rohitvats wrote:Some pointers on Indian AD assets. Plus, correction on some points mentioned by Karan M earlier:
(1) Most numerous AD missile assets are with IAF. Of these, SA-3 are used for AD of IAF bases and important cities. Other short-range SAMs are used for Vulnerable Areas/Vulnerable Points.
The IAF uses layered defense for its AFB - so its SA-3+ SA-8 + MANPADS + QRA fighters/ base for the bigger ones, and elsewhere, individual detachments (as low as just MANPADS). Now with new radars, missiles, their footprint is increasing (MRSAM and S-400 especially) but till they start coming in numbers, what we are seeing is 1-to-1 replacement of SA-3 flights/batteries with Akash. Similarly, we need a QRSAM to start coming in to replace the SA-8s.
(2) Indian Army has 2 x SA-6 Missile Groups (not 04). True, these are quite big in size (reflected in size of Akash SAM Regiments as well). Used to be held by Strike Corps but from what I know, at least one for sure, has been moved to a Pivot Corps in desert.
A SA-6 group could more than a regiment. I always took the 4x Akash regiment orders = 2x SA-6 Missile groups. Either that, or the SA-6 group = regiment, and the new QRSAM orders (IA nomenclature, which DRDO followed, but their project is separate) for 2x regiments were to replace the Akash Mk1s because the IA wanted more mobile systems. Then of course, the 2x new Akash Mk1S were ordered/cleared in place of this QRSAM order, which have to have seekers, and more compact systems for mobility per reports (new radars would be a big surprise!). The DRDO QRSAM would then either supplant the Akash Mk1S, or actually complement it and become the de-facto standard SAM for IA, backed up by MRSAM/Akash Mk1/S in semi-static role.
In the meantime, we continue to keep the SA-6 in service. https://sputniknews.com/military/201701 ... at-system/
I don't remember if I had ever dug out the SA-6 launchers in service but the FAS guys had 180 launchers, which would tie in with 4x Regiments = 2x groups, with each regiment at around 48 launchers.
So, we are adding 2x more Akash regiments, followed by QRSAM which should be the real replacement for the SA-6, and MRSAM - I am not sure about the mobility aspects of the MRSAM which should be quite similar to Akash Mk1, which would also restrict it to semi-static roles not playing racecar over sand-dunes with the crazy guys in the Strike Corps.
(3) L-70 equipped AD Regiments form the biggest component of the AD Regiment. And while gun-based modern AD solution will continue to remain the largest component, number of such gun based regiments will go down as missile based AD assets proliferate. Remember, the two Akash Regiments converted from their earlier L-70 role.
It makes ample sense why the L-70 guys converted from L-70 role and not SA-6, because ultimately the SA-6 units will either be replaced by Akash Mk1S or even QRSAM.
They're structured as follows:
- Unit: 04 x batteries
- Battery: 06 gun divided into 2 x Troops of 03 guns each
- Each troop (03 guns) is guided by a Fire Control Radar.
- Which is either Fledermaus or Flycatcher. Basis my personal interaction with AD chaps, they swear by the Flycatcher radar; consider it almost impossible to jam.
- In this space, older Fledermaus gave way to Flycatcher. And now it seems, Flycatcher will give way to 66 x Israeli Skycapture radars, followed by DRDO Atulya radars.
The large number of guns would reduce with better technologies today, but who knows IA may prefer to keep its original system.
Flycatcher is Ku-Ka band. Very few jammers available in Ka band. When we developed our Trishul system, we had a tough time procuring the RF source for the system as well.
Gun replacements could be Oerlikons/Revolvers or who knows, even DEWs. Guns are certainly cheaper than missiles though.
* Each L-70 Regiment requires 08 FCR and assuming about 20 such regiments, we're talking about 160+ such radars being required. i remember reading somewhere that we had imported+built 200+ Flycatcher radars.
A few points here. The business case for Atulya/derivatives is ~150 radars apart
from the 66 SkyCapture ordered. Also don't forget the Reporter units, only ~30 3D TCR have been ordered, and some 20 odd LLLWRs with another 30 odd indented. Point being radar orders are so far a drop in the ocean and existing holdings of radars and units are also by no means sufficient for AD's expanded roles.
(3) ZSU-23-2 are both static and mobile.
(4) AD Regiment has about 7-8 different types of AD regiments under it, which are either have a single type of equipment or mix-and-match of multiple type.
- Light SP AD Regiment: ZSU-23-2 mounted on trucks.
- Light SP AD (Composite) Regiment: ZSU-23-3 + MANPADS.
(5) AD Brigades are held at three levels (a) Those directly under Command HQ (2) Under Corps HQ (3) Under Division HQ
Last type are the AD Brigades organic to Armored Divisions. These are mix of missile and gun based SP AD Assets. ZSU-23-4 Shilka, Tungushka and SA-10 are some of the examples.
(6) 3D Tactical Control Radar has already entered with some AD Regiments. Provides the long range surveillance net and control structure to each AD Regiment.
3D TCR are all delivered as have been some 15 Bharani. IA also has a new indent out for an advanced follow on to Bharani, derived from the Aslesha which should be in deliveries soon.
3D TCR extends out to 90 km, but the MRSAM radar (IAF std.) will be double that and the 3D CAR in the Akash groups extends out to 120-150km. I suspect they will be the mobile nodes for many IA units, or IA may order newer Ashwini LLR based units as well to supplement the 3D TCR. Then there is also the brand new AD-TCR
, which is an AESA based 3D TCR which is ready for user trials
(7) BTW, we've only single regiment of Tungushka. This means 24 systems and some change. Not 70.
The number 70 comes from here:http://www.defense-aerospace.com/articl ... pdate.htmlhttps://www.dnaindia.com/india/report-i ... ms-1003342
I didn't dig too much into Tunguska orders to be honest, but there are 2 orders I remember. One was for 28 units and another follow on one. Could be the entire number of vehicles of all types is 70.
(8) Akash Regiments have all been raised with Pivot Corps. First one was raised under Jalandhar based 11 Corps and second one has been raised under Bhatinda based 10 Corps.
Again, this indicates the Akash are being kept for the semi-static ones and we haven't phased out the SA-6 Kvadrat. This indicates either the Mk1S regiments will start replacing the SA-6s OR the QRSAM. The Mk1S just goes to other pivot corps.
(9) IA AD net talks to IACCS net.
This is Akash Teer aka ADC&RS. The 2018 BEL MD interview indicates its finally under delivery. Since BEL is doing both ADC&RS plus IACCS that's a good thing. Its also meant to talk to Triguna, the IN AD C3I network for their bases.