and in spite of every discouragement, to labour in the East-Indian field, not being permitted to go out in ... more Read more less In brief
From The Christian observer [afterw.] The Christian... - Related web pages
books.google.com/books?id=fRsEAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA268




ramana
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Re: Historical Battles in Ancient & Medieval Bharat-2

Postby ramana » 06 Jan 2009 01:25


ramana
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Re: Historical Battles in Ancient & Medieval Bharat-2

Postby ramana » 13 Jan 2009 11:42

X-posted...
vsunder wrote:This is the fundamental book which gives a detailed list of various ports of the Indian Ocean.
It also gives a list of important Indian cities inland. The book is a fragment of the original.
Incidentally did you catch the BRFite on the Michael Woods program, the IIT/K prof of
archaeometallurgy who was explaining the foundry techniques employed by the Guptas.
He has posted on the manufacture of Indian cannons in the Tech issues and economy threads.


http://books.google.com/books?id=WyUKAA ... q=periplus


The ref is to Prof R. Balasubramanian of IITK who posted in this thread about guns.

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Re: Historical Battles in Ancient & Medieval Bharat-2

Postby peter » 09 Feb 2009 22:18

Lalmohan wrote:International historians say that Indian historians don't review and improve the written history of India with the same critical analysis and particularly - frequency, that others do in their countries. For too long we have been lazy and gone with the established written word. It is high time for the 'historical intellectual academic complex' to get on with more original source research and analysis and write the Indian version of our past.


Lalmohan and others,
Question is of consensus. Elite institutions of India, JNU and the likes, wont admit vernacular versions as amounting to much. I cut and paste a blurb which seems to portray a different version of Indian invasions. It comes from a Brit, ICS officer but this version has no takers. Causes??

From:

(http://hindurajput.blogspot.com/#Rajputs_and_Invasions_of_India)


William Wilson Hunter describes in Chapter X of his book, The Indian Empire, Its People, History And Products, the organization of Indian kings and how they fought these invaders.

Within a hundred years after his (Muhammad's) death, his followers had invaded the countries of Asia as far as the Hindu Kush. Here there progress was stayed and Islam had to consolidate itself during three more centuries before it grew strong enough to grasp the rich prize of India. But almost from first the Arabs had fixed eager eyes upon that wealthy country. Fifteen years after the death of prophet, Usman sent a sea expedition to Thana and Broach on the Bombay coast (647 ? AD). Other raids towards Sindh took place in 662 and 664 with no results.

The armies of Islam had carried the crescent from the Hindu Kush westwards, through Asia, Africa and Southern Europe, to distant Spain and Gaul, before they obtained a foothold in Punjab. This long delay was due, not only to the daring of individual tribes, such as Sindh Rajputs, just mentioned but to the military organization of the Hindu Kingdoms.

Each of these groups of kingdoms, alike in the north and in the south, had a certain power of coherence to oppose to a foreign invader; while the large number of groups and units rendered conquest a very tedious process. For even when the overlord or central authority was vanquished, the separate units had to be defeated in detail, and each state supplied a nucleus for subsequent revolt. We have seen how the brilliant attempt in 711, to found a lasting Muhammedan dynasty in Sindh, failed. Three centuries later, the utmost efforts of two great Musalman invaders (Mahmud of Ghazni and Mohammed Ghori) from the north-west only succeeded in annexing a small portion of the frontier Punjab Province between 977 and 1176 A.D. The Hindu power in Southern India was not completely broken till the battle of Talikot in 1565; and within a hundred years, in 1650, the great Hindu revival had commenced which under the form of Maratha confederacy, was destined to break up the Mughal Empire in India. That Empire, even in the north of India, had only been consolidated by Akbar's policy of incorporating Hindu chiefs into his government(1556-1605). Up to Akbar's time, and even during the earlier years of his reign a series of Rajput wars had challenged the Muhammadan supremacy. In less than two centuries after his death, the successor of Akbar was a puppet in the hand of the Hindu marathas at Delhi.

The popular notion that India fell an easy prey to the Musalmans is opposed to the historical facts. Muhammadan rule in India consists of a series of invasions and partial conquests, during eleven centuries, from Usman's raid, circ.647, to Ahmad Shah's tempest of invasion in 1761 A.D.

At no time was Islam triumphant throughout the whole of India. Hindu dynasties always ruled over large areas. At the height of the Muhammadan power, the hindu princes paid tribute, and sent agents to the Imperial court. But even this modified supremacy of Delhi lasted for little over a century (1578-1707). Before the end of that brief period the Hindus had begun the work of reconquest. The native chivalry of Rajputana was closing in upon Delhi from the south; the religious confederation of the Sikhs was growing into a military power on the north-west. The Marathas had combined the fighting powers of the low-castes with the statesmen ship of the Brahmans, and were subjecting the Muhammadan kingdoms throughout all India to tribute. So far as can now be estimated, the advance of the English power at the beginning of the present century alone saved the Mughal Empire from passing to the Hindus.

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Re: Historical Battles in Ancient & Medieval Bharat-2

Postby Atri » 10 Feb 2009 16:51

1) Battle of Bahraich - 1033 AD - http://kalchiron.blogspot.com/2008/08/b ... 33-ad.html

One of the battles which influenced the history of India drastically in favor of Hindus.

2) Battle of Raichur - http://kalchiron.blogspot.com/2008/08/k ... le-of.html

First use of Matchlocks in India by krishnadevaraya against Bijapur, about six years before Babar in first battle of Panipat.

3) Battle for Rajasthan - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Rajasthan

One of the most important battles IMHO. conclusively defeated Arabs and stopped their incursion in India.

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Re: Historical Battles in Ancient & Medieval Bharat-2

Postby ramana » 11 Feb 2009 05:04

peter, Thanks for Hunter's book. Its very illuminating on the hisotry of India in the pre-Muslim era and gives a very good prespective. I think a lot of his statement that it was the advent of the English Colonialism that stopped the total overthrow of the Mughals.

can you x-post in the distorted history thread?

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Re: Historical Battles in Ancient & Medieval Bharat-2

Postby Santosh » 11 Feb 2009 07:38

peter wrote:So far as can now be estimated, the advance of the English power at the beginning of the present century alone saved the Mughal Empire from passing to the Hindus.

I thought it was the other way round. The advent of the British decisively and conclusively put the assorted Islamic rulers of India to rest.

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Re: Historical Battles in Ancient & Medieval Bharat-2

Postby ramana » 11 Feb 2009 08:52

Why dont you download the book from google and read it. BTW I was taught the same drivel as you were. :(

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Re: Historical Battles in Ancient & Medieval Bharat-2

Postby ramana » 11 Feb 2009 11:43

Not really Bharat but it did have a secondary effect on India as it led to the great voyages.

An Appreciation of the War for Granada

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Re: Historical Battles in Ancient & Medieval Bharat-2

Postby peter » 14 Feb 2009 14:28

Chiron wrote:1) Battle of Bahraich - 1033 AD - http://kalchiron.blogspot.com/2008/08/b ... 33-ad.html

One of the battles which influenced the history of India drastically in favor of Hindus.

2) Battle of Raichur - http://kalchiron.blogspot.com/2008/08/k ... le-of.html

First use of Matchlocks in India by krishnadevaraya against Bijapur, about six years before Babar in first battle of Panipat.

3) Battle for Rajasthan - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Rajasthan

One of the most important battles IMHO. conclusively defeated Arabs and stopped their incursion in India.


Very interesting. Thanks. S R Goel also has a book which deals with similar subject. It is online here:

http://voiceofdharma.org/books/hhrmi/

peter
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Re: Historical Battles in Ancient & Medieval Bharat-2

Postby peter » 14 Feb 2009 14:32

ramana wrote:peter, Thanks for Hunter's book. Its very illuminating on the hisotry of India in the pre-Muslim era and gives a very good prespective. I think a lot of his statement that it was the advent of the English Colonialism that stopped the total overthrow of the Mughals.


I think he is right. Marathas had made the mughal emperor a puppet and were calling the shots.

ramana wrote:can you x-post in the distorted history thread?


Am not aware of this thread. Where is it?

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Re: Historical Battles in Ancient & Medieval Bharat-2

Postby ParGha » 15 Feb 2009 00:45

Santosh wrote:
peter wrote:So far as can now be estimated, the advance of the English power at the beginning of the present century alone saved the Mughal Empire from passing to the Hindus.

I thought it was the other way round. The advent of the British decisively and conclusively put the assorted Islamic rulers of India to rest.


Technically it was Bill Hodson and his sowars who put the necessary steel and lead into the last Mughal mirzas (princes in line to the throne); it paved an unequivocal way for old Vicky to be declared the next ruler of India. Neither the Marathas nor the Afghans had the political savvy to take that necessary step when they had the chance.

What may have happened if not for the British is anybody's guess. Frankly discussing the little difference is as pointless to me as if we were discussing an absurdly large difference, say, what may have happened if the Marathas had a regiment of T-90s against the Afghans, or the Afghans had a squadron of Cobras against the Misls. Missed by an inched, missed by a mile. Let us keep history straight.

The British decisively and conclusively put an end to the Mughal Empire. The British did not "put to rest" the various Moslem feudatories and principalities of India - they just assumed the overlordship of those principalities, starting from the Nawab of Arcot to the Wali of Swat. In their final act, they carved out to the Moslems of the Indian sub-continent an entire modern country called Pakistan.

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Re: Historical Battles in Ancient & Medieval Bharat-2

Postby Airavat » 17 Feb 2009 09:01

Image

The fort of Bayana (photo from flickr) is located on a hillock 70 kilometers from Agra. From here the rise of the Central Indian Plateau tumbles down into the Gangetic plain. In the early 16th century this Bayana was an important stronghold and commanded a vast territory, while Agra which had been built recently in 1504, was its dependency. Bayana became the bone of contention between the Rajput ruler Maharana Sanga and the Mughal invader Babur in 1527....their armies met in battle near the village of Khanua, which lies midway between Agra and Bayana.

1504, the founding of Agra, was also the year Babur captured Kabul and made it the base of a new kingdom. Babur was one of the many descendants of the 14th century Turk warlord Timur and the name Mughal was applied to him because of the legacy of the Mongols in India. Apart from ceaseless quarrels with his relatives, Babur was forever under the shadow of formidable rivals like Shaibani Khan the Uzbek ruler, who dominated Central Asia in the north, and Shah Ismail the founder of the Safavid dynasty of Iran in the west.

Luckily for Babur, Shah Ismail defeated and killed Shaibani Khan. Subsequently Babur had to submit to the hated Shia; until the Battle of Chaldiran in 1514 when the Ottoman Turks defeated Shah Ismail. Freed from two formidable adversaries, Babur expanded his kingdom by capturing the fort of Kandahar after a long siege in 1522. He also tightened his grip on the rebellious Afghan tribes.....aiding him in these campaigns was a new weapon. Firearms used by the Ottomans at Chaldiran had triumphed over the charges of the Qizilbash cavalry, and about five years after that battle Babur took in his service Ottoman Turks and their rudimentary matchlocks and cannon.

Image

In North India Maharana Sanga was the most powerful ruler but he still had potential rivals to contend with; the disintegration of Malwa by its Rajput nobles backed by the power of Mewar, still left a Sultan safe in his capital. And Maharana Sanga's war against the Delhi Sultanate encouraged the fractious Afghan nobles to rise against their defeated ruler Ibrahim Lodi.

Babur consolidated his hold on Punjab after a series of campaigns. It was at this time that he received a communication from Sanga proposing that if Babur advanced on Delhi, the Rajput ruler would take Agra. Neither ruler had any intention of sharing their conquests; Sanga had calculated that if victorious Babur would either withdraw from Delhi after taking plunder, or that both the Mughals and Afghans would be left weak enough for Sanga to annihilate. The result of the Battle of Panipat (April 1526) did not even come close to either calculation; and just at that critical time Sanga had to take care of troubles in the Sultanate of Gujarat.

By the time Sanga was free from the Gujarat expedition, Babur from Agra had sent a force to besiege Bayana. Early in February 1527, Maharana Sanga rapidly moved up from Ranthambhor while Babur advanced from Agra. Meanwhile Babur records in his memoirs that Mahdi Khwaja wrote to him for reinforcements: "To aid us, let a force come at once ahead of the army, to Bayana." But the Rajput army defeated the Mughal garrison as well as the reinforcements with remarkable ease. News of this disaster made Babur send peace emissaries to Sanga while he tried to restore his men's morale and prevent the Afghans from joining the Rajputs.

Battle of Khanua

Despite the Rajput successes there was no battle for a whole month. There is a tradition that the former Malwa chieftain, Silhadi of Raisen, negotiated with Babur on behalf of Sanga. The Mughal invader promised to give up his claim on Bayana, withdraw from Agra, and pay annual tribute on condition of being left Delhi and its dependencies. Another reason for the delay were the conflicting aims of the Rajputs and Muslims; the latter hoped to regain what they had lost to Babur. But this would only be possible if they submitted and paid tribute to Sanga. It must have taken all of the Maharana's diplomatic skills to manage his growing army.

Babur's description of Maharana Sanga's power reeks of bigotry and hatred: "Now the sway of the accursed Pagan, May the Almighty consign him to perdition at the day of judgement, was so extensive in the country of Hind, that before the rising of the sun of the imperial dominion, and before our attaining the Khilafat and empire yet the standards of the heathen streamed in two hundred cities inhabited by people of the faith; where­by the destruction of mosques and holy places had ensued, and the women and children of the Musulmans of these towns and cities have been made captives."

Babur had inspired his soldiers to fight a jihad, given up drinking wine, and distributed the fragments of the gold and silver vessels among his soldiers. He had also received reinforcements from Kabul and had additional guns cast by his Ottoman officers while at Agra. On the failure of the negotiations he advanced to give battle on the 17th of March 1527. On the chosen field, about four kilometers from the Rajput camp, he had trenches dug to stop the charge of cavalry. Breastworks on wheels moved up to position behind the trenches, sheltering cannons, carts, archers and matchlockmen. Babur writes, "According to my instructions Nizam ud din Ali Khalifah, carrying out the practice that is in vogue among the Western Turks (i.e Ottomans), fastened the gun carriages together by means of chains to form a barrier where the matchlock men and gunners, who were posted in the front line of the army, might take cover."

Babur's army resembled a square, with the flanks and the rear protected by heavy cavalry. There were gaps in the breastworks for the horsemen to deliver charges when ordered by Babur. This formation was more defensive than the one at Panipat because of the expected fury of the Rajput cavalry charge. But first the elephants were sent by Sanga to crush what appeared to him from a distance to be a wooden barrier. The Ottoman cannons shocked and badly wounded the elephants and sent them flying.

But the Rajput cavalry charged and pushed back Babur's center and right wing. They were stopped by a hail of bullets and arrows; and the cannons reloaded and shot straight into their dense masses. As these men fell, more cavalry appeared from behind and continued the conflict which had started at 9:30 in the morning. They beat back the exultant Mughal cavalry which had emerged from behind the defence-works. Then once again the guns, matchlocks, and archers plied into the Rajputs.

Babur records that the battle lasted ten hours. Twice he ordered his entire line to move forward and rout the enemy, but each time saw them beaten and pushed back. By evening an arrow struck Maharana Sanga's forehead causing him to faint; as he was carried away to safety and his place taken by a Mewar noble, many of Sanga's allies began leaving the field. But the Mewar army stood fast and continued their futile charges even as clouds of dust enveloped them. Babur writes, "The enemy having resolved to sacrifice their lives dearly, made a desperate attack on our right and left wings and nearly reached the spot where I was stationed." By this time the Mughal cavalry protecting the flanks had begun to surround them, while the main army was also ordered forward.

At this all resistance ended, the last of the Rajputs stranded on foot died fighting, while most of their horsemen broke through the encirclement and escaped. Babur's cavalry gave chase and he advanced to reach the Rajput camp when darkness had fallen.

In contrast to the Panipat battle no prisoners could be taken at Khanua; Babur ordered his men to make a ghoulish pyramid of the heads from the dead warriors on the ground. Babur reached Bayana after almost three days! Here a council of war opposed any further campaign against Sanga, or an invasion of Mewar, and the Mughals retreated to Agra.

The Battles of Panipat and Khanua compared. And the numbers of the two armies at Khanua
Last edited by Airavat on 17 Feb 2009 14:51, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Historical Battles in Ancient & Medieval Bharat-2

Postby ramana » 17 Feb 2009 10:26

Airavat, I thought Ibrahim Khan Lodi's nobles invited Babur as they felt he was oppressing them. And they didnt fight at Panipat per their bargain.

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Re: Historical Battles in Ancient & Medieval Bharat-2

Postby Airavat » 17 Feb 2009 14:39

Yes Ramana,

The Afghan nobles in Punjab, Daulat Khan and Alam Khan, first took Babur's aid against Ibrahim Lodi. But when they found that Babur wished to annex Punjab for himself they fought against his men. Babur then had to fight and defeat them. This is what I meant when I wrote "Babur consolidated his hold on Punjab after a series of campaigns" in my previous post. He took them and their families to Panipat.

The Punjab Afghans, like Alam Khan and Daulat Khan's son Dilawar, were among the many Afghan chiefs who fought at the Battle of Khanua on the Mughal side.

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Re: Historical Battles in Ancient & Medieval Bharat-2

Postby kobe » 17 Feb 2009 15:18

gurus,

i find the hindu champa civilization in central vietnam intriguing,
any thoughts on how it got there? (perhaps from cambodia), but
which ruler, etc. (apologies if its off topic)

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Re: Historical Battles in Ancient & Medieval Bharat-2

Postby anupmisra » 18 Feb 2009 22:44

kobe wrote:gurus,

i find the hindu champa civilization in central vietnam intriguing,
any thoughts on how it got there? (perhaps from cambodia), but
which ruler, etc. (apologies if its off topic)


Unless there is another thread that deals with the extent of the Indian (Hindu / Vedic) empire and its influences on SE Asia, this is a fine thread to discuss it. After all, as the title suggests, these lands were once part of ancient Bharat.

I would be curious to know at what point Hindu rulers went "native" in these far away lands. Local alliances? Was it the advent of Buddhism? Secondly, were these wars for supremacy fought between two Hindu rulers or between a Hindu ruler and a native king?

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Re: Historical Battles in Ancient & Medieval Bharat-2

Postby anupmisra » 18 Feb 2009 22:50

Unless this has been linked before, this site has interesting maps of ancient India through the Vedic period and middle ages. Some maps even describe battle campaigns. Some dates are wrong but overall it gives an idea of various tribes and kingdoms of ancient India as well as the political divisions that followed.

Schwartzberg Historical Atlas

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Re: Historical Battles in Ancient & Medieval Bharat-2

Postby Keshav » 22 Feb 2009 06:34

Airavat -
Could you please do a "thesis" on the warrior from Ahom named Lachit Barphukan (Borphukan), specifically his famous "Battle at Sarai Ghat"?

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Re: Historical Battles in Ancient & Medieval Bharat-2

Postby Airavat » 22 Feb 2009 08:26

Unfortunately I don't have the material to write a thesis on Lachit but I had posted a general outline of Assam's naval wars.

My principal sources were:

The History and Culture of the Indian People
History of Aurangzeb by Jadunath Sarkar.

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Re: Historical Battles in Ancient & Medieval Bharat-2

Postby Rahul M » 22 Feb 2009 20:03

looking for reading material on the cholan campaigns, particularly organisational structure of their forces and the important leaders other than the kings themselves.

ramana ji, other gurus, any online sources ?

airavat ji, disappointed that you didn't have more on this topic on your blog.

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Re: Historical Battles in Ancient & Medieval Bharat-2

Postby Keshav » 23 Feb 2009 06:33

Airavat -
Thanks for the little information about Assam. Its unfortunate we don't glorify Ahom and its heroes more!

Do you have any information about a particular Telugu queen named (I think) Chenamma, who fought against Aurangzeb?

A couple other requests:
Did you do an article on the Rajput Wars of Independence against Aurangzeb? If so, could you provide a link?

Do you have an article on the history of the Marathas pre and post Shivaji?

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Re: Historical Battles in Ancient & Medieval Bharat-2

Postby Airavat » 23 Feb 2009 08:48

Rahul, BR member Ramanan K in the previous Historical Battles thread may be able to help you.

Keshav, I only have a scattered references to the Rajput War in different posts of my blog. The best sources for history are offline books. The events of the Rajput War are also part of the rebellion of Aurangzeb's son Sultan Muhammad Akbar.

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Re: Historical Battles in Ancient & Medieval Bharat-2

Postby Keshav » 23 Feb 2009 20:10

And what about these:

"Do you have any information about a particular Telugu queen named (I think) Chenamma, who fought against Aurangzeb?"

"Do you have an article on the history of the Marathas pre and post Shivaji?"

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Re: Historical Battles in Ancient & Medieval Bharat-2

Postby Airavat » 24 Feb 2009 14:02

About the first no, and about the second, these articles on the Maratha princely states established in Central India span the post-Shivaji times and lead up to Indian Independence.

Gwalior
Gwalior-II

Indore
Indore-II

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Re: Historical Battles in Ancient & Medieval Bharat-2

Postby peter » 24 Feb 2009 22:18

Airavat wrote:Image
It was at this time that he received a communication from Sanga proposing that if Babur advanced on Delhi, the Rajput ruler would take Agra.



What is the source for this?

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Re: Historical Battles in Ancient & Medieval Bharat-2

Postby p_saggu » 24 Feb 2009 22:51

Old Photographs from Indian History

The daughter of an Indian maharajah seated on a panther she shot, sometime during 1920s.
Image

A British man gets a pedicure from an Indian servant.
Image

The Grand Trunk Road , built by Sher Shah Suri, was the main trade route from Calcutta to Kabul .
Image

A group of Dancing or nautch girls began performing with their elaborate costumes and jewelry.
Image

A rare view of the North and South Blocks, and the Parliament building in New Delhi .
Image

Women gather at a party in Mumbai ( Bombay ) in 1910.
Image

A group from Vaishnava, a sect founded by a Hindu mystic. His followers are called Gosvami-maharajahs
Image

An aerial view of Jama Masjid mosque in Delhi , built between 1650 and 1658.
Image

The Imperial Airways 'Hanno' Hadley Page passenger airplane carries the England to India air mail, stopping in Sharjah to refuel.
Image

And finally,
See what the India was at 1835......
Image

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Re: Historical Battles in Ancient & Medieval Bharat-2

Postby vishnua » 25 Feb 2009 00:53

p_saggu

Can you please e-mail me the last pic (macaulays') speech at vishnua_9 at hotmail

Thanks in advance
vishuna

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Re: Historical Battles in Ancient & Medieval Bharat-2

Postby ramana » 25 Feb 2009 01:13

You can right click on the pic and save image!

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Re: Historical Battles in Ancient & Medieval Bharat-2

Postby dipak » 25 Feb 2009 02:14

p_saggu wrote:Old Photographs from Indian History

And finally,
See what the India was at 1835......


Thanks to post this p_saggu ji, I too had this letter and wanted to post it ...its almost unbelievable what we have become in such a short span of time (in history 100 or 150 years is not much). The down gradient is probably highest during this period. :evil:

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Re: Historical Battles in Ancient & Medieval Bharat-2

Postby Santosh » 25 Feb 2009 07:48

p_saggu ji many thanks for the pics, specially the last one.

Unfortunately british/western psyops like Slum Dog has given the impression that India is like just another sub-saharan african nation .. poor and destitute. We were having a conversation at the office yesterday around the slum dog movie and there was this desi guy who just went on and on about how poor India is and how Mumbai is the world's biggest slum. Lot of it was factually wrong and I felt sick in the stomach even being there.

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Re: Historical Battles in Ancient & Medieval Bharat-2

Postby ramana » 25 Feb 2009 09:16

Please dont mind lekin, you SDM is a powerful psyops that can be turned on others. My response to someone who wonder about all that was:

"That kid was from slums yet knew everything to answer the quiz shows. Most Indian immigrants come with IIT or equiv education and see how much more katarnak they are or see their achievements based on US census figures.

Other than Akela and the bee can you show of similar Horatio Alger stories in US mileu?"

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Re: Historical Battles in Ancient & Medieval Bharat-2

Postby skganji » 25 Feb 2009 09:41

Deleted.
Last edited by skganji on 26 Feb 2009 01:00, edited 2 times in total.

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Re: Historical Battles in Ancient & Medieval Bharat-2

Postby wig » 25 Feb 2009 11:02

saggu ji,
i hope i am not asking too much
could you post the rest of Lord Macaulay's speech to the british parliament.
thanks a lot.
wig

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Re: Historical Battles in Ancient & Medieval Bharat-2

Postby Avinash R » 25 Feb 2009 11:11

^ The first 9 images posted are from BBC site. These were realeased in 2006.

I'm curious to know the source of the 10th image.


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