Radar - Specs & Discussions

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Postby sunilUpa » 13 Aug 2007 21:16

Dude, I have posted the official PIB press release in the Defence R&D thread.

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Postby JCage » 13 Aug 2007 21:20

This is a report from PIB. Press Information Bureau and there is nothing copied from FORCE.

FORCE is busy BSing about AESA and initially claimed that a Selex radar had been selected for the LCA, then then the 2052... :roll:

The reality is that this and other more sensible (its the idiot Ravi sharma after all reports were copied by Sengupta

Sengupta is stating now that the Rajendra is a L Band active phased array. Copy pasting brochures to make up specs for hard to find details on third party weaponry has addled his mind.

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Check this out

Postby krishna_krishna » 04 Oct 2007 03:36

I think we should have these especially in our eastern sectors what do u think guys 8)

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Postby JaiS » 11 Oct 2007 11:36

Raytheon makes ASEA radar for F-15 upgrade

EL SEGUNDO, Calif., Oct. 10 (UPI) -- U.S. firm Raytheon said Wednesday it has started work on its ASEA radar for an F-15C upgrade program.

"In a program funded by a $52.2 million Boeing contract, Raytheon will deliver six APG-63(V)3 AESA systems and a spare to the Air National Guard as part of its F-15C upgrade program. Raytheon will deliver an additional system to the U.S. Air Force," the company said in a statement.

"A significant part of the contract also includes production start-up costs as well as manufacturing equipment and other spares. Six or more systems are expected to be delivered annually to the Guard in coming years for a planned total of at least 48," Raytheon said.

"Air Force F-15s became operational with the world's first tactical AESA radar systems in December 2000.

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Postby JCage » 17 Oct 2007 08:38

APG-66 information:

http://www.forecastinternational.com/ar ... ba0245.htm

Copying, in case link goes dead.

[quote]APG-66(V) - Archived 10/2004

· In production and service; ongoing logistics support

· MLU upgrade kits boost performance to near APG-68(V) levels

· 23-year sustainment contract awarded


Description. Airborne, coherent, multimode, digital fire-control radar.


US Air Force

AF Systems Command

Aeronautical Systems Center


Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio (OH) 45433-6503


Tel: +1 513 255 3767

Web site: http://www.wpafb.af.mil


Northrop Grumman Corp

Electronic Systems Sector

PO Box 17319

Baltimore, Maryland (MD) 21203-7319


Tel: +1 410 765 1000

Fax: +1 410 993 8771

Web site: http://www.northropgrumman.com

Status. In service, in production, ongoing logistics support and upgrades.

Total Produced. Through 2002, an estimated 2,434 radars and 595 MLU kits had been produced.

Application. Installed on F-16A/B, F-4EJ (Japan), AT‑3 (Taiwan), A-4 Skyhawk (New Zealand), BAe Hawk 200 (UK), HU-25C (USCG), PBN BN-2T Turbo Islander (MSSA).

Price Range. Unit cost of the overall radar is approximately US$730,000. The unit cost for the mid-life upgrade kit ranges between US$225,000 and US$250,000. A complete aircraft MLU has been put at roughly US$12 million.

Price is based on an analysis of contracting data and other available cost information, and on a comparison with equivalent items. Individual acquisitions may vary, depending on program factors.

Technical Data




134.3 kg
296 lb

0.102 m3
3.6 ft3

Planar array antenna
75.3 x 48.8 cm
29.6 x 19.2 in


115.9 kg
260 lb

0.097 m3
3.43 ft3


107.7 kg
237 lb

0.082 m3
2.91 ft3


98.4 kg
217 lb

0.08 m3
2.91 ft3


1 x 3 m
3 x 9 ft


Planar array antenna
129.5 x 80.6 cm
51 x 32 in



6.2 to 10.9 GHz

80 nm (max)

20 - 30 nm

25 - 40 nm

140 hr (demonstrated)

5 min (flightline)

95% confidence

98% fault isolation

Antenna azimuth scan
+/-10º, 30º, 60º

Elevation coverage
1, 2 or 4 bar

Range scales
10, 20, 40, 80 nm

Air at 12 lb/min

5 plus antenna


Low power RF

Digital signal processor


Control panel

Electronic parts


9.7 - 9.9 GHz

Pulse width
0.81 - 4µ sec


24 - 36 nm

29 - 48 nm

> 210 hr

5 min

3 plus antenna


Low-power RF

Signal data processor

10 targets

AMRAAM multiple shot
6 target shots against 6 threats

Doppler beam shaping

Range scales
10, 20, 40, 80 nm

Elevation coverage
1, 2, or 4 bar +/- 60°

Antenna azimuth scan
+/-10°, 30°, and 60°

Detection and tracking range: +25%

Reliability: +40%

Weight: -16%

Color display compatibility

System operated by 1553 mux bus control (replaces current control panel, all APG-68(V)5 modes included)

Full-scan Track-While-Scan (10 target)

Two-target situation awareness mode multi-tracker

Doppler beam sharpening mode (DBS)

Improved electromagnetic interference protection

Improved ground attack

4 to 1 improved ground map resolution

AMRAAM datalink

Six-shot AMRAAM mode

CW illumination for AIM-7 and Skyflash


Improved false alarm rate

Mux bus OFP loading

Air combat scan patterns
10° x 60°

30° x 20°

60° x 20° slewable

Slewable boresight


3 plus antenna


Low-power RF Unit

Signal data processor (new)

Track capacity
Eight simultaneous


9.7 to 9.9 GHz


20 kW

200 W

500 Hz - 15 kHz

Pulse width
0.285 - 4µ sec

Max instr. range
80 - 160 nm


Air/marine targets
120 nm

Ground moving target
60 nm


Elevation coverage
360º or sector scan



0.75º azimuth

2.25º elevation

Subclutter visibility
0.5 - 3 rpm

750 hr


8 - 10 GHz

78 nm (approx)

Beam width


60 nm (approx)

Simultaneous tracks

MTI gate
> 6 kt to < 53 kt

Design Features. The original APG-66(V) multimode fire-control radar was made up of five functional Line-Replaceable Units (LRUs). Each LRU had a self-contained power supply and was designed for maximum autonomy, logical function, and ease of maintenance with minimum interconnection.

In all current APG-66 radar systems, communication between the radar computer and the other LRUs is via a digital multiplex bus. A dedicated high-speed databus connects the radar computer to the digital signal processor, with the other LRUs communicating via a “party lineâ€

Cain Marko
BRF Oldie
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Postby Cain Marko » 17 Oct 2007 19:47

JC Saar,

Superb find! That post needs to be archived somehow. I have some questions about this radar which hopefully I'll post shortly.


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Joined: 09 Oct 2000 11:31

Postby JCage » 18 Oct 2007 04:01

Theres more...

http://www.forecastinternational.com/ar ... rs4078.htm

AWG-9 from FI:
AWG-9/APG-71(V) - Archived 11/2000


Production has been completed, support continues
Upgrades to the aircraft and avionics/flight control systems ongoing
F-14 retirement planned in 2007
Description. Airborne pulse-Doppler fire-control radar.


US Navy

Naval Air Systems Command

47123 Buse Road Unit IPT

Patuxent River, Maryland (MD) 20670-1547


Tel: +1 301 342 3000

Raytheon Systems Company

Sensors & Electronic Systems
PO Box 92426

El Segundo, California (CA) 90009-2426


Tel: +1 310 334 1665

Fax: +1 310 334 1679

AWG-9: In service, ongoing logistics support
APG-71: In service, deliveries complete, ongoing support

Total Produced. A total of 695 AWG-9 and 55 APG-71 radars were produced.

AWG-9: F-14A/B
APG-71: F-14D

Price Range
AWG-9: US$2.5 million each
APG-71: US$3.0 million each

Technical Data

Metric US
Slotted plane array: 14.2 cm 36 in
Weight: 590 kg 1,300 lb
Volume: 0.78 m3 28 ft3
Frequency: 8 to 12 GHz
Peak power: 10 kW
Average power: 7 kW (pulse-Doppler mode)

500 W (pulse mode)
Pulse width: 0.4, 50 F sec (pulse mode)
0.4, 1.3, 2.0, and 2.7 F sec (pulse-Doppler)
Range: 213 km 115 nm Scan rate: 80°/sec (horizontal)
2 scans/sec (vertical)
Tracking capacity: Up to 24 targets simultaneously, with missile launches in rapid succession against six of these targets

Target tracking alt: 50 ft to 80,000 ft, at speeds ranging from low subsonic to more than Mach 3
Pulse-Doppler modes: Pulse-Doppler Search (PDS)
Range While Search (RWS)
Track While Scan (TWS)
Pulse-Doppler Single Target Track (PDSTT)
Maximum antenna search: 8 bar pattern, 65 degrees to the left and right of the aircraft centerline

A digital version of the radar section of the AWG-9, it captures newer technology to enhance electronic countermeasures performance. The new system retained selected components from the AWG-9 and incorporated digital elements from the APG-70. Will incorporate non-cooperative IFF capabilities.
Range: 140 nm, bomber-sized target
Track: 24 targets simultaneously
Engage: 6 individual targets
Track-while-scan capable
New modes: Monopulse Angle Tracking
Digital Scan Control Target Identification and Raid Assessment
Total units: 14
New units: Programmable Signal Processor
Radar Data Processor
Analog Signal Converter

Design Features

AWG-9. The original F-14 weapon-control system is composed of the AWG-9 radar, computer, interface between AWG-9 and weapons, and the associated displays.

The radome and nose compartments contain the high-power pulse-Doppler radar processor. Missile auxiliaries are located behind the aft cockpit (Radar Intercept Officer, RIO), while the computer units are located below it. The RIO controls and displays include a digital display (DD) unit and a tactical information display (TID) unit.

The AWG-9 radar operates in a high-power pulse-Doppler mode for long-range target detection and tracking, multiple-target tracking and Phoenix missile attacks. A conventional pulse mode is available for air-to-ground mapping and ranging and short-range dogfight attacks with Sidewinder missiles and/or the M61 Vulcan cannon. The radar provides continuous wave target illumination for medium-range dogfights using Sparrow air-to-air missiles.

The planar-array antenna is mounted just forward of the high-power transmitter and sensitive receiver in the F-14’s nose. Unique radar features include long-range target detection and tracking at all altitudes, large surveillance scan volume and automatic target acquisition in close-in dogfights. The AWG-9 computer correlates data from the radar and external sources for display and solves weapon attack equations.

In the track-while-scan operating mode, the computer generates up to 24 target track files while the radar scans. The computer performs navigation computations, gun and air-to-ground ballistic weapons computations, as well as a built-in self-test of both the AWG-9 and Phoenix missile system.

The digital display unit provides the RIO with radar target data while the tactical information display provides computer-processed target data. The 10-inch- diameter tactical information display presents target positions and tracks missile launch zones, datalink information, built-in test results and television sight unit display. Associated controls are used by the operator to enter data and commands into the system.

The missile auxiliary subsystem processes missile pre-launch data from the computer and radar. It provides the switching, signal processing and logic control to prepare and launch up to six Phoenix or Sparrow missiles and performs seeker positioning for up to four Sidewinder missiles.

APG-71(V). The AWG-9 was upgraded as part of an overall F-14 upgrade effort funded under project W1408 of PE#0205667N. The upgrade focused on increasing the Tomcat’s operational capability and improving its reliability and maintainability.

The new radar, a digital version of the AWG-9, is similar to the Hughes APG-70(V) radar carried by the McDonnell Douglas F-15. It uses the same analog signal converter, programmable signal processor, and radar data processor. The APG-71(V) is composed of 14 line-replaceable assemblies rather than the 30 found in the AWG-9 Block IVA variant.

A much-improved, electronic counter-countermeasures capability for the F-14 is made possible by a low sidelobe antenna, a sidelobe-blanking guard channel to assist in raid assessment, a new digital programmable signal processor, and increased frequency agility. A new broadband radar master oscillator was added, and the system has a more flexible search pattern. The APG-71(V)’s digital scan control operates in a track-while-scan mode when activated by the pilot. Its monopulse angle tracking capability permits the location of targets precisely within the radar beam.

The radar transmitter, power supply and aft-cockpit Tactical Information Display (TID) were retained in the APG-71(V) system. New features include digital signal and data processors, a frequency synthesizer, revised antenna scan control, a digital display and a multichannel receiver.

The APG-71(V) uses monopulse angle tracking and digital scan control. Processing speed was increased six-fold with the addition of a high-speed digital processor. The APG-71(V) has improved overland performance, a larger threat engagement zone, expanded velocity search coverage, programmable electronic countermeasures (ECM) and a raid assessment mode, all of which will enhance the look-down capabilities of the F-14D.

As a result of the integration between the two radar systems, a standard avionics module (SAM) was developed. The SAM can be installed in either radar, and permits the alternating of core modules in the system’s programmable signal processor.

Operational Characteristics. The system uses inputs from the radar to establish target identities and priorities, processes data to establish the intercept geometry, develops launch envelope data, and monitors some of the aircraft’s other avionics. The Tomcat’s principal weapon is the AIM-54 Phoenix air-to-air missile.

The AWG-9 and APG-71(V) combine with the AIM-54 to form an airborne fire-control system that can track multiple targets simultaneously and launch six missiles at six different targets. While the launch range is classified, the system easily detects and tracks targets out to 100 miles. The radar incorporates a number of modes including velocity search, range-while-search, and track-while-scan.

The AWG-9 can also be used with the AIM-7E/F and AIM-9G/H/L missiles, the Advanced Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missiles (AMRAAM), and the M-61 20 mm cannon.

The radar’s long-range target detection capability makes it the logical choice for the F-14, which must engage hostile targets as far as possible from the battle group. The system features an excellent look-down/shoot-down capability in heavy ground clutter, a critical capability if the fleet assets are to be protected from low-flying cruise missiles. The upgrades added significant medium-range, all-weather strike capability to the F-14.


APG-71(V). The digital follow-on to the AWG-9 on the F-14D. It is 86 percent common with the APG-70(V) central processor and 59 percent common with the digital radar processor.

F-14D. Improvements to the Navy F-14 squadrons were planned to make the aircraft capable of countering the projected threat through the year 2000 and beyond. The F-14D has increased capability in three major areas: new engines; new digital avionics; and the upgraded radar.

A Pre-deployment Update (PDU) program (primarily software) included air-to-ground ordnance delivery capability, full Link 16 capability, and radar/electronic counter-countermeasures (ECCM) improvements for the F-14D. The PDU program was created because of concurrent development of the F-14D and the common avionics and weapons. It implements the capabilities inherent in systems incorporated during the full-scale development (FSD) program and was a planned, integral part of the evolution of the F-14D aircraft.

F-14 weapons integration supports integration of electronic warfare (EW) improvements and correction of OPEVAL deficiencies. Funding is provided for various software upgrades such as Global Positioning System, and accommodates the realignment of Aviation Depot Level Repairables (AVDLR) from Major Range and Test Facility Bases to direct project funding.

Program Review

Background. The AWG-9 radar was originally developed for the Navy’s F-111B. That program was canceled in 1968, and the AWG-9 was redirected toward the Grumman F-14A. The APG-71(V) was developed for the US Navy’s F-14D tactical fighter. Although the Tomcat was designed to carry the AWG-9/Phoenix combination, the radar had evolved into a virtually all-new system by the time it was fitted on board the F-14.

F-14/AWG-9/Phoenix weapon system testing started in 1972, with the first Tomcat delivered to the Navy later that year. Initial operating capability (IOC) was reached in May 1973. The first export order for the AWG-9-equipped F-14 came in 1973 when Iran ordered 80 aircraft.

After the fall of the Shah of Iran, the DoD learned that the technology of the F-14 and AWG-9 had been compromised. The radar needed to be updated to counter Soviet jamming techniques instituted to exploit known AWG-9 capabilities. Target identification software was added to facilitate the employment of long-range missiles. This update equips existing F-14A and F-14A+ aircraft.

In FY89, the Pentagon made a limited production decision for 12 F-14D aircraft and continued avionics and radar hardware/software integration and development. Flight testing was performed to demonstrate ECCM improvements, mixed missile launch, fault isolation, TCS/ALR-67(V)/ASPJ operation, full radar mode operation, and additional live weapons firings.

The first F-14D production aircraft was delivered in FY90. The Bush administration, in its FY90/91 Budget Revision, recommended terminating the F-14D new manufacture and continuing the re-manufacture program. A major effort by the Long Island congressional delegation was able to forestall the Grumman production line shutdown until 1993.

In mid-1992, the Navy revealed that the F-14D was experiencing software and subsystem integration problems, which would probably have delayed deployment of delivered aircraft from 1993 as planned until some time in 1994. The Pentagon feared that a proposed congressional push in F-14 upgrades would introduce too much concurrency to the program.

There was no indication that the APG-71(V) was contributing to the problem.

The conference committee recommended termination of the F/A-14A/B upgrade and directed the Secretary of the Navy to convert existing F-14D aircraft into an F/A-14D with capabilities equivalent to the Air Force F-15E Strike Eagle, or to retire F-14s from service. The committee recommended authorization of US$158.3 million for procurement and US$171.4 million for F-14 research and development for this purpose.

Program Element 0205667N F-14 Upgrade, Project E1408 provides for the development of improvements to the Navy F- 14 squadrons that will help them counter the projected threat through the year 2000 and beyond. The F-14D has increased capability in that it has a new engine, new digital avionics, and the upgraded radar. These changes yield significant improvements in capability and performance, as well as reliability and maintainability, and will facilitate the total integration and exploitation of related programs such as the Joint Tactical Information Distribution System (JTIDS) and Infrared Search and Track System (IRST). The Airborne Self-Protection Jammer (ASPJ) in the electronic warfare (EW) suite for the F-14D operational evaluation.

A Pre-deployment Update (PDU) program (primarily software) includes air-to-ground ordnance delivery capability, full Link 16 capability, and radar/ECCM improvements for the F-14D. The PDU program was created because of concurrent development of the F-14D and the common avionics and weapons. It implements the capabilities inherent in systems incorporated during the full-scale development program and is a planned integral part of the evolution of the F-14D aircraft. F-14 weapons integration supports integration of EW improvements and correction of OPEVAL deficiencies.

Funding is also provided for various software upgrades such as the Global Positioning System, and accommodates the realignment of Aviation Depot Level Repairables from Major Range and Test Facility Bases to direct project funding.

In FY96, the flight characteristics of the F-14 were improved, an effort prompted by a series of crashes. One change considered was converting to a digital flight control system. The budget request included US$232 million in F-14 modifications, with US$13.9 million for continued operation and maintenance of the F-14 tactical air reconnaissance pod system (TARPS). Responding to the Navy’s continued reliance on TARPS, Congress agreed to authorize an additional US$2.6 million for TARPS upgrades.

In January 1996, an F-14D was reported to score three hits in the first three missile launches using the Medium PRF mode of the APG-71(V). The first two launches used an AIM-54C Phoenix missile, the third locked onto the target and launched a radar-guided Sparrow missile. It scored a direct hit.

Enhancements to the F-14 continued with the addition of infrared search-and-track (IRST) capabilities and night vision goggle compatibility. The IRST can operate in conjunction with the APG-71(V) or independently, depending on mission requirements. This gives pilots more all-weather, multimode options. It gives the aircraft a potential tactical ballistic missile detection capability. Also, using non-radar sensors alone enhances the stealthiness of an attacking aircraft.

In late 1997, the Navy began an effort to upgrade the Tomcat by replacing the control systems. Plans were developed to replace 200 flight control systems with GEC-Marconi Avionics Ltd digital flight-control systems to correct a history of out-of-control flight problems. Installation was to start in mid-1998.

In FY98 through FY00, funding concentrates on development and testing of a third PDU program.

In the July 8, 1999, Commerce Business Daily, the Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIRSYSCOM) announced possible future requirements for engineering and technical services, training, maintenance, and material services during the engineering, manufacturing and development (EMD) phase of the High Power Device Test Set (HPDTS) or High Power offload to Consolidated Automated Support System (CASS). This support would include sustaining engineering in support of the AWG-9 Operational Test Program Set (OTPS), Microwave Transition Analyzer (MTA), Real Time Graphics Display (RTGD), enhancement of the current AWG-9 OTPS technical manual development effort, diagnostic enhancement of the current APS-137(V) OTPS effort and the enhancement of the current HPDTS training.

Additionally, the HPDTS test installation requirements include selective Consolidated Automated Support System RF station/HPDTS integration, delivery and installation, and engineering in support of additional software development and HPDTS First Article Test and technical evaluation requirements.



FY98 FY99 FY00(Req) FY01(Req)

0205667N F-14 Upgrade
E1408 - 11.6 - 12.8 - 1.4 - 1.5

All US$ are in millions.

Recent Contracts

(Contracts over $5 million.)
Contractor ($ millions) Date/Description
Raytheon 8.1 Oct 1998 – Not-to-exceed ceiling price order for four antenna assemblies and two microprocessors in support of APG-71(V) radar on the F-14. To be completed Oct 2001. (N00383-98-G-001A)

Month Year Major Development
1968 Engineering development of AWG-9 begun
1970 First EDM AWG-9 delivered to US Navy
1973 Production initiated of AWG-9
1984 Digital modifications to AWG-9 initiated
1984 Memory modifications to AWG-9 begun
1986 APG-71 Engineering Development Models delivered
Jan 1988 F-14D radar flight tests begun
Memory update to AWG-9 completed
Sep 1989 Scheduled delivery of first production APG-71
Mar 1990 Delivery of first F-14D to Navy
FY 1991 Start of F-14D remanufacturing program
Feb 1991 Termination of remanufacturing program
1993 Last APG-71 deliveries
1993 Final F-14D remanufactured, original planned deployment
1994 Deployment of F-14D
1995 APG-71 production line shutdown begun
Jun 1998 Installation of digital flight controls to begin
2007 F-14D retirement planned

Worldwide Distribution

The only foreign operator of the F-14A was Iran. None are operational.

Forecast Rationale

The AWG-9, F-14, and AIM-54C Phoenix combination is a potent air-to-air fighting system and has provided the US Fleet with its air superiority fighter. Tomcats have proven themselves capable in testing, training, and limited combat, although a history of control problems plagued the venerable old airplane from the beginning. The system can engage and attack targets from outside the effective range of many adversaries.

Unlike the F-15 and F-16 radars, the AWG-9s did not have an opportunity to prove their capability in combat during the Persian Gulf War. Assigned fleet combat air patrol duties, they were never challenged by Iraqi fighters. Saddam’s air force was destroyed (or had moved to Iran) and never attempted to attack naval assets, so it never engaged the F-14s. However, the commonality of components and architecture with the APG-63/70(V) radars, which did perform very well in the Gulf, indicates that the F-14 capability would have been similarly effective. The Tomcats maintained 24-hour combat air patrol stations throughout the war, validating the reliability of the F-14 in a combat arena.

The APG-71(V) radar enhanced the F-14’s performance in an ECM environment, and the digital system has better multimode characteristics. Improved capabilities include the ability to counter new fighters with look-down, shoot-down weapons systems and beyond-visual-range air-to-air missiles. The radar is fused with the Tomcat’s IR/EO sensor system.

The APG-71(V) programmable ECCM performance can counter most of the newer threats, and features new modes such as digital scan control and monopulse angle tracking, as well as target identification and raid assessment. It offers non-cooperative target identification and has better overland performance than the AWG-9. The APG-71(V) is slightly smaller and lighter.

Proposed upgrades included an inverse synthetic aperture capability, enhanced look-down, shoot-down capability over land, and a 15 to 20 percent increase in detection and acquisition range in the air-to-air environment. Additional capabilities could be added – including ground moving target indication and tracking.

A congressional push to convert existing F-14D aircraft into an F/A-14D, with capabilities equivalent to the Air Force F-15E Strike Eagle, made the APG-71(V) the critical system on the aircraft. The key to successful ground attack is the radar. With its APG-70(V) commonality and ability to benefit from and use basic F-15 software, the APG-71(V) will be the key to successful improvements.

Production has been completed. The DoD ended production of new F-14D aircraft in 1993. The Navy originally planned to remanufacture over 200 F-14As into the F-14D, but that figure was cut back significantly. It is adding digital flight controls to reduce many of the control (and thus crash) problems of the past.

Future F-14D remanufacturing possibilities were eliminated for a variety of reasons, eliminating future procurement of the APG-71(V). Improvement of the air-to-ground capability of the Tomcat may prompt a series of operational upgrades of existing systems. Although the hardware will not require much change, software upgrades can be expected to continue.

The Tomcat will continue to carry the air-to-air mission until the F/A-18E/F enters the Fleet. The Navy will gradually see the ground-to-air mission of the Hornet increase until the F-14Ds are phased out and leave the decks of carrier battle groups.

Ten-Year Outlook

No further production expected.


AWG-9 Weapon Control System--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


The AN/AWG-9 is an aircraft weapon control system that can simultaneously track up to 24 targets and guide missiles to 6 of them. Developed to control the AIM-54 Phoenix air-to-air missile, the AWG-9 can be used with AIM-7 Sparrow, AIM-9 Sidewinder, and AIM-120 AMRAAM missiles, as well as for the F-14's M61 20-mm Gatling gun. Its transmitter can generate Continuous Wave, pulse, and pulse-Doppler beams.
The AWG-9 radar can detect targets as low as 50 ft (15 m) and as high as 80,000 ft (24,384 m) at ranges over 115 nm (132 mi; 213 km), and across a front more than 150 nm (173 mi; 278 km) wide.

The system has 26 powered units including 3 units for the digital general-purpose computer, 2 power supply units, 4 radar units, the antenna, 5 signal processors, 3 transmitter power units, 3 missile auxiliary units, and 5 elements for the cockpit display.

The slotted, planar array antenna has a 36-in (914-mm) diameter and has 2 rows of 6 dipole arrays for the Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) system. It is raster-scanned in "bars". The search area is subdivided into horizontal slices, the number of slices describing the particular pattern (e.g., a 4-bar pattern numbered 1 to 4 from bottom to top may scan in a 4-2-3-1 order). A broad sweep will take 13 seconds and divide a large 170-deg wide volume into 8 bars; the tightest pattern is a 1/4-second, 1-bar sweep over 10 deg. The AWG-9 can also scan in 2- and 4-bar patterns; intermediate azimuth limits are 20 and 40 deg.

2 Travelling Wave Tube transmitters energize the antenna. 1 is used for Continuous-Wave (CW) illumination of a target for the Sparrow's Semi-Active Radar (SAR) homing seeker. The other TWT provides either conventional pulse or pulse doppler beams and can operate in 1 of several modes. Pulse modes include search (PS) and single-target-track (PSTT). Pulse-Doppler modes include:

Search (PDS) for range rate and bearing
Range-While-Scan (RWS) using a high Pulse Repetition Frequency (PRF) that generates a range as well as range rate and bearing
Single-target-track (PDSTT) for velocity measurement and jam-angle tracking
Track-While-Scan (TWS) for Phoenix missile targeting of up to 24 targets simultaneously within a 2-bar, 40-deg or 4-bar, 20-deg pattern, which yields a 2-sec scan rate. Time-sharing techniques permit simultaneous mid-course guidance of 6 Phoenixes at once against 6 different targets.

Other modes include a Vertical Scan Lock-on (VSL) in which the radar scans a 40-deg vertical plane with a 4.8-deg-wide beam.

The "slice" has a lower threshold between 15 deg below the aircraft axis (ending at 25 deg above) and 15 deg above (ending at 55 deg above). Pilot-Rapid-Location (PRL) is effectively a boresight mode using a 2.3-deg-wide beam. Both conventional and pulse-Doppler modes can be slaved to an Infrared Search and Tracking (IRST) system in which the IRST passively acquires a target and the radar illuminates the target at the appropriate time.

Production of complete AWG-9 systems ended in August 1988; spares manufacture ended in 1989. Manufactured by Hughes Aircraft Company Radar Systems Group, El Segundo, Calif

F-14 Tomcat

Weight 1,300 lb (590 kg)
Volume 28 cu ft (0.79 cu m)
Maximum ranges
Pulse search 63 nm ( 73 mi; 117 km)
PSTT 49 nm ( 56 mi; 91 km)
PDS of 53.8-sq ft (5-sq m) target 115 nm (132 mi; 213 km)
RWS, TWS 90 nm (104 mi; 167 km)
VSL, PRL 5 nm ( 6 mi; 9 km)
CW illumination for Sparrow 38 nm ( 44 mi; 70 km)

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Postby JaiS » 31 Oct 2007 11:40

Northrop Grumman Announces Opening of New Advanced Antenna Testing Facility

LINTHICUM, Md., Oct. 30, 2007 (PRIME NEWSWIRE) -- Officials of Northrop Grumman Corporation (NYSE:NOC) today officially unveiled a new state-of-the-art antenna testing facility intended to help position the company for anticipated future business opportunities involving large-scale, complex, multifunction military sensor systems.

The new $13.7 million antenna test complex consists of a five-story-tall, 16,000-square-foot facility specially equipped to verify the individual and collective accuracy and performance characteristics of literally thousands of T/R (transmit/receive) modules - each the equivalent of a mini-sensor - that are assembled in sections to form a completed phased array.

The new antenna facility features the largest scanner of its kind in the world, a unique 60 ft. by 40 ft. near-field scanner system designed to perform full scale testing of a broad variety of medium to ultra large antenna arrays. The scanner system boasts position accuracies comparable to the diameter of a human hair and obtains its impressive stability through a solid granite foundation consisting of two 75 ft. long parallel beams, collectively weighing 28 tons.

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Postby Arun_S » 01 Nov 2007 10:27

Just imagine the datalink fun with this kind of chip that is mounted on the patch on both side of LCA nose? Makes this very secure and very high bandwidth.

How does it enable conformal radar antenna on wing leading edge and on fuselage?

The UCSD DARPA Smart Q-Band 4x4 Array Transmitter, complex silicon phased array chip.

Most Complex Silicon Phased Array Chip In The World
The UCSD DARPA Smart Q-Band 4x4 Array Transmitter, the world's most complex silicon phased array chip.
by Staff Writers
San Diego CA (SPX) Oct 31, 2007
UC San Diego electrical engineers have developed the world's most complex "phased array" -- or radio frequency integrated circuit. This DARPA-funded advance is expected to find its way into U.S. defense satellite communication and radar systems. In addition, the innovations in this chip design will likely spill over into commercial applications, such as automotive satellite systems for direct broadcast TV, and new methods for high speed wireless data transfer.

"This is the first 16 element phased array chip that can send at 30-50 GHz. The uniformity and low coupling between the elements, the low current consumption and the small size - it is just 3.2 by 2.6 square millimeters - are all unprecedented. As a whole system, there are many many firsts," said Gabriel Rebeiz, the electrical engineering professor from the UCSD Jacobs School of Engineering leading the project. The work was done by two graduate students, Kwang-Jin Koh and Jason May, both at the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department (ECE) at UCSD. Rebeiz presented the new chip at DARPA TEAM Meeting, August 28-29, 2007 in Chicago, Illinois. Additional details of the chip will be submitted to an academic journal later this year.

This chip - the UCSD DARPA Smart Q-Band 4x4 Array Transmitter - is strictly a transmitter. "We are working on a chip that can do a transmit and receive function," said Rebeiz.

"This compact beamforming chip will enable a breakthrough in size, weight, performance and cost in next-generation phased arrays for millimeter-wave military sensor and communication systems," DARPA officials wrote in a statement.

"DARPA has funded us to try to get everything on a single silicon chip - which would reduce the cost of phased arrays tremendously. In large quantities, this new chip would cost a few dollars to manufacture. Obviously, this is only the transmitter. You still need the receiver but one can easily build the receiver chip based on the designs available in the transmitter chip. Our work addresses the most costly part of the phased array - the 16:1 divider, phase shifters, amplitude controllers and the uniformity and isolation between channels," said Rebeiz

The chip also contains all the CMOS digital circuits necessary for complete digital control of the phased array, and was done using the commercial Jazz SBC18HX process. This is a first and greatly reduces the fabrication complexity of the phased array. The chip has been designed for use at the defense satellite communications frequency - the Q-band - which goes from 40 to 50 GHz.

"If you take the same design and move it to the 24 or 60 GHz range, you can use it for commercial terrestrial communications," said Rebeiz who is also a lead on a separate project, funded by Intel and a UC-Discovery Grant, to create silicon CMOS phased array chips that could be embedded into laptops and serve as high speed data transfer tools.

The Intel project is a collaboration between Rebeiz, Larry Larson and Ian Galton - all electrical engineering professors at the UCSD Jacobs School of Engineering. Larson also serves as the chair of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering.

"If you wanted to download a large movie file, a base station could find you, zoom onto you, and direct a beam to your receiver chip. This could enable data transfer of hundreds of gigabytes of information very quickly, and without connecting a cable or adhering to the alignment requirements of wireless optical data transfer," explained Rebeiz who estimated that this kind of system could be available in as little as three years.

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Postby JaiS » 02 Nov 2007 11:54

Raytheon claims AESA upgrade contract for F-15E

Raytheon has defended its claim as the sole radar supplier for the US Air Force Boeing F-15 fleet, defeating a bid by Northrop Grumman to offer an active array radar upgrade.

Boeing selected the Raytheon APG-63(V)4 active electronically scanned array radar to upgrade the APG-70 for 179 USAF F-15Es.

The APG-V(4) combines the front-end antenna of the APG-63(V)3 AESA and the back-end, dual-mode radar processor for the APG-79, which has entered service on the Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet.

The award is a disappointment for Northrop, which viewed its bid as a strategic opportunity to unseat its most significant rival on an incumbent programme. Northrop had offered a repackaged version of the APG-81 AESA being developed for the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF).
The F-15E radar modernization programme is the latest in a wave of retrofit programmes involving AESA technology.

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CAESAR : 1000+ T/R Modules

Postby JaiS » 02 Nov 2007 23:05

Flight tests are underway

Aviation Week & Space Technology
SECTION: News Breaks; Pg. 22 Vol. 166 No. 19
May 21, 2007

Flight tests are underway to implement short- and long-term improvements to the Eurofighter Typhoon.

Meanwhile, the initial flight test series of the Captor Active Electronically Scanning Array Radar (Caesar) for future Typhoons was completed last week. First flight was conducted May 8 in Germany on DA5, a development aircraft, after delays from last year caused by integration problems with the "plug-and-play" concept and in obtaining flight clearance. The radar combines the traditional Captor-M back end with an active electronically scanned array using more than 1,000 transmit/receive modules.

Caesar (see photo) promises greater performance--including simultaneous multi-mode operations--but Eurofighter COO Brian Phillipson believes the shift to electronically scanned technology will be driven more by improved reliability than any other factor. Typhoon core customers (the U.K., Germany, Italy and Spain) have yet to commit to Caesar, which was developed by EuroRadar, a consortium of EADS, Selex Sensors and Airborne Systems, Galileo Avionica and Indra.

The German government has been funding the development program.

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Postby JaiS » 06 Nov 2007 09:55

Raytheon Wins F-15E AESA Contract, Eyes Potential $8 Billion Radar Market

Raytheon predicted a potential market for over 1,000 fighters and systems to be upgraded with its advanced active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar system over the next 20 years, as it announced the selection of the system for Boeing's F-15E.

An effort to design a smaller version of the advanced AESA to fit into F-16s could be just around the corner as well. "With the airframe life [of the F-16], you could have combat capability that could be scaled," Mike Henchey, Raytheon's director of business development, said in a media teleconference Nov 2. The active array radar system, "due to [transmitter/receiver] modules with multi-channel capabilities [is] modular and scaleable so you can adjust the size in the front end and have great capability across a broad spectrum of airplanes."

The Air Force also is making initial plans for an $8 billion AESA radar upgrade for its B-1 and B-52 fleets. Consideration also is being given to equipping the new 2018 long-range strike platform with a larger array, which could push the range of the radar well beyond 150 miles.

Raytheon's advanced, 150-mile range radar upgrade for the F-15Es is only the beginning of the competition between it and sometimes-partner Northrop Grumman for both domestic and international customers.

Raytheon has already sold its AESA to Singapore and Australia, and plans to market the system to additional countries at shows in London and Dubai in the next couple of weeks. "We talk quite a lot now with the customer community about our integrated sensor suite concept," Henchey said. "There's a lot of international interest in this."

International buys will not disrupt the planned production schedule for the Air Force, Henchey said. "We've been careful to work a roadmap for facilities in conjunction with requests and efforts coming in so we have a careful plan to support full rate production," he said. "We've sequenced them in and made sure we have appropriate equipment to produce and test as we go forward."

The company is in the risk reduction phase at the moment and will "jump into the contract" next May, Henchey said, depending on Boeing finalizing the prime contract. That will be followed by a 3-year system design and development (SDD) program, two years of low-rate initial production (LRIP) and then six option years for production.

The Air Force will have "fixed pricing for any number [of AESA systems] between 18-34 per year" during that production time, said Jim Hvizd, F-51E capture lead with Raytheon. "That takes the program into production around 2011 and goes through final deliveries all the way to 2020."

The source selection award covers AESA radar development, the production of test assets for the SDD program and production options for retrofit of the 224 F-15Es in the U.S. Air Force fleet.

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Postby JaiS » 10 Nov 2007 12:11

Latest Technology Drives $50 Billion Radar Industry

NEWTOWN, Conn. [November 8, 2007] - In a new analysis, Forecast International projects that the worldwide radar market will be worth $50 billion over the next 10 years. The study, entitled "The Market for Radar Systems," is based on a review of 107 radar production, operations & maintenance, and RDT&E programs. Overall, 11,306 individual radar units will be produced during the 2007-2016 timeframe, according to the analysis.

New technology is an important driver of the market. According to William Ostrove, Electronics Analyst and author of the study, "The expanding availability of technology is increasing the appeal of many radar systems that were previously available only to the largest and best equipped militaries."

One example of this trend is the growth of the airborne early warning and control (AEW&C) market. Radar systems that take advantage of the latest technology to provide good performance at a low cost include the MESA radar, Erieye, and EL/M-2075 Phalcon.

The marketplace is also being driven by the growth of active electronically scanned array (AESA) technology. AESA has increased the overall capability of radar systems, allowing them to provide increased situational awareness to warfighters. As AESA radars leave the drawing board and enter production, they become more desirable. Ostrove says that even though mechanical array radars still make up the bulk of radar production, the more expensive AESA radars are nearly identical to mechanical array radars in terms of value of production. AESA radar programs, such as the APG-81, will account for a growing percentage of radar production and funding over the next 10 years.

The report says that the growth of asymmetric forces, such as those in Afghanistan and Iraq, is another factor contributing to change in the radar industry. "The two primary concerns of military planners have become mobility and the ability to operate close to the enemy and in urban areas," said Ostrove. Accordingly, the latest radars can handle multiple tasks, sometimes replacing several types of older radar systems.

Major players such as Raytheon and Northrop Grumman continue to top Forecast International¿s list of top five radar producers. At the same time, growing numbers of consortiums are appearing on the list. These include AGS Industries, an international consortium formed to develop the NATO Alliance Ground Surveillance (AGS) system; MEADS International, developer of an air defense weapons system for the United States, Germany, and Italy; and Euroradar, which develops and produces the ECR-90 CAPTOR for the Typhoon.

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Russian Military Electronics manufacturer's list

Postby JaiS » 18 Nov 2007 04:36

Aviation Week & Space Technology
January 15, 2007
Military Electronics
BYLINE: Provided with the Assistance of Alexander Velovich

SECTION: Source Book 2007: Prime Contractor Profiles: Russian Federation; Pg. 346 Vol. 166 No. 3

LENGTH: 748 words

ARGON NII (Moscow) develops onboard computers and electronic systems for aircraft, missile and spacecraft applications.

ASTROFIZIKA NPO (Moscow) is one of Russia's largest development centers for tactical and strategic directed-energy weapons, mainly lasers.

AVTOMATIKA NII (Moscow) and the associated NPO Avtomatika are Russia's primary developers/manufacturers of strategic C3I equipment. Their products include encrypted telephones comparable to the U.S. STU-3 system.

ELEKTROPRIBOR ZAVOD (Kazan). Elektropribor Zavod's radios are used on Russian strategic bombers.

FAZOTRON NPO (formerly NII Radiostroyeniya) (Moscow) is Russia's principal design bureau for fighter radars. Recent programs include the Zhuk radar for the MiG-29M, Kopyo radar for the MiG-21I upgrade, and the radar for the Pantzir missile-gun air defense vehicle. Irkut acquired the controlling share of Phazotron in 2006.

ISTOK ELECTRONICS PLANT (Frjasino) develops radio-frequency components.

LENINETS NPO (St. Petersburg) produces airborne radars and radio electronics. It developed the Rubin on the Tu-16 and Orion on the Su-24M, as well as a new radar for the Su-27IB. Leninets has an associated experimental plant in Gatchina.

LOMO (Leningrad Optical Mechanical Enterprise) (St. Petersburg) is responsible for a wide range of surveillance electronics, infrared missile seekers, space cameras, electro-optical sensors and laser systems. It is linked with several electro-optical plants in the St. Petersburg area.

NITEL NPO (Nizhny Novgorod Television Plant) is one of the largest radar plants in the world. It developed and built the P-12, P-14 and P-18 radars, and currently manufactures the 55Zh6 mobile 3D anti-stealth air surveillance radar.

PENZA SIMULATOR DESIGN BUREAU (Era PKBM) (Penza) is Russia's largest development center for civil aviation and helicopter simulators.

POLYOT NPP (Nizhny Novgorod) is the primary Russian manufacturer of aircraft radio communications equipment. It also builds air traffic control centers.

POPOV PLANT (ZiP ANPO Zavod) (Nizhny Novgorod) is Russia's largest aviation radio communications facility. Among its army radio systems are the Kristall, Yadro-1, Yadro-2, Kashtan and R-864.

PRIBOROSTROENIYA NII (NIIP) (Zhukovsky, Moscow region), one of the original Soviet radar development centers, was involved in the Liana radar system for the Tu-126 AWACS aircraft and Periskop surveillance radar system. NIIP developed guidance systems for the 2K12 Kub (SA-6 Gainful) and Buk-1M/Gang (SA-11 Gadfly) medium-range air defense missiles. It developed the Zaslon phased-array radar for the MiG-31 and N-001 radar for the Su-27. NIIP has the leading role in development of the active phased-array radar for Russia's PAK-FA new-generation fighter. It is associated with the GRPZ State Instrument Building Plant (Ryazan).

RADIO NPO, established in 1953, has been involved in space communications programs such as the Gorizont program.

RADIOPRIBOR NPO association of electronics companies (centered in Kazan) includes the Sviyaga plant, Radiopribor factory, and Radio Electronics Research and Scientific Institute. It develops and manufactures most of the country's identification-friend-or-foe systems, including the current 60P series for Russia's air force, ground forces and navy.

SKALA VNIIT (All-Russian Radio Engineering Scientific Research Institute) (Moscow) produces the Kasta-2E1 (51U6) and Kasta-2E2 (39N6) air defense surveillance radars, and develops radars for the S-300 air defense system.

URALS OPTICAL MECHANICAL PLANT (Ekaterinburg) develops and manufactures aircraft-based laser target designators and electro-optical sighting equipment such as the OEPS-29 and OEPS-27 infrared search and track systems used on the MiG-29 and Su-27 fighters.

UTES NPO and the LIANZOVO ELECTROMECHANICAL PLANT (near Moscow) develop and produce air defense (P-37, 76N6) and air traffic control radars.

VEGA-M MNIIP NPO (Scientific and Research Institute of Instrument Engineering) (Moscow) develops advanced radars, including the Shmel system on the A-50 Mainstay AWACS, and the Sabla and Shompol radars on the MiG-25R.

VEKTOR NPO (Ekaterinburg) develops C3I systems (Senezh, Rubezh), military tactical computers, and other advanced military electronics such as the Zoopark artillery reconnaissance system and Ulybka meteorological radar.

ZENIT NPO (Moscow) develops electronic warfare countermeasures, including "Hot Brick" systems such as the L-166 Ispanka used on Mi-24 and Mi-28 helicopters.

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Excellent details on Australia's Wedgetail program

Postby JaiS » 18 Nov 2007 05:37

Electronically agile L-band radar will offer a wide range of capabilities
BYLINE: David A. Fulghum
SECTION: Australian Defense; Pg. 69 Vol. 164 No. 12

Electronically scanned radars are capable of some stunning, but closely held, intelligence and weapons effects. The system designed for Australia's new Wedgetail aircraft is no exception.

In its conventional role, the L-band multirole electronically scanned array (MESA) radar will be capable of locating and tracking targets well beyond the 200-mi. range of the higher frequency X-band radars, says Robert Hendrix, Northrop Grumman's director and chief engineer for airborne surveillance. By using a lower frequency, the L-band radar gets longer range, its signal is less attenuated by bad weather, and it's not restricted to narrow-beam operations as is the case with X-band radars.

The X-band radars will be carried by a new generation of U.S. surveillance and intelligence-gathering aircraft, such as the E-10 multisensor command-and-control aircraft, the Global Hawk unmanned surveillance aircraft and the F-22--which is seldom recognized for its battlefield intelligence-gathering potential. In addition to their strike roles, the F-22s and, later, the F-35 Joint Strike Fighters will loiter over battlefields collecting intelligence about low-power communications networks favored by insurgents for command and control of small teams and for triggering explosive devices remotely.

Australia's MESA radar is expected to be modified to perform similar intelligence-monitoring and electronic attack roles, say Pentagon radar specialists. It is to operate in the same frequency bands as enemy data links and GPS guidance frequencies, which means they could be exploited for information warfare missions.

With the right modifications, the MESA radar would be able to monitor data link communications. If desired, algorithm packages could be inserted into those links to monitor traffic, extract information or alter data. GPS signals could be blocked, thereby disrupting navigation and weapons guidance; they also could be altered to offer erroneous information. All of these capabilities fall into the growing field of information operations. It's also part of what's described in the U.S. as "non-kinetic warfare," where effects on the enemy don't depend on explosives or high-velocity impact.

"IT'S A BIG ANTENNA and it can focus a lot of power," says a longtime Pentagon radar specialist. "It can screw up a [GPS] receiver so that you have a hard time reading it [accurately]. L-band is also good at penetrating light foliage.

"But the real beauty of MESA is that it offers a lower cost surveillance system for countries that can't buy [a large] AWACS," the radar specialist says. "This is a small aircraft with large power for countries like Turkey and Australia at about half the cost, or less. Yet it gives you equivalent 360-deg. coverage; and with an AESA [active electronically scanned array radar] you can take advantage of its electronic agility to split the coverage, change focus in an instant, and do so with less size, weight and aerodynamic drag."

Those capabilities reflect the Australian MESA's roots in other Northrop Grumman radars carried by the F-22 and E-10. U.S. radars are already scheduled to be modified with these software upgrades over the next few years, allowing them to jam enemy radars and communication, damage the electronics and guidance of air-to-air and surface-to-air missiles and pass huge files of target imagery around the battlefield in real time.

The Wedgetail 737-700 aircraft that carries the MESA has more than 50 antennas for various roles, and its engines are modified to each produce 180 KVA, much of which will be used by radar. However, there is a 30% margin for growth of the system.

Australia's MESA radar will feature ultra-low, side-lobe technology that cuts out much of the ground clutter returns from errant radar transmissions and also eliminates signals that anti-radiation missiles can home on. Moreover, it removes a path for jammers that can exploit side lobes to cover enemy targets.

The metric for assessing electronic counter-countermeasures and clutter rejection in this type of radar is detection of targets less than 1 millionth of the jamming or clutter. Clutter is dominated primarily by main beam reflections from the ground. Also very important are reflections from the side lobes that, without precision control in the antenna, would block detection of aircraft over a wide range of velocities. In the Wedgetail, the radar antennas have been mounted on a pedestal above the fuselage instead of in cheek fairings that would have been partially masked by the wings, or in nose or tail fairings that would limit radar size, Hendrix says. The transmitter/receiver modules are mounted inside the aircraft at the pedestal's base and are shared by a three-face antenna, with broadband operation in mid and high L-band for radar and low L-band for identification friend or foe. There also is a passive electronic surveillance measures capability for locating enemy emitters.

"This arrangement gives the MESA radar and IFF very long-range performance over the full 360 deg. essential for the surveillance mission," Hendrix says. "The coverage is necessary for survivability from surface-to-air and air-to-air missile attack."

"If you could get into the enemy's communications networks, you would, and all the equipment to do so [with the Wedgetail] is there," says the Pentagon specialist.

The aircraft achieves its greatest endurance operating at 29,000 ft., but at 40,000 ft. its operational line of sight for very low-altitude targets would grow to 240 naut. mi. from 210. "An L-band receiver can see [the enemy] communications and could interject algorithm packages." U.S. contractors have designed tools that let them use enemy networks for intelligence gathering. Algorithm packages operate covertly while leaving the network intact. Software robots go on the network like a worm, only they extract information and pass it back to the invader. Bots, worms, viruses and Trojan horses are now military weapons that can control networks. "Every time the enemy picks up his phone or sends an e-mail, he could be transmitting data to us telling us what's happening," says a senior U.S. information operations executive.

The radar pedestal is 35 ft. long, 5 ft. wide at the cap and 10 ft. high. There are arrays for surveillance to the side. Another set of emitters is inside the cap and tuned to transmit out each end of the cap to give radar coverage to the front and rear. The electronically scanned elements in the cap are laid out horizontally and pointing up. They are then modified to emit only at right angles, fore and aft, an effect called end-fire. This provides range coverage from a large aperture with very low cross section to minimize drag while maintaining radar performance. Moreover, Northrop Grumman has developed a system that makes the series of emitters work in an additive fashion so that the signal gets stronger as it moves across the field of emitters in the cap.

The array has 288 T/R modules each about 6 X 10 in. This is several times the size of X-band T/R modules, which means greater power output. The radar can scan 360 deg., but if the surveillance area is reduced to 30-60 deg. the range more than doubles. The radar can track thousands of targets at the same time, including fighters, missiles and helicopters in the air and frigates and fast patrol boats at sea, with high revisit rates on the most important targets.

Northrop Grumman designers believe the 737-700 is the smallest platform that could carry an array of the MESA's size and power. And while the aircraft is designed for easy replacement of T/R modules without special equipment, designers say 10% of them could fail without noticeable effect on the quality of surveillance. In addition to the radars for Australia, four systems are being developed for Turkey with deliveries starting late next year. The system also is being offered to South Korea.

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Postby JaiS » 29 Nov 2007 19:30

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From May 2007

Postby JaiS » 05 Dec 2007 01:13

Israel gets second AEW Gulfstream

SOURCE:Flight International

Elta is negotiating co-operation agreements with several European manufacturers to market its EL/M-2052 electronically-scanned fire control radar, currently undergoing flight test. The active phased array design is already on offer primarily to the fighter upgrade sector, says marketing and sales director Igo Licht.

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Postby JaiS » 07 Dec 2007 11:20

An old paper from Elta

MMIC GaAs Foundry in Israel

Lewin, Itzchak;
European Microwave Conference, 1997. 27th
Volume 1, Oct. 1997 Page(s):



The increase demand for MMIC based systems in ISRAEL, coupled with the long
lead time between specification, design and chip fabrication/realization, led us here in
ISRAEL to decide and build a National MMIC Foundry. The Fab which is part of
ELTA Electronics Industries, was funded both by ELTA and the Government of
The 4 year project started in 1994 and has as a goal to achieve a list of different device
technology. Several processes are currently being developed, among them are the 0.5
micron Ion Implantation POWER MESFET and 0.25 micron e beam lithography
Power P-HEMT
The ISRAELI MMIC fab is tailored for the Companies in Israel. The FAB has 750
sq.-m of clean room class 100-1000, capable of running 2000-3000 wafers per year.
There wasn't any know-how in ELTA or Israel of MMIC processes, or how to run a
MMIC fab, We had to develop everything ftom the beginning.
This paper will review, the sequence of events that led us to build the MMIC FAB,
our first MMIC prototype, type of equipment we use, the process we develop,
examples of results in terms of design, technology and measurements will be
Obstacles encounter in the development and their solutions will be presented, as well
as unsolved problems.


In order to start an MMIC operation in Israel, most of the Microwave system houses
joined together in a Consortium of seven companies including ELTA. Six of them are
learning how to design MMIC according to ELTA design rule book, while ELTA has
to build it's own fabrication facility.
In starting a new GaAs MMIC fab, one has to consider the following issues:
* Types of systems to be produced.
* Types of MMIC's that will be needed to satisfy those requirements?
* Are the fab going to be profitable?
* Should it be?
* Decide about the technology to develop for the active element - Mesfet, P-HEMT,
or HBT, Gate - length, Power, Low-noise, High gain or Switch. Passive elements
that are needed, Via-holes, Thinning, etc.
Taking in consideration the above, a decision about the equipment should be made,
keeping in mind all the process steps that has to be done.
This paper will go through all these consideration, give example of problem and
discuss the solutions.

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Postby JaiS » 07 Dec 2007 12:11


Beam electronic control in air-based radars

Beliy, Yu.I.; Sinani, A.I.; Chalyh, A.E.; Barinov, N.N.; Moseychuk, G.F.;
Microwave and Telecommunication Technology, 2002. CriMiCo 2002. 12th International Conference



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Postby JaiS » 10 Dec 2007 06:37

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Postby JaiS » 04 Jan 2008 12:46

A nice article on Radars.

Radar activity

With size and weight issues defeated, AESA radars make their tactical aircraft
By Tom Kington

January 04, 2007

U.S. Air Force F­22 Raptor fighters started operational duties this year equipped with the
Northrop Grumman APG­77, an active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar
reputed to give pilots the ability to track ground and air targets while simultaneously
scanning as well as mapping terrain using synthetic aperture radar (SAR).

[b]Now considered a “matureâ€

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Postby JaiS » 25 Jan 2008 05:59

Raytheon to Provide Revolutionary AESA Capabilities to 135 F/A-18s

PR Newswire

EL SEGUNDO, Calif., Jan. 23, 2008 /PRNewswire/ -- The U.S. Navy is retrofitting 135 Super Hornets with Raytheon Company's APG-79 active electronically scanned array radar.

An initial contract worth nearly $55 million authorizes Raytheon to supply 19 AESA systems, spares and maintenance. This ensures Super Hornets manufactured before installation of the APG-79 will benefit from Raytheon's new advanced sensor technology.

The APG-79 program is moving toward full-rate production in anticipation of delivering 415 systems plus spares to the Navy and 24 systems to the Royal Australian Air Force in coming years.

"The APG-79 AESA radar is the key sensor in the flight plan for the Block II Super Hornets that will keep these aircraft dominant for decades," said Capt. Mark W. Darrah, F/A-18 and EA-18G Navy program manager. The APG-79 AESA radar provides our warfighters with sensor data that will revolutionize how we employ the F/A-18E/F block II and EA-18G platforms. The radar serves as the key enabling capability to field F/A-18/ and EA-18G flight plan elements.

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Postby JCage » 27 Jan 2008 00:50


Jai Bajrang Bali! :wink:

http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/200 ... 100500.htm

[quote]40 cos involved in making of missile killers

Our Bureau

[b]Bangalore, Jan 26 At least 40 public and private companies across the country are closely involved in the making of the indigenous ballistic missile interceptors.

They have already manufactured or assembled parts and sub-systems for the first trial that took place in Orissa on December 6, 2007, according to Dr V.K. Sarswat, Chief Controller R&D (Missiles & Strategic System) and Programme Director (Air Defence), Defence Research & Development Organisation


They include Bharat Electronics Ltd and Bharat Dynamics Ltd, Astra Microwave, ASL, VemTech and KelTech. “The integrated (and fully-tested defence shield system) will be operational in three years,â€

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Postby Shankar » 27 Jan 2008 15:01

JC -if you can please give a short write up on TX/RX module excitation method which which lead to generation of different frequencies for search and track and also how the software controls which section of the array is scanning and which tracking

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Postby rrao » 27 Jan 2008 16:03

Shankar wrote:JC -if you can please give a short write up on TX/RX module excitation method which which lead to generation of different frequencies for search and track and also how the software controls which section of the array is scanning and which tracking

JC sir,

In addition to the above ,if you can give me a clue or two it will be of great help.

a) how a beam say 3 deg in AZ and EL is formed in AESA?
b) how the beam will be scanned. what are the positioning accuracies
you get in AESA,what governs the accuracies . In mechanical scanned
antenna ,the gimbal accuracy,the resolvers,the bore sight error and
the antenna pedestal alignment with aircraft axis will govern the beam
positioning acccuracy as seen by data processor. for mechanical scan
1.5mrad is the static point accracy and 2mrad will be the scan error
c) how beam stabilization is done in AESA
d) will the antenna gain be uniform in the entire scan volume?
e) how to control sidelobes levels to a minimum?

thank you in advance.

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Postby JCage » 27 Jan 2008 16:44

Guys work life is as is that I can only make brief posts on BRF with news items of interest.

A good site with a reasonably succint overview of the basic waveforms, types of transmission modules, methods for different waveforms and which is suited for what etc is


Babelfish the german parts.

A quick comment though, its unlikely that the entire array will be split into different modules, some searching while others track, unless its got a lot of modules and power to spare. Its more likely that we'll have sequential beam scheduling, to get the entire array to do the job. Thats how even the APG-79 works.

More to the point, this is a good link about our own LRTR modules, which goes into detail about the command sequence for each function to be achieved :


More authoritative sources about, radars, the best are skolnik and stimson, for airborne and overall radars respectively. If I get time, I will try and find an e-copy of the relevant passages from the text above and host it up on rshare or somesuch thing. There was a good overview of the basic AESAs and the tradeoffs in a PDF posted by rakall about phazatrons AESA booklet as well.

If you cant go for those, try IEEE if you have access, each firm does its own proprietary methods to achieve the same aims and with AESAs its all about proprietary algorithms and more and more software, though the hybrid radars like the MFCR above and Bars will need a combination of both issues. Another option to see differing methods is to go for patent information eg for roll stabilization in airborne AESAs:


Link 2- Computer controlled beam positioning

Lastly, for a good overview of currently possible stuff- go here:

http://www.ll.mit.edu/news/journal/pdf/ ... darray.pdf


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The unwinding of AESA

Postby rrao » 30 Jan 2008 17:04

JC ji,

Thank you for the info and the links. You have given enough gyan to keep me busy for some time. Actually the guys behind bars are a few yards away from my work spot. At the moment the technology is screw driver type and its a blind man's alley.

best regards.

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Postby SaiK » 30 Jan 2008 17:20

positive news indeed.. on the aesa front, i am sure we 'd follow on to using GaN and SiC T/R [mmics]. possibly MEMS for phase shifters?

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Postby JaiS » 31 Jan 2008 03:15

Raytheon wins AESA retrofit deal for Super Hornets

But the first order adds to the navy's overall plan to buy 415 radars to equip all Super Hornets and its EA-18G Growler electronic-attack fleet. The Royal Australian Air Force has also placed an order for 24 F/A-18Fs, all equipped with the APG-79.

The USN plans to deploy the first AESA-equipped F/A-18 squadron later this year. Raytheon intends to soon release the delayed H4 block of software code, which is needed to correct instability issues identified during operational testing, where the radar's capability was described as "dazzling" when operational, but sometimes frustrating.

The deployment will mark the combat debut for a wave of AESA technology developed and tested over the past decade. The US Air Force's Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor features the Northrop Grumman APG-77 AESA, but the fighter has not yet served in battle since becoming operational in late 2006.

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Any latest news please on LCA fire control radar

Postby kvraghavaiah » 21 Feb 2008 11:13

Any latest news please on LCA fire control radar.

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Re: Radar - Specs & Discussions

Postby arun » 21 Jun 2008 20:40

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Re: Radar - Specs & Discussions

Postby JaiS » 01 Jul 2008 01:49

Translation credits: Roy FC

First Flight for Testing New "Zhuk-AE" Radar Takes Place

Developed by Fazotron, the radar has an active phased array. First flight was on 25 June on a prototype MiG-35. There will be three phases of flight testing, in which the third phase tests integration of the radar as a whole over approximately 3 months and not fewer than 25 - 30 flights. The radar is being developed for the MiG-35 for participation in the Indian tender. The radars range will be 250 - 300 kilometers.

The "Zhuk-AE" also is being proposed for other fighters, including MiG-29 upgrades for the Russian air force. In addition, the technology, which is new for Russia, is being looked at for land-based air defense systems being developed by Almaz-Antey. The navy also is interested in upgrading it ship-based fighters and helicopters with the new radar.

Source: 27.06.08, ARMS-TASS

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Re: Radar - Specs & Discussions

Postby Neshant » 01 Jul 2008 06:10

> Chinese firm to set up weather radars in India

How long before the info is linked via satellite to the PLA HQ.

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Re: Radar - Specs & Discussions

Postby JaiS » 08 Jul 2008 07:03

Full Speed Ahead: Raytheon Delivers 100th AESA Radar for Super Hornets, Growlers

EL SEGUNDO, Calif., July 1, 2008 /PRNewswire-FirstCall/ -- Raytheon Company (NYSE: RTN) has delivered its 100th APG-79 active electronically scanned array radar system to Boeing and the U.S. Navy for use on F/A-18 and EA-18G aircraft.

The company marked the occasion with a ceremony July 1 that attracted senior customers and local dignitaries to its Consolidated Manufacturing Center inForest, Miss.

"Our 100th delivery of this remarkable system testifies eloquently to the confluence of teamwork and dedication to operational excellence that the program team and our customers committed to more than a year ago," said Dr. Tom Kennedy, vice president for Tactical Airborne Systems. "This milestone proves the importance not only of developing a revolutionary and viable solution but of teaming closely with our customers to ensure they receive exactly what they need to keep our aviators safe."

The first operational deployment of an APG-79-equipped F/A-18 Super Hornet Block II squadron is in progress. The first EA-18G Growler to sport the radar was delivered to the Navy June 3.

"The outstanding performance of our APG-79 systems in the fleet continues to exceed expectations," said Capt. Mark Darrah, F/A-18 program manager. "Boeing and Raytheon have provided warfighters with a cutting-edge radar that is already demonstrating phenomenal performance along with unprecedented levels of reliability, which is critical for combat operations. This sensor backbone of the F/A-18 and EA-18G helps take the aircraft to the next level of capability we need at home and abroad."

Raytheon is under contract to deliver 437 of the systems to the Navy. The company's sophisticated multi-role APG-79 is the radar of choice for the F-15C, F-15E, F/A-18E/F and EA-18G. It is approved for export to such international customers asSingapore andAustralia and is a candidate for the F/A-18 entry inIndia's fighter competition.

"The AESA radar is a critical element in the integrated sensor fusion on the Super Hornet and ensures the Block II Super Hornet and Growler deliver unmatched combat capability today and over the coming decades," said Bob Gower, Boeing's vice president for F/A-18 programs. "Everyone on the team is dedicated to delivering on the promise to provide warfighters with the most advanced weapons system available and maintain the proven track record of 100 percent on-time delivery that's always within budget."

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Re: Radar - Specs & Discussions

Postby SaiK » 08 Jul 2008 10:08

Neshant wrote:> Chinese firm to set up weather radars in India

How long before the info is linked via satellite to the PLA HQ.

dude.. you are thinking way too high tech. .. well i will just leave it there.

Regarding zukh-ae, is interesting they are catching up. a 60-80 km ranged raptor RCA would be something.. but i doubt it.

they were talking about power heat problems in the zhuks at bangalore. i hope, they have corrected it., not sure they are doing like israeli air cooled ones-..

per recent poll, the numero uno is still rbe2.

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Re: Radar - Specs & Discussions

Postby JaiS » 08 Jul 2008 18:19

SaiK wrote:
Regarding zukh-ae, is interesting they are catching up. a 60-80 km ranged raptor RCA would be something.. but i doubt it.

per recent poll, the numero uno is still rbe2.

Recent poll, where ? What was the sample size? Who were the participants ?

Numero Uno, in what respect ? You are talking apples and oranges here, Zhuk-AE and and Raptor's radar are AESAs, whereas RBE2 is PESA.

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Re: Radar - Specs & Discussions

Postby SaiK » 08 Jul 2008 19:28

#1 meaning having the least negatives from rakshaks @ mrca poll.

AESA:- by 2012 for french a/f... we are talking same time line or worse for us. anyways, here is the radar.

news link

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Re: Radar - Specs & Discussions

Postby JaiS » 09 Jul 2008 03:19

The fact that more people opined favourably for the Rafale for MRCA contract is no proof of a subsystem of the Rafale being 'numero uno'. We know for a fact that people have their own distinct reasons for voting in favour of the Rafale, not in the least being the fact that it comes with no strings attached, unlike some of the other contestants.

AESA'ed RBE2 is still sometime away from reaching full spec.

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Re: Radar - Specs & Discussions

Postby SaiK » 09 Jul 2008 05:09

Its already/should have been done.
http://www.defense-aerospace.com/dae/ga ... fox3_7.pdf
By the end of 2007/early
2008, DRAAMA development
and test flying programme will
have been completed, and
qualification should have been
granted by the DGA.

we are talking production version and not dev one.

Final phase of Thales high performance phased array RBE2 radar programme
23 April 2007

The new RBE2 AESA radar will be qualified in 2009, leading to evaluation in 2010 and delivery of the first production standard set in 2011..

Very interestingly, its current Passive Electronically-Scanned Array (PESA) antenna can be removed and replaced with its brand-new Active Electronically-Scanned Array (AESA) antenna in one of the easiest and most effective “plug-and-play” upgrades of its kind, with minimal impact on the radar “back end” hardware and software.

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Re: Radar - Specs & Discussions

Postby JaiS » 09 Jul 2008 06:30


Let me put it this way.

How many RBE2-AESAs are in production _now_ ? None.

This is what Thales has to say about the schedule of production for RBE2-AESA ( and this is from your own link ).

In October 2006, the French defence procurement agency (DGA) and the industry team behind the Rafale programme agreed to a roadmap that will deliver Rafale fighters equipped with a new generation of sensors, including the Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) RBE2 radar, to the French Air Force and Navy by 2012.

You made a blanket statement about the superiority of RBE-2 AESA over the radars of other MRCA contestants, based upon the results of a poll which was not even specific to the radars, but the whole MRCA deal itself. This was without stating your metric for 'numero uno', or what parameters did you use to claim that RBE-2 AESA which is not even in service, is among the best of the sensors being offered as part of the MRCA contest.

For reference, APG-79 for the Hornet entered LRIP in 2005, and is now cleared for Full rate production. Please provide more context for your assertions.

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